Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Lycorma delicatula
(spotted lanternfly)

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Datasheet

Lycorma delicatula (spotted lanternfly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lycorma delicatula
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spotted lanternfly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Lycorma delicatula, also known by the common name spotted lanternfly (SLF), is an economically damaging plant pest native to China and Southeast Asia. SLF has been introduced in recent history to the Republic of Korea, Japan and most rece...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); adult, on tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima).
TitleAdult
CaptionLycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); adult, on tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima).
Copyright©Lawrence Barringer/Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Lycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); adult, on tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima).
AdultLycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); adult, on tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima).©Lawrence Barringer/Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Lycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); adult. Museum set specimen. Note scale.
TitleAdult
CaptionLycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); adult. Museum set specimen. Note scale.
Copyright©Holly Raguza/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Lycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); adult. Museum set specimen. Note scale.
AdultLycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); adult. Museum set specimen. Note scale.©Holly Raguza/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Lycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); late instar nymph.
TitleNymph
CaptionLycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); late instar nymph.
Copyright©Lawrence Barringer/Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Lycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); late instar nymph.
NymphLycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); late instar nymph.©Lawrence Barringer/Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Lycorma delicatula (spotted lanternfly) 4th instar nymphs. Pennsylvania, USA. July 2018. Photo by Stephen Ausmus.
TitleNymphs
CaptionLycorma delicatula (spotted lanternfly) 4th instar nymphs. Pennsylvania, USA. July 2018. Photo by Stephen Ausmus.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by U.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS)/via Flickr
Lycorma delicatula (spotted lanternfly) 4th instar nymphs. Pennsylvania, USA. July 2018. Photo by Stephen Ausmus.
NymphsLycorma delicatula (spotted lanternfly) 4th instar nymphs. Pennsylvania, USA. July 2018. Photo by Stephen Ausmus.Public Domain - Released by U.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS)/via Flickr
Lycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); egg mass.
TitleEgg mass
CaptionLycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); egg mass.
Copyright©Holly Raguza/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Lycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); egg mass.
Egg massLycorma delicatula (spotted laternfly); egg mass.©Holly Raguza/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lycorma delicatula (White, 1845)

Preferred Common Name

  • spotted lanternfly

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese blistering cicada; spot clothing wax cicada

Local Common Names

  • Korea, Republic of: ggot-mae-mi

English acronym

  • SLF

Summary of Invasiveness

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Lycorma delicatula, also known by the common name spotted lanternfly (SLF), is an economically damaging plant pest native to China and Southeast Asia. SLF has been introduced in recent history to the Republic of Korea, Japan and most recently, the USA. It has become a major agricultural pest and nuisance pest in both Korea and in the USA. Feeding has been recorded from over 100 hosts and damage from this pest impacts numerous types of fruit trees, vines, specialty crops, ornamental plants and native vegetation in its introduced ranges. Feeding damage can reach serious levels in agricultural settings reducing yield, plant vigour, fruit quality and eventually host mortality. L. delicatula causes indirect damage to plants by excreting large quantities of honeydew on and around host plants which causes additional problems for crops, gardens and ecosystems. In the USA, SLF is currently only present in the Mid-Atlantic region but is continuing to spread both naturally and by human assisted means.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Family: Fulgoridae
  •                             Genus: Lycorma
  •                                 Species: Lycorma delicatula

Description

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Eggs are laid in masses that contain approximately 30-50 eggs and are the overwintering stage (Dara et al., 2015). The egg masses are present for up to 6 months based on climatic conditions. These brown coloured eggs are laid in several adjacent rows resembling small seeds. The eggs are then covered with a waxy deposit secreted by the female forming an oothecum to protect the eggs. This waxy covering is initially white when laid before setting into a grey, shiny coating. As the egg masses are exposed to the elements, the waxy coating takes on a dull colouration and starts to crack and split, resembling dried mud or earth. The coating and eggs can occasionally persist in the following year.

The early instars of Lycorma delicatula (1-3) are black with white spots. The sizes range (in mm) from 3.4-4.4 for first instars, 5.1-6.4 mm for second, to 6.9-9.4 for third instars. Superficially, they resemble spiders or ticks to the general public during the first three instars. The fourth instar is 10.9-14.8 mm in length (Dara et al., 2015). This instar develops vivid aposematic body colouration, with most of the black colouration replaced with red on the abdomen, thorax and head.

The adults are the longest-lived life stage at 4-5 months total. Adults are 17-27 mm long with females being slightly larger starting at 24 mm (Barringer et al., 2015; Dara et al., 2015). The forewings are grey with black spots on the basal half, with the apical half with black reticulate venation. The hindwings are a mixture of red with black spots with a patch of white and black. The abdomen is dark brown to black on both sexes. The thorax, abdomen, head and legs are black. The head features red colouring on the antennae. The female abdomen will swell with egg development, distending the abdominal sections exposing yellow tissue between tergites and sternites. Females can be visually distinguished by the red colour of the poster-caudal end of the abdomen versus the all-black region of the male in addition to their larger size.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 20 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
CambodiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
ChinaPresent, Widespread
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-ChongqingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HainanPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-QinghaiPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-TianjinPresent
-TibetPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
-AssamAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HonshuPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
LaosAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
North KoreaPresent
South KoreaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveFound throughout the mainland
TaiwanPresent
VietnamPresent

