Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cosmos sulphureus
(sulphur cosmos)

Puttock C F, 2017. Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.110395.20203482809

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Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cosmos sulphureus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sulphur cosmos
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cosmos sulphureus is a prolific seed-producing annual herb considered native to Mexico and northern South America. It grows to two metres tall, and sports very attractive heads of yellow flowers. There are numerous popular cultivars of ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Laulima Farms Cafe Kipahulu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Laulima Farms Cafe Kipahulu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Laulima Farms Cafe Kipahulu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
HabitCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Laulima Farms Cafe Kipahulu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Laulima Farms Cafe Kipahulu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Laulima Farms Cafe Kipahulu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Laulima Farms Cafe Kipahulu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
HabitCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Laulima Farms Cafe Kipahulu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Laulima Farms Cafe Kipahulu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Laulima Farms Cafe Kipahulu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Laulima Farms Cafe Kipahulu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
HabitCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Laulima Farms Cafe Kipahulu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); invasive habit alongside a road. Pune-Satara highway, nr Pune City, Maharashtra, India. December 2011.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); invasive habit alongside a road. Pune-Satara highway, nr Pune City, Maharashtra, India. December 2011.
Copyright©Prof.Suresh Isave/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); invasive habit alongside a road. Pune-Satara highway, nr Pune City, Maharashtra, India. December 2011.
Invasive habitCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); invasive habit alongside a road. Pune-Satara highway, nr Pune City, Maharashtra, India. December 2011.©Prof.Suresh Isave/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Le Tampon, Réunion Island. March 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Le Tampon, Réunion Island. March 2008.
Copyright©Bruno Navez/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Le Tampon, Réunion Island. March 2008.
HabitCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit. Le Tampon, Réunion Island. March 2008.©Bruno Navez/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit, in cultivation. Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka,Japan. November2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit, in cultivation. Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka,Japan. November2010.
Copyright©KENPEI/via wikipedia - CC BY 3.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit, in cultivation. Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka,Japan. November2010.
HabitCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit, in cultivation. Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka,Japan. November2010.©KENPEI/via wikipedia - CC BY 3.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowers. Cambridge University Botanic Garden, UK. July 2009.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowers. Cambridge University Botanic Garden, UK. July 2009.
Copyright©Magnus Manske/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowers. Cambridge University Botanic Garden, UK. July 2009.
FlowersCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowers. Cambridge University Botanic Garden, UK. July 2009.©Magnus Manske/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flower.
TitleFlower
CaptionCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flower.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Dinkum/via wikipedia - CC0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flower.
FlowerCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flower.Public Domain - Released by Dinkum/via wikipedia - CC0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit.
Copyright©Vineeth Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit.
HabitCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit.©Vineeth Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit, in cultivation. Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka,Japan. November2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit, in cultivation. Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka,Japan. November2010.
Copyright©KENPEI/via wikipedia - CC BY 3.0
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit, in cultivation. Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka,Japan. November2010.
HabitCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos); flowering habit, in cultivation. Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka,Japan. November2010.©KENPEI/via wikipedia - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cosmos sulphureus Cav.

Preferred Common Name

  • sulphur cosmos

Other Scientific Names

  • Bidens artemisiifolia (Jacq.) Kuntze
  • Bidens artemisiifolia var. sulphurea (Cav.) Kuntze
  • Bidens sulphurea (Cav.) Sch.Bip.
  • Coreopsis artemisiifolia Jacq.
  • Cosmos artemisiifolius (Jacq.) M.R.Almeida
  • Cosmos aurantiacus Klatt

International Common Names

  • English: cosmos; orange cosmos; yellow cosmos
  • Spanish: cempual; chochopali; girasol amarillo; mirasol amarillo; San Miguel; sochipal; suchipate
  • French: cosmos soufré
  • Chinese: liu huang ju

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: beijo de moça; cosmo amarelo; klondike cosmos; picão de flor grande; picão grande
  • Costa Rica: cambray
  • Cuba: estrella del norte
  • Dominican Republic: cyemita
  • El Salvador: botón de oro; flor de muerto
  • Germany: gelbes Schmuckkorbchen
  • Honduras: clavel de muerto
  • Japan: kibana-kosumosu
  • Mexico: axal-xóchitl; ecaxtli; ehcaxtli; mirasol yellow; shinul; xinula; xochipal; xochipali
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: barung; purang; purang palap
  • Myanmar: paw-me-tar; sein-chai-kadipa
  • Nicaragua: chambray
  • Portugal: cosmos-amarelo
  • Puerto Rico: panchita
  • Russian Federation: kosmos zelyj
  • Sweden: gullskara

