Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Tradescantia zebrina
(wandering jew)

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Datasheet

Tradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tradescantia zebrina
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wandering jew
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A native of Mexico, T. zebrina is elsewhere a fairly common ornamental which globally has a tendency to escape into shady, moist spots. It is reported as invasive in many areas in the Pacific (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tradescantia zebrina, invasive on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia, West Indies. November, 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionTradescantia zebrina, invasive on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia, West Indies. November, 2005.
Copyright©Roger Graveson-2005
Tradescantia zebrina, invasive on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia, West Indies. November, 2005.
HabitTradescantia zebrina, invasive on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia, West Indies. November, 2005.©Roger Graveson-2005
Tradescantia zebrina, showing foliage and flowers; invasive on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia, West Indies. November, 2005.
TitleHabit, showing foliage and flowers
CaptionTradescantia zebrina, showing foliage and flowers; invasive on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia, West Indies. November, 2005.
Copyright©Roger Graveson-2005
Tradescantia zebrina, showing foliage and flowers; invasive on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia, West Indies. November, 2005.
Habit, showing foliage and flowersTradescantia zebrina, showing foliage and flowers; invasive on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia, West Indies. November, 2005.©Roger Graveson-2005

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tradescantia zebrina Bosse

Preferred Common Name

  • wandering jew

Other Scientific Names

  • Cyanotis vittata Lindl.
  • Cyanotis zebrina (Bosse) Nees (1851)
  • Tradescantia pendula (Schnizl.) D.R.Hunt 1981
  • Tradescantia zebrina Hort. ex Bosse 1849
  • Zebrina pendula Schnizl 1849
  • Zebrina purpussi G. Brückn

International Common Names

  • English: cockroach grass; inch plant; purple wandering jew; silver inch plant; striped trad; striped wandering creeper; striped wandering jew; wandering zebrina; zebra plant
  • Spanish: barbija; cañutillo; hoja de milagro
  • French: misère; mizè
  • Chinese: diao zhu mei

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: judeu-errante; lambari; trapoeraba-roxa
  • Cuba: cucaracha
  • Dominican Republic: cucaracha
  • Lesser Antilles: kakalaka
  • Puerto Rico: cohitre morado; judío errante

Summary of Invasiveness

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A native of Mexico, T. zebrina is elsewhere a fairly common ornamental which globally has a tendency to escape into shady, moist spots. It is reported as invasive in many areas in the Pacific (PIER, 2012). Most comments suggest it forms patches in disturbed secondary forest. For example, in Hawaii, “Probably an escapee from cultivation, it is now naturalized and covers large areas of ground in secondary forest” (Lorence and Flynn, 1997). In Queensland, Australia it is reported that it has the capacity to invade natural vegetation across South-east Queensland (Biosecurity Queensland, 2012). Propagation appears to be caused by parts breaking off and washing down slopes or by human facilitation, such as trimming, sweeping or by the dumping of garden rubbish. 

On Gros Piton, a World Heritage Site in Saint Lucia, West Indies, it was planted at an elevation of about 500 m approximately seven years ago and has since spread several hundred metres along the trail, forming thick carpets on rocks and on the ground in moist shady native forest. It seems to spread as bits break off or are cut by trail maintenance and then swept off the trail, where they root and start a new colony.  So far it has not spread far from the trail (Graveson, 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Commelinales
  •                         Family: Commelinaceae
  •                             Genus: Tradescantia
  •                                 Species: Tradescantia zebrina

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Hunt (1986) changed the status of the genus Zebrina Shnizl. to a section within Tradescantia L. He stated that Zebrina pendula Schnizl. should be called Tradescantia zebrina Hort. ex Bosse or Tradescantia zebrina ex Bosse. Some publications and online databases such as the Tropicos website of the Missouri Botanical Gardens include an older name Tradescantia zebrina Heynh. The Heynhold name however lacks a valid description and is thus an invalid name (Tropicos do indicate that this name is no longer valid). Thus the correct name is either Tradescantia zebrina ex Bosse (Faden, 2008), or, according to The Plant List (2013), simply T. zebrina Bosse.

Description

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T. zebrina is a succulent, trailing herbaceous plant, distinguished by its paired, silvery green leaves flushed with purple on the upper surface and purple underneath, asymmetrical at the base. It has bright pink flowers with three petals. The fruit are small capsules containing greyish-brown seeds. 

Orchard (1994) gives the following description: Creeping and pendulous, succulent herb, rooting readily at nodes; stems, leaves and floral bracts tinged with purple-red. Leaves spaced along stem; petiole ca 2 mm long, passing into basal ciliate sheath; lamina ovate, 2-5 cm long, green tinged with purple-red, especially beneath, usually with ca 3 darker, broad, longitudinal stripes. Inflorescence terminal, of 2 short cincinni subtended closely by 2 leaf-like bracts. Petals ovate, 10-12 mm long, delicate, connate in lower half into a narrow white tube, purple-magenta.