North America

United StatesPresent, Localized
-ConnecticutPresent, Localized
-DelawarePresent, Localized
-IndianaPresent, Localized
-KansasAbsent, Intercepted only
-MaineAbsent, Intercepted only
-MarylandPresent, Localized
-MassachusettsAbsent, Intercepted only
-New JerseyPresent, Localized
-New YorkAbsent, Intercepted only
-OhioPresent, Localized
-OregonAbsent, Intercepted only
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced2014InvasiveFirst New World record; Berks County, September 2014
-Rhode IslandAbsent, Intercepted only
-VermontAbsent, Eradicated
-VirginiaPresent, Localized
-West VirginiaPresent, Localized

History of Introduction and Spread

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Lycorma delicatula was first detected as an exotic in the Korea Republic in 2004 were it spread rapidly across the country, eventually becoming widespread (Kim and Kim, 2005; Han et al., 2008). It was confirmed in Japan in 2008, through scattered reports of it dated to the 1930s (Han et al., 2008; Kim et al., 2013). The Japanese population of L. delicatula is more limited in distribution, with outbreaks reported in prefectures (Lee et al., 2019). The first USA population was discovered in 2014 in Berks County, Pennsylvania (Barringer et al., 2015). This population was immediately recognized as novel as Pennsylvania had no recorded species from the family Fulgoridae (Bartlett et al., 2014). In the following years, spotted lanternfly has spread by both natural mechanisms (primarily adult flights) and human assisted migration to states across the Mid-Atlantic region.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Japan 1930-2008 Yes No Kim et al. (2013) Sporadic reports in 1930s, mass occurrences starting in 2008
Korea, Republic of 1932-2004 Yes No Kim and Kim (2005) Record from 1931 questionable, steadily collected in 2004 and onwards
USA 2014 Yes No Barringer et al. (2015) Population suspected present for several years before discovery

Risk of Introduction

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If L. delicatula reaches a new environment, the risk of introduction in novel habitats increases as the insect develops. After emerging, nymphs will spread out in the environment seeking food sources. This movement is localized and nymphs are not particularly hardy, limiting their spread and risk of accidental transport. When it reaches adulthood, spotted lanternfly (SLF) can exhibit migratory flights of short distances that are repeated multiple times (Domingue and Baker, 2019). These flights can land SLF in vehicles and anthropogenically distribute the pest moderate distances, especially in cargo vehicles with exposed goods or train cars. Gravid SLF transported by these methods can quickly establish new population as females can lay up to 3 or more egg masses for potentially 150 or more SLF in the following year. However, the adults are very conspicuous and can easily be recognized by the public when educated (Urban, 2020).

The greatest risk of L. deliculata spreading to new countries comes from the egg stage. The eggs are laid in masses of approximately 30-50 eggs and covered with a waxy protective coating (Dara et al., 2015). This coating is dull in colour, starting white when fresh and ranging from light to dark grey when dried. Over time, it can take on the appearance of dried mud helping to camouflage it. Egg masses are laid on a number of inanimate objects including vehicles, metals, artificial and natural surfaces and quarry products as well as on timber and nursery products. Goods that are stored outdoors in SLF areas during the egg laying season pose a substantial risk as egg masses can be deposited while awaiting transportation. These egg masses can remain dormant for long periods allowing survival through long ocean voyages. Nymphs and adults do not overwinter or have the reserves to survive ocean vessel travel and air transport is likely unhospitable as well limiting the long-distance delivery of mobile life stages.

The global risk of L. delicatula introductions includes possible regions on six continents (Jung et al., 2017; Wakie et al., 2020). One of the preferred hosts, Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven), is a common and widely distributed invasive tree in much of the world providing a familiar and important host upon invasion. Additionally, the broad host range of herbaceous plants, vines, woody shrubs and trees, either cultivated or wild, increase the risk of establishing SLF upon arrival. Grape (Vitis vinifera) vineyards also appear to be particularly attractive to SLF and regions that grow grapes overlap well with SLF’s predicted global distribution overlapping the western USA, parts of South America, Australia, southern Africa and much of Europe.

In the USA, the insect is under a series of quarantine orders from both infested and uninfested states. Canada and Morocco have listed it as a quarantine pest and it is included it in the EPPO A1 List by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Habitat

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Lycorma delicatula utilizes a wide variety of hosts and therefore use no special habitat, however they are often observed on roadsides and waste areas, particularly where tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) and/or wild grapes (Vitis) occur as well as in vineyards.