Summary of Invasiveness

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Cosmos sulphureus is a prolific seed-producing annual herb considered native to Mexico and northern South America. It grows to two metres tall, and sports very attractive heads of yellow flowers. There are numerous popular cultivars of C. sulphureus in the international horticultural trade, resulting in its wide and intentional spread by humans. The species has been known to escape cultivation and to naturalize. It is recorded as an environmental weed and occasionally as an invasive plant in parts of Africa, Asia, North and Central America and Pacific Islands though details of impact are lacking.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Cosmos
  •                                 Species: Cosmos sulphureus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Asteraceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants, containing approximately 1620 genera and more than 23,600 species (Stevens, 2012). In their vegetative state, the members of this family are extremely variable, but they are easily recognized by their flowers (florets) in heads (capitula) surrounded by an involucre of bracts. The small, single-seeded fruit (cypsela), often with a plumose pappus, aids wind dispersal (Stevens, 2012). However, Cosmos belongs to a group of genera that have awns instead of a feathery pappus.

Members of the genus Cosmos originated in the tropical and subtropical regions of the new world, especially in Mexico. About 40 species have their centre of diversity in Mexico. Several species have been introduced around the world, becoming naturalized, and occasionally invasive. These species are closely allied to the beggarticks genera, Coreopsis and Bidens, whose generic boundaries are currently in a state of flux.

C. sulphureus was first described by Cavanilles (1791) from plants cultivated in the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid from Mexican seed, but the date of its introduction is unknown. It was again described by Jacquin (1793) from plants cultivated in Vienna, Austria (Burkill, 1930). Melchert (1976) described the species as a pantropical weed “doubtlessly native to hot, subtropical regions of central and southern Mexico”.

The genus name Cosmos derives from the Greek word kosmos, literally translated as ‘beauty’ (Smith, 1972) with a “root idea of orderliness; hence an ornament or beautiful thing” (Bailey, 1924). The species name sulphureus is in reference to the orange-yellow colours of the plant’s flower (Smith, 1972).

Description

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C. sulphureus is an annual herb 0.3-2 m tall, taprooted. Stems erect, branched, glabrous or sparsely pilose to hispid. Leaves cauline, alternate, deeply lobed; petioles 10-70 mm long; blades 50-250 mm long; ultimate lobes 2-5 mm wide; margins sparsely spinulose-ciliate; apices apiculate. Synflorescences 100-200 mm long, spreading-ascending; bractlets linear-subulate 5-10 mm long with acute apices. Capitula 6-10 mm diameter; involucral bracts erect, oblong-lanceolate, 9-18 mm long with acute to rounded-obtuse apices; ray florets 8(+ in some cultivars) golden yellow to red-orange; laminae obovate, 18-30 mm long with truncate, denticulate apices; disc florets 6-7 mm long. Cypselae light brown, flattened, 1.5-3 mm long, hispidulous, rarely glabrous; pappus absent, or with two or three widely divergent awns, 1-7 mm long (description compiled from Beentje and Hind, 2005; Kiger, 2006; Chen and Hind, 2011; C Puttock, Smithsonian Institution, USA, personal observation).

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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C. sulphureus is native to Mexico, and possibly northwestern South America (USDA-ARS, 2016), but is also now cultivated and sometimes naturalized in temperate and tropical locations around the world (Villaseñor Ríos and Espinosa García, 1998). It is likely that it has been moved both deliberately and unintentionally throughout Mexico into the southern USA. Strother (1999) states that, in the region of Chiapas, southern Mexico, the species is widely cultivated and is likely to be adventive. Other authors of Central American floras describe the species as ruderal, occurring along roadsides, or escaping cultivation as a garden weed. In Puerto Rico, for example, the species is a common plant, found on roadsides and occasionally cultivated in gardens. It is also known to have escaped in parts of Florida, the Caribbean and South America (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012) and is considered invasive by CenBIO (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). It has been recorded as a native plant in Colombia (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2016), Ecuador (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2016) and Peru (Peru Checklist, 2016) but other records for South America list C. sulphureus as naturalized (e.g. Robinson, 2006; Mondin, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016). This species is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds, recorded as naturalized and also weedy in parts of the USA, New Zealand and Australia (Randall, 2012). It is naturalized across parts of Africa and Asia and has sometimes been recorded as an invasive species.

