Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cheilocostus speciosus
(crepe ginger )

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2020. Cheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger) [updated from Rojas-Sandoval J, 2016]. Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.110397.20203483356

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Datasheet

Cheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 August 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cheilocostus speciosus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • crepe ginger
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cheilocostus speciosus is one of the most common species of Costaceae in Asia and has been actively introduced as ornamental throughout the tropics. It has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and has become invasive in Cuba, American Samo...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
HabitCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Bukidnon, Philippines.  January 2017.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Bukidnon, Philippines. January 2017.
Copyright©Obsidian Soul/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Bukidnon, Philippines.  January 2017.
FoliageCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Bukidnon, Philippines. January 2017.©Obsidian Soul/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Nr. Kuttippuram, Kerala. India. October 2017.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Nr. Kuttippuram, Kerala. India. October 2017.
Copyright©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Nr. Kuttippuram, Kerala. India. October 2017.
FoliageCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Nr. Kuttippuram, Kerala. India. October 2017.©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.
FoliageCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018.
FoliageCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flower. Mulu NP, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2015.
TitleFlower
CaptionCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flower. Mulu NP, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2015.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flower. Mulu NP, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2015.
FlowerCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flower. Mulu NP, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2015.©Bernard Dupont/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flowering habit. Mulu NP, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2015.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flowering habit. Mulu NP, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2015.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flowering habit. Mulu NP, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2015.
Flowering habitCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flowering habit. Mulu NP, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2015.©Bernard Dupont/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flowering habit. Mulu NP, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2015.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flowering habit. Mulu NP, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2015.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flowering habit. Mulu NP, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2015.
Flowering habitCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flowering habit. Mulu NP, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2015.©Bernard Dupont/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flowering habit. Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flowering habit. Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flowering habit. Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Flowering habitCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); flowering habit. Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); seeds. India. November 2009.
TitleSeeds
CaptionCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); seeds. India. November 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); seeds. India. November 2009.
SeedsCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); seeds. India. November 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Puaa Kaa Park Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Puaa Kaa Park Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Puaa Kaa Park Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
HabitCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Puaa Kaa Park Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Puaa Kaa Park Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Puaa Kaa Park Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Puaa Kaa Park Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
HabitCheilocostus speciosus (cane-reed); habit. Puaa Kaa Park Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cheilocostus speciosus (J.Koenig) C.D.Specht

Preferred Common Name

  • crepe ginger

Other Scientific Names

  • Amomum arboreum Lour.
  • Amomum hirsutum Lam.
  • Banksea speciosa J.Koenig
  • Cardamomum arboreum (Lour.) Kuntze
  • Costus angustifolius Ker Gawl.
  • Costus crispiflorus Stokes
  • Costus foeniculaceus Noronha
  • Costus formosanus Nakai
  • Costus formosanus (Nakai) S.S.Ying
  • Costus glaber (K.Schum.) Merr.
  • Costus hirsutus Blume
  • Costus lamingtonii F.M.Bailey
  • Costus loureiroi Horan.
  • Costus nipalensis Roscoe
  • Costus potierae F. Muell.
  • Costus sericeus Blume
  • Costus speciosus (J.Koenig) Sm.
  • Costus speciosus var. angustifolius Ker Gawl.
  • Costus speciosus var. argyrophyllus Wall. ex Baker
  • Costus speciosus var. dilnavaziae M.R.Almeida & S.M.Almeida
  • Costus speciosus var. formosanus (Nakai) S.S.Ying
  • Costus speciosus var. glaber K.Schum.
  • Costus speciosus var. hirsutus Blume
  • Costus speciosus var. leocalyx Nakai
  • Costus speciosus var. sericeus (Blume) K.Schum.
  • Costus spicatus var. pubescens Griseb.
  • Costus vaginalis Salisb.
  • Hellenia grandiflora Retz.
  • Kaempferia speciosa (J.Koenig) Thunb.
  • Planera speciosa (J.Koenig) Giseke
  • Tsiana speciosa (J.Koenig) J.F.Gmel.