It is important to note that many of the plant species recorded as hosts by publications are exclusively known as egg deposition substrates. L. delicatula also lay their egg masses on non-natural structures and materials, so their presence on living material should not necessarily be interpreted as suitable habitat. They may, however, serve as a guide for survey, detection and inspection duties for this pest.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Many of the crops listed here have experienced varying levels of damage from Lycorma delicatula. Orchard crops can see large influxes of adults into them onto crops, creating small but possibly damaging windows through feeding pressure and indirect damage to crops through honeydew. Damage to orchard trees has not yet been quantified and exact damages are mostly estimates or potential (Parra et al., 2018; Harper et al., 2019).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acer buergerianum (trident maple)Aceraceae
Acer negundo (box elder)Aceraceae
Acer palmatum (Japanese maple)Aceraceae
Kim et al. (2011); Barringer and Ciafre (2020)
Acer pictum (painted maple)Aceraceae
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)Aceraceae
Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore)Aceraceae
Acer rubrum (red maple)Aceraceae
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)AceraceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011); Barringer and Ciafre (2020)
Actinidia chinensis (Chinese gooseberry)Actinidiaceae
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)SimaroubaceaeMain
Albizia julibrissin (silk tree)Fabaceae
Alcea
Alnus incana (grey alder)Betulaceae
Amelanchier (serviceberries)Rosaceae
Amelanchier canadensis (thicket serviceberry)Rosaceae
Angelica dahuricaApiaceae
Aralia cordata (spikenard)Araliaceae
Aralia elata (Japanese aralia)Araliaceae
Arctium lappa (burdock)Asteraceae
Armoracia rusticana (horseradish)Brassicaceae
Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch)Betulaceae
Betula lenta (sweet birch)Betulaceae
Betula nigra (river birch)Betulaceae
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)Betulaceae
Betula pendula (common silver birch)Betulaceae
Betula platyphylla (Manchurian birch)BetulaceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011)
Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)Moraceae
Buxus microphylla (little-leaf box)Buxaceae
Buxus sinica (chinese box)Buxaceae
Callistephus chinensis (China aster)Asteraceae
Camellia sinensis (tea)Theaceae
Cannabis sativa (hemp)Cannabaceae
Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam)Betulaceae
Carya glabra (Pignut hickory)Juglandaceae
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)Juglandaceae
Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut)FagaceaeUnknown
Cedrela fissilis (Spanish cedar)MeliaceaeMain
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)Salacia
Colutea arborescens (bladder senna)Fabaceae
Cornus (Dogwood)Cornaceae
Cornus controversa (giant dogwood)Cornaceae
Cornus florida (Flowering dogwood)Cornaceae
Cornus kousa (Kousa dogwood)CornaceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011); Barringer and Ciafre (2020)
Cornus officinalisCornaceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011)
Corylus americana (American hazel)Betulaceae
Diospyros kaki (persimmon)Ebenaceae
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)ElaeagnaceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011)
Epilobium angustifolium (rosebay willowherb)Onagraceae
Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)Fagaceae
Ficus carica (common fig)Moraceae
Firmiana simplexSterculiaceae
Forsythia (golden bells)Oleaceae
Fraxinus (ashes)Oleaceae
Fraxinus americana (white ash)Oleaceae
Glycine max (soyabean)Fabaceae
Humulus lupulus (hop)Cannabaceae
Humulus scandens (Japanese hop)Cannabaceae
Juglans (walnuts)Juglandaceae
Juglans hindsii (californian black walnut)Juglandaceae
Juglans major (arizona walnut)Juglandaceae
Juglans mandshurica (Manchurian walnut)JuglandaceaeMain
Juglans microcarpa (River walnut tree)Juglandaceae
Juglans nigra (black walnut)Juglandaceae
Juglans regia (walnut)JuglandaceaeWild host
Juniperus chinensis (Chinese juniper)Cupressaceae
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Oleaceae
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)Lauraceae
Liriodendron tulipifera (tuliptree)Magnoliaceae
Lonicera spp.Caprifoliaceae
LuffaCucurbitaceae
Maackia amurensisFabaceae
Magnolia kobusMagnoliaceae
Mallotus japonicusEuphorbiaceae
Malus domestica (apple)Rosaceae
Malus spectabilisRosaceae
Malus spp.Rosaceae
Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeMain
Monarda
Morus alba (mora)Moraceae
Morus australisMoraceaeWild host
NicotianaSolanaceae
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)Cornaceae
Ocimum basilicum (basil)Lamiaceae
OsmanthusOleaceae
Ostrya virginiana (American hophornbeam)Betulaceae
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)VitaceaeMain
Paulownia kawakamii (kawakami paulownia)Scrophulariaceae
Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia)Scrophulariaceae
Phellodendron amurense (amur cork tree)RutaceaeMain
Kim et al. (2011); Barringer and Ciafre (2020)
Phyllostachys edulisPoaceae
Picrasma quassioidesSimaroubaceaeMain
Pinus densiflora (Japanese umbrella pine)PinaceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011)
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)PinaceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011); Barringer and Ciafre (2020)
Platanus acerifolia (London planetree)Platanaceae
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore)Platanaceae
Platanus orientalis (plane)Platanaceae
Populus alba (silver-leaf poplar)SalicaceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011)
Populus grandidentata (Bigtooth aspen)Salicaceae
Populus maximowiczii (Japanese poplar)SalicaceaeWild host
Populus tomentiglandulosaSalicaceaeUnknown
Populus tomentosa (Chinese white poplar)Salicaceae
Prunus armeniaca (apricot)Rosaceae
Prunus avium (sweet cherry)Rosaceae
Prunus cerasus (sour cherry)Rosaceae
Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)Rosaceae
Prunus persica (peach)Rosaceae
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)Rosaceae
Prunus serotina (black cherry)Rosaceae
Prunus serrulata (Japanese flowering cherry)Rosaceae
Prunus serrulata var. spontaneaUnknown
Kim et al. (2011)
Prunus yedoensisRosaceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011)
Pseudocydonia sinensis (Chinese quince)Rosaceae
Pterocarya stenoptera (chinese wing nut)JuglandaceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011)
Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011); Barringer and Ciafre (2020)
Punica granatum (pomegranate)Punicaceae
Pyrus spp.Rosaceae
Quercus (oaks)Fagaceae
Quercus acutissima (sawtooth oak)Fagaceae
Quercus aliena (oriental white oak)Fagaceae
Quercus montana (basket oak)Fagaceae
Quercus rubra (northern red oak)Fagaceae
Rhus chinensis (nutgal sumac)Anacardiaceae
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)Anacardiaceae
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)Fabaceae
Rosa hybridaRosaceae
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)Rosaceae
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose)Rosaceae
Rosa spp.Rosaceae
Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)Rosaceae
Rubus crataegifoliusRosaceae
Salix (willows)Salicaceae
Salix babylonica (weeping willow)Salicaceae
Salix koreensisSalicaceae
Salix matsudana (Peking willow)Salicaceae
Salvia (sage)Lamiaceae
Sassafras albidum (common sassafras)Lauraceae
Sorbaria sorbifoliaRosaceae
Sorbus commixta (japanese rowan)Rosaceae
Styphnolobium japonicum (pagoda tree)Fabaceae
Styrax japonicaStyracaceaeWild host
Syringa vulgaris (lilac)OleaceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011)
Tamarix chinensis (five-stamen tamarisk)Tamaricaceae
Tetradium danielliiRutaceaeMain
Kim et al. (2011)
Thuja occidentalis (Eastern white cedar)Cupressaceae
Tilia americana (basswood)Tiliaceae
Toona sinensis (Chinese Toona)MeliaceaeMain
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)Anacardiaceae
Ulmus (elms)Ulmaceae
Ulmus pumila (dwarf elm)Ulmaceae
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)Ulmaceae
Vaccinium angustifolium (Lowbush blueberry)Ericaceae
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum)Caprifoliaceae
Vitis (grape)Vitaceae
Vitis amurensis (amur grape)VitaceaeMain
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)Vitaceae
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape (USA))Vitaceae
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeMain
Zanthoxylum simulansRutaceae
Zelkova serrata (Japanese selkova)UlmaceaeUnknown
Kim et al. (2011)