Fruit (when present) a 3-locule capsule with 1-2-seeds per capsule.

Distribution

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T. zebrina is native to Mexico, but has been very widely introduced elsewhere as a garden ornamental. It is now present in Australia, various Pacific islands, the Caribbean, parts of Central and South America, southern USA, Tanzania and east and southeast Asia. The Distribution Table may fail to include many of the countries in which it is cultivated but not yet naturalised.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanLocalisedIntroducedNoltie, 1994
Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Rivers, 2004Diego Garcia
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ChongqingPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroducedPIER, 2013
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
JapanPresentIntroducedMito and Uesugi, 2004
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Invasive Merrill, 1925
SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Invasive Chong et al., 2009
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
AngolaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
Cape VerdePresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
GabonPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
GambiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
GuineaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
KenyaPresentIntroduced Invasive Witt and Luke, 2017
MalawiPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
MauritiusPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
MoroccoPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013
RwandaPresentIntroduced Invasive Witt and Luke, 2017
SeychellesPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2013
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2012
TogoPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
UgandaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
ZambiaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017

North America

MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedFloridata, 2012
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Oppenheimer and Bartlett, 2000; Starr et al., 2004; Oppenheimer, 2007Kaua‘i Island, Maui Island, Moloka‘i Island
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced Invasive Faden, 2000
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedFaden, 2000

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BahamasPresentIntroduced Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BelizePresentNative Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentNative Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
CuraçaoPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive A van den Bos, www.botanypictures.com, personal communication, 2012
DominicaPresentIntroduced Not invasive A James, Department of Forestry, Roseau, Dominica, personal communication, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentHolm et al., 1979
GuadeloupePresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuatemalaPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroduced Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MontserratPresentIntroduced Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroduced Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2012
PanamaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2013
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Graveson, 2012Escaped ornamental, very common around Gros Piton trail; very rare elsewhere
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Hunt, 1981; Naturetrek, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentIntroduced Invasive Forzza et al., 2012
-BahiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Forzza et al., 2012
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced Invasive Forzza et al., 2012
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced Invasive Forzza et al., 2012
-ParaibaPresentIntroduced Invasive Forzza et al., 2012
-ParanaPresentIntroduced Invasive Bonnet et al., 2011; Forzza et al., 2012
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced Invasive Forzza et al., 2012
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced Invasive Forzza et al., 2012
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroduced Invasive Forzza et al., 2012
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Forzza et al., 2012
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced Invasive Forzza et al., 2012
ColombiaPresentHolm et al., 1979
EcuadorPresentIntroduced Invasive Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008Galapagos Islands
GuyanaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2013
ParaguayPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2012
PeruPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2012

Europe

PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2013
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2013
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2013

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Lord Howe Is.PresentIntroducedBiosecurity Queensland, 2012
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Csurhes and Edwards, 1998
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Csurhes and Edwards, 1998
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Smith, 1979
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2011
GuamPresentIntroduced Not invasive Fosberg, et al., 1987
KiribatiPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Space and Imada, 2004Tarawa Atoll
Marshall IslandsPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Velde vander, 2003
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Not invasive Fosberg, et al., 1987
NauruPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Thaman et al., 1994
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive MacKee, 1994
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2000
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedBiosecurity Queensland, 2012
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Fosberg, et al., 1987Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll
PalauPresentIntroduced Not invasive Space et al., 2003Peleliu Island
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive Peekel, 1984Bismarck Archipelago
Pitcairn IslandPresentIntroduced Not invasive St John, 1987
SamoaPresentNative Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002Savai'i Island
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive Yuncker, 1959

Risk of Introduction

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It is probable that this species is already present as a pot or garden plant in most countries. Thus it is likely to escape into the wild in most countries with a suitable climate, if it has not done so already.

Habitat

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A weed of waste areas, disturbed sites, roadsides, urban bushland, riparian vegetation, open woodlands and forests in sub-tropical and warmer temperate regions. As a garden plant, it is commonly found in untended areas or areas that are difficult to access (steep banks, undergrowth etc.) (Biosecurity Queensland, 2012).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics and Reproductive Biology

Sakurai and Ichikawa (2001) gave the chromosome number 2n = 24, but as a garden plant T. zebrina rarely sets seed and is propagated only by cuttings (Floridata, 2012; Dave’s Garden, 2013).

Environmental Requirements

Dave’s Garden (2013) indicated a tolerance of US Hardiness Zones 8 to 11 and soil pH 6-8. T. zebrina prefers sun to partial shade.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Movement over long distances is legal as a commercial ornamental plant.

Movement into the wild is through broken parts of stems and roots rooting and forming new colonies. This can be accidental or as a result of gardening activities such as trimming or by improper disposal of garden waste.

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

While globally T. zebrina tends to grow in disturbed secondary forest and moist semi-open spots, it has become invasive in a World Heritage Site in Saint Lucia on the middle slopes of Gros Piton. Here it forms carpets on large rocks and the ground between, in seasonally semi-open native deciduous seasonal forest. Its main populations are close to the main trail to the summit.