Work carried out by Wagner et al. (2016) on Hawaii does not include any species of the Cosmos genus, but the species is cultivated in other parts of the Pacific including French Polynesia and Micronesia.

C. sulphureus is not listed in the European database of alien species (DAISIE, 2017), but has been reported to be adventive in Belgium and Poland (USDA-ARS, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresentIntroduced
EswatiniPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasive
MalawiPresentIntroducedInvasive
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MozambiquePresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced
SenegalPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasive
SudanPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBehaves like a weed
UgandaPresentIntroducedInvasive
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedInvasive

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedInvasivePresent based on regional records
-BeijingPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedInvasive
-YunnanPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
JapanPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentCultivated
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedIntroduced as ornamental
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCultivated only
South KoreaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedInvasive

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroducedAdventive
PolandPresentIntroducedAdventive

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedInvasive
BelizePresentIntroducedInvasive
BermudaPresentIntroducedInvasive
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveTortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
DominicaPresentIntroducedFirst reported: <1985
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedInvasive
HaitiPresentIntroducedInvasive
HondurasPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentNative
MontserratPresentIntroducedInvasive
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivation escape, naturalized
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedInvasive
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveSt. Thomas
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasivePresent based on regional records
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUncommon escape from cultivation, weed
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-DelawarePresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-FloridaPresentIntroducedEscaped
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-MarylandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-MichiganPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-MississippiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-MissouriPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedUncommon and sporadic
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-TennesseePresentIntroducedInvasive
-TexasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedPresent based on regional records
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedCaroline Islands - Faraulep, Ifalik, Satawal, Woleai; Mortlock Islands - Satawan; Yap Islands - Yap; Original citation: Wagner et al. (2016)
French PolynesiaPresentMarquesas, cultivated
GuamPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Wagner et al. (2016)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedCasual alien, weed
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced
BoliviaPresentIntroducedAdventitious
BrazilPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-AcrePresentIntroduced
-AlagoasPresentIntroduced
-AmapaPresentIntroduced
-BahiaPresentIntroduced
-CearaPresentIntroduced
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced
-GoiasPresentIntroduced
-MaranhaoPresentIntroduced
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroduced
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroduced
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced
-ParaPresentIntroduced
-ParaibaPresentIntroduced
-ParanaPresentIntroduced
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced
-PiauiPresentIntroduced
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroduced
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroduced
-RondoniaPresentIntroduced
-RoraimaPresentIntroduced
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
-SergipePresentIntroduced
-TocantinsPresentIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
ParaguayPresentIntroducedInvasiveAdventive, cultivation escape; Original citation: Paraguay Checklist (2016)
PeruPresentNativeOriginal citation: Peru Checklist (2016)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedInvasive

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. sulphureus is likely to have been introduced to the Caribbean from the mainland at an early date, and herbarium specimen records indicate that the species had escaped cultivation by 1886 in Puerto Rico, 1927 in Haiti, 1945 in Dominican Republic and 1909 in Cuba (US National Herbarium). The species was being cultivated in flower gardens in Bermuda by 1918 (Britton, 1918), in Virgin Islands gardens by 1925 (Britton and Wilson, 1924), and in Dominica by 1985 (Nicolson et al., 1991). It is now a common roadside weed in Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell, 2000) and is present in various other parts of the Caribbean including Cuba, Hispaniola, and the US and British Virgin Islands (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2016).

In Europe, C. sulphureus was transported to Spain via the galleons and grown in botanical gardens (Sherff, 1932; Staples and Herbst, 2005). According to Burkill (1930), C. sulphureus has remained in cultivation in Europe since it was first described by Cavanilles in 1791 (based on a plant cultivated in the Real Jardin Botanico de Madrid) and is widely available in the horticultural trade. Today, the species is also reported as a roadside and ruderal weed in other parts of Europe, notably in Belgium and Poland (USDA-ARS, 2016).

In Africa, the species was introduced into the high eastern plains of South Africa by way of contaminated horse feed imported from Mexico during the Boer War in 1902. It is now reportedly naturalized in parts of eastern and southern Africa, including not only South Africa but Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi and Zimbabwe (USDA-ARS, 2016). In Swaziland it is suspected to be a minor problem species with invasive potential (Swaziland National Trust Commission, 2016).