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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All mobile life stages can cause damage to plants, but larger instars and adults pose the most risk due to the volume of plant fluids removed from the host during consumption. There are two main sources of damage from Lycorma delicatula feeding. The first is through weakening the plant by removing large volumes of sap from the plant causing wilting and eventual death (Dara et al., 2015). Death of plants is typically the result of multiple years of feeding, especially for larger trees and vines. Secondary pathogens and infections may also cause stress and damage to the host.

The second source of damage to plants is via honeydew excretions onto leaf surfaces. Both the host and plants below the host (especially larger trees) can have photosynthesis blocked by the development of moulds on the leaf surface, blocking sunlight. This damage can result in weakening and dead rings of understory vegetation around trees and blackened soil substrates, appearing similar to fire damage. In very heavily fed upon trees, mats of mould may appear around bases of trees as large white areas covering hand-sized areas.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Growing point / wilt
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / wilting
Stems / external feeding
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / wilt

Biology and Ecology

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Lycorma delicatula is a univoltine species in its native and introduced ranges. Egg masses overwinter and gradually emerge in the spring (April to May in the USA). Often the egg masses are laid on or near host species but can also be found laid on inanimate substrates or non-host plants. The nymphs emerge from their egg masses and disperse into the environment in search of appropriate hosts. The nymphs display cyclic behaviour of falling or leaving hosts and returning to or moving onto new hosts (Kim JaeGeun et al., 2011). The known host range of L. delicatula is the broadest at this time. Many herbaceous host plants fed upon by early instars are probably not large enough to support later instars and adults. Nymphs in the first to third instar are black with white spots and remain similar in appearance while growing larger with each instar.

The fourth instar of L. delicatula undergoes a dramatic change in appearance, with red featuring predominantly, replacing the black with white spot colouring of the first three instars. This colouration is thought to be aposematic in nature as the spotted lanternfly starts narrowing its host range, which includes Ailanthus altissima. This tree (along with other hosts) contains compounds that decrease the palatability of the insect to predators (primarily birds) (Kang et al., 2017).

The adult’s life stage appears in late summer and limited feeding patterns and sex-determinate behaviours emerge (Baker et al., 2019). Adults will focus on woody tree material for food sources as smaller plants cannot sufficiently support them. Large vines, such as grapes (Vitis vinifera) in vineyards, also become attractive to adults (Leach and Leach, 2020). Males and females will segregate in the wild, aggregating on separate trees as they feed. Later in the autumn both sexes will intermingle and mating will occur, with female mating with multiple males.

Females will start laying eggs around September in the USA on a wide variety of substrates (Dara et al., 2015). Smooth-barked trees are most common, but flat artificial structures, metal surfaces, vehicles, outdoor furniture and equipment, rocks, nursery materials and other substrates can all host egg masses. Egg masses can be found in a clustered arrangement with multiple females laying in the same area or adjacent to egg masses of other females (Liu, 2020). Egg laying persists until the late autumn when cold weather kills the adults, generally after the weather consistently reaches freezing overnight temperatures.

Genetics

The genetics of L. delicatula invasions have been explored in both Asia and the USA. In Asia, the introduction of spotted lanternfly to Korea and Japan were matched to populations of L. delicatula in China, linking their introduction from areas around Beijing, Tianjin, Quingdao and Shanghai (Kim et al., 2013). The genome of a wild-collected individual from Berks County, Pennsylvania, USA was recently assembled and published along with improvements to sequencing protocols (Kingan et al., 2019) that make efforts to assess the population genetics of the USA population much more attainable. Such an assessment has not yet been made.