International Common Names

  • English: cane-reed; crape ginger; Malay ginger; spiral flag; variegated ginger; wild ginger
  • Spanish: caña americana; caña mejicana; caña santa; cañuela santa; caracol; cojate; flor de martí; jenjibre blanco ; jenjibre de jardín
  • Chinese: bi qiao jiang

Local Common Names

  • Costa Rica: caña agria
  • India: changalakoshta; keokanda kostam; kottam; kusht
  • Micronesia/Pohnpei: sinser weitahta

Summary of Invasiveness

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Cheilocostus speciosus is one of the most common species of Costaceae in Asia and has been actively introduced as ornamental throughout the tropics. It has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and has become invasive in Cuba, American Samoa, Hawaii, Cook Islands, Micronesia, Fiji, French Polynesia, Palau, and Tonga. In Cuba, this species is listed as an ecosystem transformer. It spreads by seeds and by rhizome division and has the potential form dense thickets, principally in moist habitats.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Zingiberales
  •                         Family: Zingiberaceae
  •                             Genus: Cheilocostus
  •                                 Species: Cheilocostus speciosus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Costaceae includes 6 genera and 110 species of perennial, rhizomatous, non-aromatic herbs, most of them within the genus Costus (90 species; Stevens, 2012). The Costaceae can easily be recognized, even vegetatively, because they have ligulate leaves with a closed sheath that are arranged in a single spiral up the stem. Their inflorescences are usually dense, spicate-capitate, and have large bracts, and their monosymmetric flowers have a large labellum and single stamen, the style running between the two halves of the large anther (Stevens, 2012). Some taxonomists still classify Costus and related genera within the family Zingiberaceae.

Cheilocostus speciosus was formerly classified as Costus speciosus, and is often treated as such in earlier literature, but Costus speciosus has been reduced to synonymy (World Flora Online, 2020). There are five species in the genus Cheilocostus as currently circumscribed, including the diverse Cheilocostus globosus complex which includes as many as 14 previously defined species. The other four taxa in this genus are C. speciosus, C. borneensis, C. sopuensis, and C. lacerus (World Flora Online, 2020).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015):

Cheilocostus speciosus is a perennial, robust herb. Stems 1-3 m, base slightly woody, apex branched and spirally twisted when old. Petiole 5-7 mm; leaf blade oblong or lanceolate, 15-20 × 6-10 cm, abaxially densely sericeous, base subrounded, apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, ellipsoid or ovoid, 5-15 cm; bracts bright red, ovate, approximately 2 cm, leathery, pubescent, apex sharply pointed; bracteoles pale red, 1.2-1.5 cm. Calyx red, 1.8-2 cm, leathery, apex 3-lobed; lobes reddish black, rigid, and densely sericeous at apex. Corolla tube approximately 1 cm; lobes oblong-elliptic, approximately 5 cm, apex white or red. Labellum white, trumpet-shaped, 6.5-9 cm, apex toothed and crisped, with edges overlapping. Stamen petaloid, white with orange-yellow base, urceolate, approximately 4.5 × 1.3 cm, pubescent. Capsule red, globose, approximately 1.5 cm, slightly woody. Seeds black, glossy, approximately 3 mm.

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Cheilocostusspeciosus is native to Southeast Asia, Malaysia, and possibly New Guinea (Englberger, 2009; Govaerts, 2015). It can be found naturalized in tropical areas in America, the West Indies and on islands in the Pacific Ocean (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2015; PIER, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MauritiusPresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
BhutanPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentNative
-BorneoPresentNative
-JavaPresentNative
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentNative
-Maluku IslandsPresentNative
-SulawesiPresentNative
CambodiaPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
Hong KongPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNative
-Andhra PradeshPresentNative
-AssamPresentNative
-DelhiPresentNative
-GujaratPresentNative
-Himachal PradeshPresentNative
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-KeralaPresentNative
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-Tamil NaduPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
SingaporePresentNative
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