In Asia-Pacific, the species is thought to have reached the Philippines directly from Mexico via the galleon trade during the second half of the nineteenth century, toward the end of the Spanish colonial period (Merrill, 1904). It has been suggested that C. sulphureus was brought to the Philippines at a later date than its close relative C. caudatus, as C. sulphureus was probably introduced simply for ornamental purposes whereas C. caudatus was used as a vegetable on board the galleons (Merrill, 1923; Burkill, 1930). It was present in Guam by the 1910s, as specimens were collected from the US Guam Experiment Station (US National Herbarium). Similarly, the species has been present in the Marquesas Islands since 1929 (US National Herbarium; Wagner and Lorence, 2016). In the south of mainland Asia, C. sulphureus found its way to India by 1845 (Voigt, 1845) and by 1930 had “run wild” in places “very remote from European stations” (Burkill, 1930).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. sulphureus is high. It received a ‘high risk’ score of 9.0 from a Hawaii risk assessment (PlantPono, 2014). Invasive traits include its widespread use as an ornamental plant and repeated intentional introductions by humans, its ability to seed freely, self-compatibility, tolerance of tropical climates and its ability to thrive in a variety of soil types. Based on these traits, the fact that it has been reported as a weed in places beyond its native range, and considering that other members of the Cosmos genus are also known to be weeds, the risk of introduction for this species is high, particularly in places where it continues to be popular in cultivation.

Habitat

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C. sulphureus prefers meadows and open shrubland. It is a common weed in disturbed areas, pastures, roadsides, railroads, along rivers, grassland, sometimes in disturbed forest sites. It grows, in Colombia for example, in humid premontane and humid tropical forests as well as in rainforests, such as in the lowlands of Bolivia (Bolivia Catalogue, 2016; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2016). It can also be found in low coastal regions, as in Ecuador (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2016). It occurs from about 80 to 3000 m above sea level.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedIndustrial / intensive livestock production systems Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Principal habitat Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Principal habitat Natural
LittoralCoastal dunes Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

C. sulphureus is diploid with a chromosome number of 2n = 24 (Kumari and Sidhu, 2012) as are most other species in the genus, excluding C. caudatus, which is tetraploid.

Reproductive biology

Flowers of C. sulphureus are pollinated by Hymenoptera (bees) and Lepidoptera (butterflies). The species is self-compatible and seeds freely (PlantPono, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017).

Physiology and phenology

C. sulphureus is an annual herb and, under favourable environmental conditions, produces flowers and seeds in spring and summer months.

Environmental requirements

C. sulphureus needs full sunlight and moderate water availability to grow.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
42 24 80 3000

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 0 35

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector transmission (biotic)

C. sulphureus seeds are carried externally by animals and dropped locally. The fruits, with a scabrid beak and pappus of two horizontally spreading awns, are adapted for attachment and animal dispersal, but are not adapted for wind dispersal (Jansen, 2005; PlantPono, 2014).

Intentional introduction

C. sulphureus has been introduced widely as an ornamental plant.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosMexican seed is known to have been introduced to, and cultivated in, botanical gardens in Spain and the Philippines Yes Yes Cavanilles (1791); Merrill (1904); Merrill (1923); Burkill (1930)
Cut flower trade Yes
Disturbance Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escapeKnown to have escaped cultivation in Panama, Paraguay, Florida and other parts of the Caribbean and South America Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); Flora of Panama (2016); Paraguay Checklist (2016)
HitchhikerSeeds are adapted for external attachment and animal dispersal Yes Jansen (2005); PlantPono (2014)
HorticultureCultivated in gardens Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); Randall (2012)
Internet sales Yes Yes Jansen (2005)
Medicinal useUsed in China and Brazil in traditional medicine Yes Botsaris (2007)
Nursery trade Yes Yes Jansen (2005)
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Kress et al. (2003); Jansen (2005)
Seed trade Yes Yes Kress et al. (2003); Jansen (2005)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aircraft Yes
Clothing, footwear and possessionsSeeds are adapted for external attachment and animal dispersal Yes Jansen (2005); PlantPono (2014)
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesKnown to have escaped cultivation in Panama, Paraguay, Florida and other parts of the Caribbean and South America Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); Flora of Panama (2016); Paraguay Checklist (2016)
Floating vegetation and debrisDispersal by water debris is possible as species grows along riverbanks and coastal areas Yes Vascular Plants of Ecuador (2016)
Mail Yes Yes Jansen (2005)
Land vehiclesDispersal by vehicles is possible as species is commonly found on roadsides Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000)
WaterDispersal by water is possible as species grows along riverbanks and coastal areas Yes Vascular Plants of Ecuador (2016)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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This species has been used in its native Mexico and Central and South Americas since pre-Colombian times. The flower heads of C. sulphureus, as well as those of other Cosmos species, were used as a popular yellow dye by European settlers for domestic textile production in southern Africa, and today the practice continues as a hobby or for textile crafts, to dye wool bright yellow or orange (Jansen, 2005). C. sulphureus is also commonly cultivated in tropical and temperate regions as an ornamental (P Acevedo-Rodríguez, Smithsonian Institution, USA, personal observation, 2016). In China, the species has been used in traditional medicine for centuries due to its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal properties as well as for the treatment of gastric ulcers, liver inflammation and arthritis (Quattrocchi, 2012). In Brazil, it has been recorded as an antimalarial medicinal plant requiring further research (Botsaris, 2007).