Reproductive Biology

Adult L. delicatula segregate to some degree after emerging by sex (Baker et al., 2019). As the mating period approaches, the two sexes will start to form gregarious congregations. Large migratory flights can be seen by both sexes with mating following this dispersal period (Baker et al., 2019). Mating can occur multiple times after a brief courtship and copulation can last up to 4 h. Female abdomens will start to swell after mating as egg development matures. This swelling will present as yellow tissue between swollen abdominal sections. Egg laying by females can results in multiple egg masses.

Eggs undergo diapause early in their embryonic development, requiring 2 weeks of warm temperatures before hatching was induced (Shim and Lee, 2015). Eggs that overwinter for longer periods (5 months) have better synchronous hatching, as well as more successful hatch rates, suggesting that colder temperatures are beneficial to the survival of the eggs (Shim and Lee, 2015).

Nutrition

L. delicatula has been found to feed on over 100 plant taxa across 33 families (Barringer and Ciafre, 2020). The nymphs have a broader range of hosts than their adult’s counterparts. Later instars and adults have a narrowed feeding range and move onto physically larger hosts to support their nutritional needs and to possibly uptake defensive chemicals (Kang et al., 2017). L. delicatula shows a strong preference for Ailanthus altissima, though they can complete development in the absence of this species and often utilize multiple hosts through their development (Uyi et al., 2020).

Environmental Requirements

Environmental requirements based upon work using Climex predictions have been used to determine preferred and tolerated status (Jung et al., 2017).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anastatus Parasite Eggs Kim et al. (2011a)
Ooencyrtus kuvanae Parasite Eggs Liu and Mottern (2017)

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A few natural enemies of Lycorma delicatula have been identified. Egg parasitoids include Anastatus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) in Korea Republic and Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in the USA (Liu and Mottern, 2017). It is unclear if the Anastatus spp. is a specialist while Ooencyrtus is known to parasitize many species. Dryinus browni is also being studied as a biocontrol agent as it is present in the home range of spotted lantern fly in China and parasitizes L. delicatula (Hoelmer et al., 2019). Generalist predators have also been found in the USA but probably have little impact on the populations (Barringer and Smyers, 2016).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Lycorma delicatula nymphs disperse throughout the environment tasting and feeding on a variety of hosts and have been documented moving up to 15 m in 15 min and travelling over 65 m from release over 10 days (Jung et al., 2017; Keller et al., 2020; Urban, 2020). All instars have similar rates of dispersal suggesting that nymphs have limited range for dispersal before reaching adulthood (Keller et al., 2020). Behaviours that also contribute to their natural dispersal is the cyclic behaviour of falling out of hosts and wandering to find new hosts (Kim JaeGeun et al., 2011).

Dispersal flight activities were observed in the USA in 2017, 3 years after discovery of the infestation (Baker et al., 2019). In that year and subsequent years, flight dispersing adults were observed launching into the wind multiple times for short distance flights. These flights continued until mating was observed, possibly supporting that density dependent factors drive these flights as they have only been observed in high density populations.

Accidental Introduction

L. delicatula poses a serious risk of accidental movement through its habit of laying cryptically coloured egg masses on a variety of strata. Goods stored outdoors, vehicles, trains, cargo containers, nursery stock, timber and logging products, recreational vehicles and many other objects can harbour egg masses that are durable and can be transported long distances. As these egg masses contain many eggs, 30-50 on average, one egg mass transported to a new area risks establishing a population.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionMovement on material packaging as egg masses Yes Yes
ForestryEgg masses laid on and under bark can be transported to lumbermills Yes Yes
HitchhikerAdults frequently land in vehicle conveyances and can be transported long distances Yes Yes
Industrial purposesMaterials that are exposed to the environment may have egg masses deposited on them before transport Yes Yes
Self-propelledAdults migrate short distances to find food sources Yes
Timber tradeLive edge timber carries a risk of egg masses still being present Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftAircraft have accidentally transported Yes Yes
Bulk freight or cargoBulk freight containers can convey egg masses Yes Yes
Containers and packaging - woodContainers and packaging can harbour egg masses Yes Yes
Containers and packaging - non-woodContainers and packaging can harbour egg masses Yes Yes
Machinery and equipmentEgg masses can be laid on externally stored equipment, i.e. tractors, chippers, ATVs, etc. Yes Yes
Land vehiclesEgg masses deposited on vehicles. Adults found on vehicles can be transported Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark arthropods/eggs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches arthropods/eggs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood arthropods/eggs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Leaves

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
Processed or treated wood Yes
Solid wood packing material with bark Yes
Solid wood packing material without bark Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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Damage has been reported in Korea Republic on both vineyards and orchards requiring costly cultural and chemical shifts to alleviate damage and crop loss (Han et al., 2008; Shin et al., 2010). In the USA, damage estimates have been assembled for Pennsylvania and Washington. Economic impacts for Pennsylvania were assessed with complete infestation of the state predicted to reach $42.6 million in direct damage to crops, with $99.1 million in yearly damage at worst impact predictions (Harper et al., 2019). In the state of Washington, the risk of L. delicatula introduction was estimated to impact a combined $3.8 billion in cherries (Prunus), grapes (Vitis vinifera) and hops (Humulus lupulus) (Wakie et al., 2020).