North America

BelizePresentIntroduced
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-Sint EustatiusPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GrenadaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasiveHawaii only
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive
AustraliaPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedCultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
NiuePresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
PalauPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
Papua New GuineaPresentDifferent sources report as native or as introduced and naturalized
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedInvasive

History of Introduction and Spread

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Since the 1880s C. speciosus has been commercialized worldwide as an ornamental plant (Sargent, 1889). It has escaped from cultivation and naturalized throughout the tropics (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005; Govaerts, 2015).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of further introductions of C. speciosus is high. The species is widely commercialized as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Because the species can spread by seeds and rhizome fragments, the potential to colonize new habitats is high. It has also the capability to colonize shaded habitats (Staples et al., 2000; Pawar and Pawar, 2014; PIER, 2015).

Habitat

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Within its native range, C. speciosus grows in shady areas under mixed deciduous forests of South India and in forest margins, moist places in valleys, and roadsides from near sea level to 1700 m in China (Pawar and Pawar, 2014; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Outside its native range, this species is cultivated and found naturalized along roadsides, in disturbed forests, and ruderal sites. In Costa Rica, it can be found naturalized along roadsides, secondary forests, disturbed sites near cultivation and oil palm plantations (Gargiullo et al., 2008). In Puerto Rico, it grows in disturbed moist to wet thickets and roadside banks at low to lower middle elevations (50-200 m; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). In Pohnpei it is common in watersheds where the land has been disturbed by sakau growing (Englberger, 2009).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for C. speciosus varies from 2n = 18, 2n = 27, to 2n = 36 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Reproductive Biology

Hummingbird pollination seems to have been particularly important in facilitating diversification of Neotropical Costaceae, but euglossine bees and other bee species are also effective pollinators. Bee pollination is facilitated by the generalist form observed in the open labellum. There are also extrafloral nectaries on the inflorescence bracts that are visited by ants and flies (Kay and Schemske 2003; Salzman et al. 2015).

Physiology and Phenology

In China, C. speciosus produces flowers from July to September and fruits from September to November (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Longevity

Cheilocostus speciosus is a robust perennial herb. Under ideal growing conditions a single C. speciosus rhizome will produce new shoots and increase to a 1 m wide clump by the second year (Pawar and Pawar, 2014; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015, FloriData, 2015).

Environmental Requirements

Cheilocostus speciosus prefers to grow in climates with high humidity and warm temperatures. It grows well on rich moist soil or clayey loam soil with a pH ranging from 5.6 to 7. 5, in shady areas under mixed deciduous and moist forests (Pawar and Pawar, 2014; PIER, 2015).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
17 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall10002500mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In India, ten insect pests were recorded on C. speciosus plants. These insects were: the Orthoptera Acrida exaltata exaltata, Diabolocatantops pinguis and Neorthacris acuticeps acuticeps (Acrididae) and Phaneroptera gracilis (Tettigoniidae); the Hemiptera Oxyrachis tarandus (Membracidae), Nisia nervosa (Meenoplidae) and Chrysocoris stollii (Pentatomidae); the Lepidoptera Spilosoma obliqua (Arctiidae) and Altha nivea (Limacodidae); and the coleopteran Myllocerus discolor var. variegatus (Swamy et al., 1993).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Cheilocostus speciosus spreads by seeds and vegetatively by rhizomes. Seeds are dispersed mainly by birds or rodents and can be accidentally spread in soil and on machinery (Englberger, 2009).  It is propagated vegetatively using rhizome pieces, division of culms, and stem cuttings (Pawar and Pawar, 2014).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceNaturalized along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds and rhizomes Yes Yes Staples et al. (2000)
HorticultureWidely commercialized as an ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Landscape improvementWidely commercialized as an ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Medicinal useUsed in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Ornamental purposesWidely commercialized as an ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesRhizomes and seeds escaped from gardens Yes Yes Staples et al. (2000)
Host and vector organismsFruits dispersed by birds Yes Yes PIER (2015)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Cheilocostus speciosus is an invasive species with the potential to form dense thickets and displace native vegetation, principally in moist and wet habitats (Space and Flynn, 2000; Space and Flynn, 2002; PIER, 2015). In Cuba, this species has been classified as a ‘transformer species’, with the potential to change the character, condition, form and nature of invaded ecosystems (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Cheilocostus speciosus is widely commercialized as an ornamental for its attractive foliage and inflorescences (FloriData, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). It is also used as a food and medicinal plant. The rhizomes of C. speciosus are used as a bitter, astringent, acrid, cooling, aphrodisiac, purgative, anthelminthic depurative, febrifuge and expectorant (Pawar and Pawar, 2014; FloriData, 2015; PIER, 2015).Recently it has been used in the drug industry as a natural source of diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin used for synthesis of sex hormones, cortisone, and oral contraceptives (Pawar and Pawar, 2014).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Landscape improvement