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Dyestuffs
  • Tanstuffs

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The leaves of C. sulphureus look similar to those of C. caudatus. However, C. sulphureus typically has bright yellow-orange ray florets, distinct from the pink to pale purple rays of C. caudatus. Additionally, C. sulphureus has larger rays, smaller achenes, and filaments inserted lower in the corolla tube. The typical form has eight ray florets but some cultivars have more.

Flora of Missouri (2016) reports: “Sherff (1955) separated native Latin American populations of this species into three varieties, based on minor differences in pubescence and persistence of the pappus. The introduced Missouri plants appear to represent var. sulphureus (with nearly glabrous stems and mostly persistent pappus) if these taxa are accepted. However, the variability of plants in nature and the effects of plant breeding on the cultivated races has obscured the supposed differences among the varieties, making it imprudent to attempt their formal taxonomic recognition.”

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Despite being recorded as an invasive species in a number of countries around the world, there is very limited information available about its environmental impact. As a result, further research is needed on the invasive potential of this species, its current and potential environmental impact, effective methods of monitoring and any necessary methods of prevention and control. This is especially important considering that the species is a popular ornamental, possesses invasive traits and other members of the genus also have invasive potential.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bailey LH, 1924. Manual of cultivated plants: a flora for the identification of the most common or significant species of plants grown in the continental United States and Canada for food, ornament, utility, and general interest, both in the open and under glass. New York, USA: The Macmillan Company, 851 pp. https://archive.org/details/manualofcultiva00bail.

Balick MJ, Nee MH, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize, with common names and uses. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden Press, 246 pp

Beentje HJ, Hind DJN, 2005. Cosmos. In: Beentje HJ, Jeffrey C, Hind DJN, eds. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae (Part 3). Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Bolivia Catalogue, 2016. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/BC

Botsaris AS, 2007. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 3(18), (01 May 2007). http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/pdf/1746-4269-3-18.pdf

Brako L, Zarucchi JL, 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru, 1286 pp.

Britton NL, 1918. The Flora of the American Virgin Islands. Contributions from the New York Botanical Gardens Issue 203. New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden, 100 pp. http://books.google.com/books?id=EJMYAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

Britton NL, Wilson P, 1924. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin islands, Volume V, Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Pandanales to Thymeleales. 277.

Burkill IH, 1930. Cosmos in the East. The Gardens’ Bulletin, Straits Settlements (Singapore Botanic Garden), 5(2):118-120

Cavanilles AJ, 1791. Icones et descriptiones plantarum

Chen Y, Hind DJN, 2011. Heliantheae. In: Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY, eds. Flora of China, Volume 20-21 (Asteraceae). Beijing, China: Science Press and St. Louis, USA: Missouri Garden Press, 852-878

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2014. Australasian Virtual Herbarium. Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.chah.org.au

DAISIE, 2017. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Flora de Nicaragua, 2016. Flora of Nicaragua. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Flora of Missouri, 2016. Flora of Missouri. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/MO

Flora of Panama, 2016. Flora of Panama. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

FloraBase, 2016. FloraBase - the Western Australian Flora. Australia: Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au

GBIF, 2014. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Germishuizen G, Meyer NL, 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist, National Botanical Institute.vi + 1231 pp.