Environmental Impact

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Repeated feeding by large numbers of adults (1000+) can weaken a tree and kill it outright, as well as weaken it for attack by secondary pests and pathogens (Urban, 2020). Sooty mould production can also blacken understories beneath trees, impairing photosynthesis of plants causing dieback and death. The death of understory could have detrimental effects on wildlife that depend on these plants and their resources, as well as environmental services (Urban, 2020).

Social Impact

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Large numbers of spotted lanternfly can become a nuisance in outdoor settings with large host trees, as walnuts (Juglans regia) and maples (Acer) are often found in suburban settings in the USA. Honeydew excreted by L. delicatula can coat surfaces in sticky residues negatively impacting outdoor entertainment and home gardening. The honeydew can cause staining as the sugar content promotes sooty mould development (Urban, 2020). Honeydew is also known to attract Hymenoptera, particularly wasps and hornets in Vespidae, which can sting and are disconcerting to the public.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Damages animal/plant products
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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L. delicatula has been described as a natural remedy for relief from swelling but no other uses of it are known (Choi et al., 2002). Use of it outside China as a medicinal product or otherwise is currently unknown.

Uses List

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Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Detection and Inspection

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Lycorma delicatula can be detected visually throughout the growing season. The nymphs in the first three instars are often overlooked by the general public, either because of their small size, bland colouration, or similarity to other small dark insects. The fourth instar and adult are very conspicuous in contrast (Urban, 2020). The general public, with education, can reliably identify and report this pest in the environment and around their homes. Identification of egg masses by the public is less reliable due to their cryptic colouration like dried mud and the habit of them being laid in protected, covered spaces or high on structures and trees.

Visual surveys in the spring focus on more herbaceous plants and younger branches of host trees as nymphs require the softer tissues to feed. Branch tips, small shoots and fresh regrowth are most likely to yield detections. As L. delicatula reaches the fourth instar, they migrate to a smaller range of woody hosts, particularly Acer, Ailanthus, Juglans and Vitis in the USA (Urban, 2020). Orchard survey for spotted lanternfly should be focused on hedgerows and periphery for most of the year until the late autumn when it is more likely to migrate to feed.

Visual survey for eggs can be done anytime between September and May in the USA. Egg masses will persist through this entire period and occasionally older egg masses from the previous season can be found, indicating that the infestation is at least 1 year old. Egg mass inspections should focus on materials that are stored outdoors during egg laying season, roughly September to November or December, based on weather conditions killing adults. Egg masses can be laid on a variety of surfaces including bark, stone, wood, metal, plastic and stiff fabrics. Egg masses are also laid on open, exposed surfaces as well as tight spaces such as undersides of vehicles, furniture, stone goods and under tree bark making detection difficult.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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In North America, there are no other fulgoroids that closely match Lycorma delicatula. In the northeast, only one true Fulgoridae occurs, which is completely black (Bartlett et al., 2014). Other fulgorid species occurring in the south and southwest USA are much smaller and dully coloured in comparison. Adult L. delicatula may superficially resemble some moths, particularly noctuid underwings, due to their colourful hindwings.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Public Awareness

Public awareness campaigns in the USA have been very successful due the striking features, large size and gregarious behaviour of spotted lanternfly. The public can reliably identify fourth instars and adults.

Eradication

Eradication and suppression are being attempted in the USA using a combination of quarantine and chemical and mechanical controls (Dara et al., 2015; Urban, 2020). The original methodology by the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture utilized trap trees of Ailanthus altissima treated with a systemic pesticide, leveraging the preference of spotted lanternfly for this plant in the autumn. This was coupled with removal of other, non-treated A. altissima trees in the area concentrating L. delicatula to these trap trees. However, efforts failed to completely contain the pest and it has continued to spread across the Mid-Atlantic. Treatment efforts have continued to be modified transitioning to target more species of trees, different chemical products and different application methods.

Other eradication methods that are coupled with chemical controls included egg mass scraping to manually destroy eggs, sanitation of waste products that might harbour egg mass by chipping landscape waste or incinerating green wastes, and banding trees and posts with adhesive tape.

Chemical Control

A variety of chemicals have been shown to have some control (Leach et al., 2019). Chlorpyrifos was most effective for egg masses with rates of 100% mortality. Nymphs and adults were susceptible to multiple classes of insecticides including carbamates, organophosphates, neonicotinoids and pyrethroids, with differing classes having variable residual control. Additional control with fungal pathogens is also being examined using Beauveria bassiana and Batkoa major (Urban, 2020).

Monitoring and Surveillance (Incl. Remote Sensing)

Passive survey tools involve tree bands, which are glue-coated sheets of paper wrapped around the trunks of host trees or vineyard posts. These capture spotted lanternfly migrating across the host tree trapping it on the sticky surface. Proper installation should be taken to ensure that bycatch, especially of vertebrates, is limited to minimize impacts to the environment and for positive public relations. Pheromone trapping and other methods of baited traps have had limited success currently using methyl salicylate, (Z)-3-hexenol and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene (Cooperband et al., 2019). Physical traps using lures that have been effective are modified pecan weevil trap, or circle trunk trap, which have been effective in areas at high density (Nixon et al., 2020).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is a need for detection tools that can be deployed at low density infestations that can reliably capture L. delicatula or signs of. Currently, tools are limited and the lack of specific pheromones (which are unknown in Fulgoroidea) or chemical attractants, means trapping lacks a level of specificity (Derstine et al., 2020; Urban, 2020). Environmental DNA is being developed for spotted lantern fly, though it has not been widely deployed (Valentin et al., 2020).