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Propagation material

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Mechanical Control

Because C. speciosus can regenerate from rhizomes, mechanical removal is difficult and often unsuccessful, but can be effective if done repeatedly for an extended period.

Chemical Control

For younger plants, a foliar spray of triclopyr can be used. For older plants, stem application of undiluted triclopyr, brushed or sprayed onto freshly-cut stems, can be used (Englberger, 2009)

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2005. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 52, 415 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Correa, A., Galdames, M. D. C., Stapf, M. N. S., 2004. Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama, Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.599 pp.

Englberger, K., 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: a guide for identification and public awareness. In: Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: a guide for identification and public awareness . Kolonia, Federated States of Micronesia: Conservation Society of Pohnpei (CSP).29 pp.

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Distribution References

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Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Correa A, Galdames M D C, Stapf M N S, 2004. Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama. Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 599 pp.

Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: a guide for identification and public awareness. In: Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: a guide for identification and public awareness, Kolonia, Federated States of Micronesia: Conservation Society of Pohnpei (CSP). 29 pp.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J Y, 2007. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polinésie française (PAP).). In: Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polinésie française (PAP), http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxon_ref.php

Galanihe L D, Jayasundera M U P, Vithana A, Asselaarachchi N, Watson G W, 2010. Occurrence, distribution and control of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), an invasive alien pest in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension. 13 (3), 81-86. http://www.sljol.info/index.php/TARE/article/view/3143/2522

Govaerts R, 2015. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Herrera K, Lorence D H, Flynn T, Balick M J, 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia. 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

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Meyer JY, 2007. [English title not available]. (Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire)., Papeete, Tahiti, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche. 39 pp. http://www.li-an.fr/jyves/Meyer_2007_Rapport_Plantes_Introduites_Wallis.pdf

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Pawar VA, Pawar PR, 2014. Costus speciosus: an important medicinal plant. International Journal of Science and Research. 3 (7), 28-32.

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

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Smith A C, 1979. Flora vitiensis nova. Kauai, Hawaii, Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 495 pp.

Space J C, Flynn T, 2002a. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. In: Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. 146 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/cook_islands_report.pdf

Space J C, Waterhouse B M, Newfield M, Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. In: Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity.]. 76 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/niue_report_2004.htm

Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa., Honolulu, USDA Forest Service. 51.

Space JC, Flynn T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, USDA Forest Service.

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Wagner W L, Herbst D R, Sohmer S H, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 and 2. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i and Bishop Museum Press. xviii + 1919 pp.

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. In: Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised), 384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Costus speciosus Fact Sheets https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FP/FP15200.pdf
Gardening Australia http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s1659685.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Zingiberales Researchhttp://botany.si.edu/zingiberales/genera/genuspage.cfm?mygenus=cheilocostus&myfamily=costaceae

Contributors

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03/05/16 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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