Grierson AJC, 1980. Compositae. In: Dassanayake MD, Fosberg FR, eds. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon

Jansen PCM, 2005. Cosmos sulphureus Cav. In: Jansen PCM, Cardon D, eds. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA) 3, Dyes and Tannins. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA Foundation/CTA and Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 61-62

Jepson Flora Project, 2018. Jepson eFlora. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/jepson_flora_project.htm

Kiger RW, 2006. Cosmos. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. Flora of North America North of Mexico, Volume 21. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=108151

Kil JH, Shim KC, Park SH, Koh KS, Suh MH, Ku YB, Suh SU, Oh HK, Kong HY, 2004. Distributions of naturalized alien plants in South Korea. Weed Technology, 18(Suppl), 1493-1495. doi: 10.1614/0890-037X(2004)018[1493:DONAPI]2.0.CO;2

Kress WJ, DeFilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 590 pp. http://botany.si.edu/myanmar/checklistNames.cfm

Kumari S, Sidhu MC, 2012. Meiotic studies in Cosmos sulphureus Cav. Chromosome Botany, 7: 117-118

Liogier HA, Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp

Melchert TE, 1976. Melchert TE, 1976. Cosmos. In: Nash DL, Williams LO. Flora of Guatemala Volume 24, Part XII. Chicago, USA: Field Museum of Natural History, 229-234

Merrill ED, 1904. New or noteworthy Philippine plants: II. The American element in the Philippine flora. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Public Printing

Merrill ED, 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, Bureau of Printing.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Mondin CA, 2014. Cosmos in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/

Nicolson DH, DeFilipps RA, Nicolson AC (et al.), 1991. Flora of Dominica, part 2: Dicotyledoneae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, (No. 77), iii + 274 pp.

Paraguay Checklist, 2016. Paraguay Checklist. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/Paraguay

Peru Checklist, 2016. Peru Checklist. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/PEC

PlantPono, 2014. Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment (HPWRA) for Cosmos sulphureus. Hawaii, USA: Coordinating Group on Alien Pest Species (CGAPS), Hawai‘i Invasive Species Council and the Hawai‘i Biological Information Network. http://plantpono.org/hpwra.php

Pruski JF, 1997. Asteraceae. In: Steyermark JA, Berry PE, Holst BK, eds. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology , CRC Press Inc.3960 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Robinson H, 2006. 190(6) Compositae-Heliantheae Part 1: Introduction, genera A-L. In: Harling G, Anderson L, eds. Flora of Ecuador 77(1). Gothenburg, Sweden: Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, 467 pp

Sherff EE, 1932. Revision of the genus Cosmos (Family Compositae). Field Museum of Natural History, Botany, 8: 399-488

Smith AW, 1972. A gardener’s dictionary of plant names: a handbook on the origin and meaning of some plant names. London, UK: Cassell and Co, 391 pp

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1999. Invasive exotic pest plants in Tennessee. Tennessee, USA: Research Committee of the Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council. https://plants.usda.gov/java/invasiveOne?pubID=SEEPPC&sort=origin&format=Print

Staples GW, Herbst DR, 2005. A tropical garden flora: plants cultivated in the Hawaiian islands and other tropical places. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press, 908 pp

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm phylogeny website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Strother PF, 1999. Flora of Chaipas: Part 5 Compositae-Heliantheae s.l. California, USA: California Academy of Sciences, 232 pp

Swaziland National Trust Commission, 2016. Swaziland’s flora database. Mbabane, Swaziland: Swaziland National Museum. http://www.sntc.org.sz/flora/index.asp

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: US Department of Agriculture National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2016. Catalogue of the vascular plants of the department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2016. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Villaseñor Ríos JL, Espinosa García FJ, 1998. Catálogo de malezas de México [Catalogue of Mexican Weeds]. Mexico City, Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 449 pp

Voigt JO, 1845. Hortus suburbanus calcuttensis. Calcutta, India: Bishop’s College Press

Wagner W L, Lorence D H, 2016. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Tornabene MW, Weitzman A, Lorence DH, 2016. Flora of Micronesia. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 2: Dicotyledoneae: Acanthaceae-Fabaceae (Abarema-Schizolobium), Missouri Botanical Garden Press.xx + 985-2286 pp.

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, eds, 1996. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. [Catalogue of the vascular plants of the Republic of Argentina] I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae): Monographs in Systematic Botany. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden, 323 pp

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Balick MJ, Nee MH, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize, with common names and uses. In: Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85 New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden Press. 246 pp.

Beentje HJ, Hind DJN, 2005. Cosmos. In: Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae (Part 3), [ed. by Beentje HJ, Jeffrey C, Hind DJN]. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Garden, Kew.