Basic biological information is required on the behaviour, host use patterns and range, movement in the environment, dispersal mechanisms, reproductive and fecundity limits and population dynamics of L. delicatula. Prior to its introduction to Korea, there was limited information on the biology of L. delicatula in the native range. The host range is likely to expand in number as L. delicatula moves south and westwards in the USA and encounters more temperate and tropical potential hosts. Additionally, host risk assessment for other suitable habitats such as the western USA, Europe, Africa and Australia would also be beneficial if the pest arrives (Jung et al., 2017).

Additionally, understanding the host requirements for development of L. delicatula will be important in both survey, detection and control. Ambiguity still exists on what hosts, if any, are critical for their complete development and better understanding of this will influence future predictions of the possible spread and introduction of spotted lantern fly (Uyi et al., 2020).

Understanding the behaviours of L. delicatula in the environment, at both low and high population density, will be valuable in determining the risk of spread accidentally (Baker et al., 2019). The heterogenous presence of spotted lantern fly in the environment also provides challenges in making management decisions and ensuring negative detections. Adults, when at higher density start making dispersal flights which can place them in situations where they may be transported long distances, i.e. train cars, truck beds, planes, or other conveyances (Baker et al., 2019. By understanding when these conditions arise, cultural changes to business and lifestyle practices can be implemented to limit the chance of long-distance dispersal.

Treatment methods for control and eradication with limited non-target effects will be of interest if chemical controls continue to be a tool used in current infestations or if the pest is discovered elsewhere (Leach et al., 2020). Current treatments focus on introduced hosts, Ailanthus altissima, which have limited uses for native, non-target species. However, now that L. delicatula is known not to be required for development, this strategy should be re-evaluated for efficacy (Uyi et al., 2020).

Biocontrol for long term management will be crucial as current methods of control are costly, time and labour intensive, and limited in scope. Passive methods of specific biocontrol will need to be developed to control outbreak populations as it spreads across the USA. While natural predators and introduced parasitoids have been found to attack L. delicatula, they probably will have minimal effect as generalists (Barringer and Smyers, 2016; Liu, 2019).

References

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Baker, T. C., Smyers, E. C., Urban, J. M., Meng, Z., Damadaram, K. J. P., Myrick, A. J., Cooperband, M. F., Domingue, M. J., 2019. Progression of seasonal activities of adults of the spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, during the 2017 season of mass flight dispersal behavior in eastern Pennsylvania. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 22(3), 705-713. doi: 10.1016/j.aspen.2019.05.006

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Barringer, L. E., Smyers, E., 2016. Predation of the spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) by two native Hemiptera. Entomological News, 126(1), 71-73. doi: 10.3157/021.126.0109

Barringer, L., Ciafré, C. M., 2020. Worldwide feeding host plants of spotted lanternfly, with significant additions from North America. Environmental Entomology, 49(5), 999-1011. doi: 10.1093/ee/nvaa093

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Cai HuiXian, Wu XiaoZhong, 2013. Occurrence and control of Lycorma delicatula in Ailanthus altissima in Jiaozuo, China. In: The Proceedings of Chinese Society of Plant Protection in 2013, Shandong, China, 22-25 October, 2013., China: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 146-149

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Dara, S. K., Barringer, L., Arthurs, S. P., 2015. Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae): a new invasive pest in the United States. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 6(1), pmv021. http://jipm.oxfordjournals.org/content/6/1/20.full

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Domingue, M. J., Baker, T. C., 2019. Orientation of flight for physically disturbed spotted lanternflies, Lycorma delicatula, (Hemiptera, fulgoridae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 22(1), 117-120. doi: 10.1016/j.aspen.2018.12.009

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Han JungMin, Kim HyoJoong, Lim EunJi, Lee SeungHwan, Kwon YongJung, Cho SooWon, 2008. Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoridae: Aphaeninae) finally, but suddenly arrived in Korea. Entomological Research, 38(4), 281-286. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5967.2008.00188.x

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Jung JM, Jung S, Byeon D, Lee WH, 2017. Model-based prediction of potential distribution of the invasive insect pest, spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), by using CLIMEX. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 10, 532-538.

Kang ChangKu, Moon HyungMin, Sherratt, T. N., Lee SangIm, Jablonski, P. G., 2017. Multiple lines of anti-predator defence in the spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 120(1), 115-124. https://academic.oup.com/biolinnean/article/120/1/115/2864974/Multiple-lines-of-anti-predator-defence-in-the

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Kim HyoJoong, Kim MinYoung, Kwon DeokHo, Park SangWook, Lee YeRim, Huang JunHao, Kai Shi, Lee HeungSik, Hong KiJeong, Jang YiKweon, Lee SeungHwan, 2013. Molecular comparison of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) isolates in Korea, China, and Japan. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 16(4):503-506. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1226861513000745

Kim IlKwon, Koh SangHyun, Lee JungSu, Choi WonIl, Shin SangChul, 2011. Discovery of an egg parasitoid of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) an invasive species in South Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 14(2):213-215

Kim JaeGeun, Lee EunHyuk, Seo YeoMin, Kim NaYeon, 2011. Cyclic behavior of Lycorma delicatula (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) on host plants. Journal of Insect Behavior, 24(6):423-435. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=104914

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Shim JaeKyoung, Lee KyeongYeoll, 2015. Molecular characterization of heat shock protein 70 cognate cDNA and its upregulation after diapause termination in Lycorma delicatula eggs. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 18(4), 709-714. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1226861515001004

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Valentin, R. E., Fonseca, D. M., Gable, S., Kyle, K. E., Hamilton, G. C., Nielsen, A. L., Lockwood, J. L., 2020. Moving eDNA surveys onto land: strategies for active eDNA aggregation to detect invasive forest insects. Molecular Ecology Resources, 20(3), 746-755. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.13151

Wakie, T. T., Neven, L. G., Yee, W. L., Lu ZhaoZhi, 2020. The establishment risk of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in the United States and globally. Journal of Economic Entomology, 113(1), 306-314. doi: 10.1093/jee/toz259

Distribution References

Barringer L E, Donovall L R, Spichiger S E, Lynch D, Henry D, 2015. The first New World record of Lycorma delicatula (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). Entomological News. 125 (1), 20-23. DOI:10.3157/021.125.0105

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cai HuiXian, Wu XiaoZhong, 2013. Occurrence and control of Lycorma delicatula in Ailanthus altissima in Jiaozuo, China. In: The Proceedings of Chinese Society of Plant Protection in 2013, Shandong, China, 22-25 October, 2013 [The Proceedings of Chinese Society of Plant Protection in 2013, Shandong, China, 22-25 October, 2013.], China: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. 146-149.

Choi DuckSoo, Kim DoIk, Ko SukJu, Kang BeomRyong, Park JongDae, Kim SeonGon, Choi KyeongJu, 2012. Environmentally-friendly control methods and forecasting the hatching time Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in Jeonnam Province. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology. 51 (4), 371-376. DOI:10.5656/KSAE.2012.09.0.022

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Han JungMin, Kim HyoJoong, Lim EunJi, Lee SeungHwan, Kwon YongJung, Cho SooWon, 2008. Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoridae: Aphaeninae) finally, but suddenly arrived in Korea. Entomological Research. 38 (4), 281-286. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-5967.2008.00188.x

Jang YiKweon, An HyonGyong, Kim HyoJoong, Kim KwangHo, 2013. Spectral preferences of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). Entomological Research. 43 (2), 115-122. DOI:10.1111/1748-5967.12012

Kang C-K, Lee S-I, Jablonski P G, 2011. Effect of sex and bright coloration on survival and predator-induced wing damage in an aposematic lantern fly with startle display. Ecological Entomology. 36 (6), 709-716. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2311.2011.01319.x

Kim HyoJoong, Kim MinYoung, Kwon DeokHo, Park SangWook, Lee YeRim, Huang JunHao, Kai Shi, Lee HeungSik, Hong KiJeong, Jang YiKweon, Lee SeungHwan, 2013. Molecular comparison of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) isolates in Korea, China, and Japan. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 16 (4), 503-506. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1226861513000745 DOI:10.1016/j.aspen.2013.07.003

Kim IlKwon, Koh SangHyun, Lee JungSu, Choi WonIl, Shin SangChul, 2011. Discovery of an egg parasitoid of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) an invasive species in South Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 14 (2), 213-215. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B8JJN-523M8PS-2&_user=10&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F2011&_rdoc=14&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%2343731%232011%23999859997%233036779%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=43731&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=17&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=2dcf11b0a5142090d21bf76b6a5a05d9&searchtype=a DOI:10.1016/j.aspen.2011.01.004

Kim JaeGeun, Lee EunHyuk, Seo YeoMin, Kim NaYeon, 2011. Cyclic behavior of Lycorma delicatula (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) on host plants. Journal of Insect Behavior. 24 (6), 423-435. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=104914 DOI:10.1007/s10905-011-9266-8

Lee JungSu, Kim IlKwon, Koh SangHyun, Cho SungJong, Jang SukJun, Pyo SeungHyeon, Choi WonIl, 2011. Impact of minimum winter temperature on Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) egg mortality. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 14 (1), 123-125. DOI:10.1016/j.aspen.2010.09.004

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Moon S-R, Cho S-R, Jeong J-W, Shin Y-H, Yang J-O, Ahn K-S, Yoon C, Kim G-H, 2011. Attraction response of spot clothing wax cicada, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) to spearmint oil. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry. 54 (4), 558-567. DOI:10.3839/jksabc.2011.085

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Yoon ChangMann, Moon SangRae, Jeong JinWon, Shin YounHo, Cho SunRan, Ahn KiSu, Yang JeongOh, Kim GilHah, 2011. Repellency of lavender oil and linalool against spot clothing wax cicada, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) and their electrophysiological responses. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 14 (4), 411-416. DOI:10.1016/j.aspen.2011.06.003

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
FLOW: Fulgoromorpha Lists On the Webhttp://www.hemiptera-databases.org/flow/A knowledge and a taxonomy database dedicated to planthoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Fulgoroidea)
StopSLF.org http://Stopslf.orgBiology, ecology, and management of spotted lanternfly in US specialty crops
USDA Spotted Lanternflyhttps://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/resources/pests-diseases/hungry-pests/slf/spotted-lanternfly

Organizations

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USA: United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA APHIS, 4700 River Road Riverdale, MD 20737 USA, https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/home/

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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10/11/20 Original text by:

Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, 2301 N. Cameron St., Harrisburg, PA 17110 USA

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