Bolivia, Catalogue, 2016. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia., St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/BC

Botsaris A S, 2007. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 3 (18), (01 May 2007). http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/pdf/1746-4269-3-18.pdf

Brako L, Zarucchi J L, 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. 1286 pp.

Britton NL, 1918. The Flora of the American Virgin Islands. In: Contributions from the New York Botanical Gardens, New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden, 100. 100 pp. http://books.google.com/books?id=EJMYAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carter M R, Tjernström E, Toledo P, 2016. Working Paper Series - National Bureau of Economic Research (Massachusetts), Cambridge, USA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 36 pp. http://www.nber.org/papers/w22628.pdf

Chen Y, Hind DJN, 2011. Heliantheae. In: Flora of China, Volume 20-21 (Asteraceae), [ed. by Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY]. Beijing; St. Louis, China; USA: Science Press and Missouri Garden Press. 852-878.

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2014. Australasian Virtual Herbarium., Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.chah.org.au

Flora of Missouri, 2016. Flora of Missouri., St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard. http://tropicos.org/Project/MO

Flora of Panama, 2016. Flora of Panama., St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

FloraBase, 2016. FloraBase - the Western Australian Flora., Australia: Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au

GBIF, 2014. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Germishuizen G, Meyer N L, 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. [ed. by Germishuizen G, Meyer N L]. Pretoria, South Africa: National Botanical Institute. vi + 1231 pp.

Grierson AJC, 1980. Compositae. In: A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon, [ed. by Dassanayake MD, Fosberg FR].

Jansen PCM, 2005. Cosmos sulphureus Cav. In: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA) 3, Dyes and Tannins, [ed. by Jansen PCM, Cardon D]. Wageningen; Leiden, Netherlands: PROTA Foundation/CTA, Backhuys Publishers. 61-62.

Jepson Flora Project, 2018. (Jepson eFlora)., Berkeley, California, USA: University of California. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/jepson_flora_project.htm

Kil J H, Shim K C, Park S H, Koh K S, Suh M H, Ku Y B, Suh S U, Oh H K, Kong H Y, 2004. Distributions of naturalized alien plants in South Korea. Weed Technology. 18 (Suppl.), 1493-1495. DOI:10.1614/0890-037X(2004)018[1493:DONAPI]2.0.CO;2

Kress WJ, DeFilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. In: Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. 590 pp. http://botany.si.edu/myanmar/checklistNames.cfm

Liogier HA, Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis., San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico. 382 pp.

Melchert TE, 1976. Cosmos. In: Flora of Guatemala, 24 (XII) [ed. by Nash DL]. Chicago, USA: Field Museum of Natural History. 229-234.

Merrill E D, 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing.

Merrill ED, 1904. New or noteworthy Philippine plants: II. The American element in the Philippine flora., Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Public Print.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org

Mondin CA, 2014. (Cosmos in lista de espécies da flora do Brasil)., Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/

Nicolson D H, DeFilipps R A, Nicolson A C (et al), 1991. Flora of Dominica, part 2: Dicotyledoneae. In: Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Press. iii + 274 pp.

Pruski JF, 1997. Asteraceae. In: Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, [ed. by Steyermark JA, Berry PE, Holst BK]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. [ed. by Quattrocchi U]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc. 3960 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds., Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia. 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Robinson H, 2006. Compositae-Heliantheae Part 1: Introduction, genera A-L. In: Flora of Ecuador, 77 (1) [ed. by Harling G, Anderson L]. Gothenburg, Sweden: Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, 467. 467 pp.

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1999. Invasive exotic pest plants in Tennessee., Tennessee, USA: Research Committee of the Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council. https://plants.usda.gov/java/invasiveOne?pubID=SEEPPC&sort=origin&format=Print

Swaziland National Trust Commission, 2016. Swaziland's flora database., Mbabane, Swaziland: Swaziland National Museum. http://www.sntc.org.sz/flora/index.asp

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2016. Catalogue of the vascular plants of the department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2016. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2016. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

Zuloaga F O, Morrone O, Belgrano M J, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 2: Dicotyledoneae: Acanthaceae-Fabaceae (Abarema-Schizolobium). [ed. by Zuloaga F O, Morrone O, Belgrano M J]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. xx + 985-2286 pp.

Contributors

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27/03/17 Original text by:

Christopher F Puttock, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Edits by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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