Impact on Biodiversity

As it forms carpets, T. zebrina replaces indigenous species such as Peperomia trifolia, Callisia repens, P. myrtifolia and Gibasis geniculata (Graveson, 2012).

Social Impact

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Contact with the foliage can cause skin irritation (Floridata, 2012; Dave’s Garden, 2013).

Globally there is little information, except for Saint Lucia, where The Gros Piton trail is an important source of income to the Fonds Gens Libres community. It is conceivable that if T. zebrina comes to dominate the ground cover in the middle elevations, the publicity given to that might impact negatively on tourist numbers. Tourism income from guided tours will have to be used to fund eradication, which is a financial cost to the community.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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T. zebrina is relatively similar to T. fluminensis, Commelina diffusa and C. benghalensis. T. fluminensis is distinguished by its alternate glossy green symmetrical leaves that are mostly hairless, and has white flowers. C. diffusa has dull green leaves that are relatively thin, and flowers that are usually bright blue. C. benghalensis has dull green leaves that are hairy, and usually bright blue flowers with rounded petals.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Despite T. zebrina being reported as invasive in many Pacific Islands, little information is available on its prevention and control. It may be that its impact is not major enough to warrant prevention and control measures.

Prevention

SPS measures

Prohibition of planting as an ornamental in high-risk areas would be a useful measure. 

Early warning systems

This species is extremely well-known and easy to spot in the wild. If reported early, the patch can readily be physically removed. Thus public awareness in high risk areas will aid in preventing this species from establishing itself in the wild.

Eradication

The following guidelines are given by Biosecurity Queensland (2012) for eradication in north Queensland, where it is regarded as an invasive environmental weed.

“Zebrina can reproduce and spread from single pieces of stem or root fragments. Careful handpulling is required in order to be certain to remove all stem and root fragments from the soil. Regular mowing can be effective, but a catcher should be used to prevent the spread of stem pieces. Be sure to dispose of the plant carefully, by allowing it to rot in a sealed black plastic bag for one week before placing it in a refuse bin. Zebrina is not suitable for composting or dumping in a ‘green waste’ section of a refuse station."

Containment/Zoning

Techniques suitable for eradication will also be appropriate for containment where complete eradication is not possible.

Control

Physical/mechanical control

Hand pulling of small areas of infestation is possible. However re-growth may take place from small pieces of stems and roots. 

Movement control

Planting in areas where there is a high risk of spread into native forest should be discouraged. 

Chemical control

Larger areas of infestation need herbicide spraying with follow-up spraying for re-growth. Suggested herbicide spray is fluroxypyr (200 g/L, at a rate of 500 mL to 1 L per 100 L water) (Biosecurity Queensland, 2012). Triclopyr is used for the control of the related T. fluminensis (Hill, 2013).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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A pilot scheme is required to look into details of a protocol for eradication, involving a mix of physical and chemical measures. Research is required to investigate if T. zebrina carpets change soil conditions in a manner which might affect tree seedlings.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Axelrod F, 2011. A systematic vademecum to the vascular plants of Puerto Rico. Sida Botanical Miscellany, 34:1-428

Biosecurity Queensland, 2012. Fact Sheet - Zebrina. Queensland, Australia: Biosecurity Queensland. http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/documents/Biosecurity_EnvironmentalPests/IPA-Zebrina-PP102.pdf

Bonnet A, Curcio GR, Osmir J, Franklin G, 2011. Vascular epiphytic flora in three vegetational units of the Tibagi River, Paraná, Brazil. (Flora epifítica vascular em três unidades vegetacionais do Rio Tibagi, Paraná, Brasil.) Rodriguésia, 62(3):491-498

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation, unpaginated

Chong K, Hugh TW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp

Csurhes S, Edwards R, 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: candidate species for preventative control. Coorparoo, Australia: Queensland Department of Natural Resources

DAISIE, 2013. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE (online). www.europe-aliens.org

Dave's Garden, 2013. PlantFiles: Wandering Jew, Inch Plant (Tradescantia zebrina). Tradescantia zebrina. http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/596/

Faden RB, 2000. Floral biology of Commelinaceae. In: Monocots: systematics and evolution [ed. by Wilson, K. L. \Morrison, D. A.]. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, 309-318

Faden RB, 2008. The author and typification of Tradescantia zebrina (Commelinaceae). Kew Bulletin, 63(4):679-680. http://www.springerlink.com/content/0075-5974

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, Massachusetts , USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2011. [English title not available]. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP).) . http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Floridata, 2012. Floridata database. Floridata database. Florida, USA: Floridata. http://www.floridata.com/

Forzza RC, Leitman PM, Costa AF, Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2012. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Fosberg FR, Sachet M-H, Oliver RL, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesia, 20:1026

Fournet J, 2002. Flore illustrée des phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique (Illustrated flora of Guadeloupe and Martinique phanerogam). France: CIRAD; Gondwana Editions

Govaerts R, 2013. World Checklist of Commelinaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Graveson RS, 2012. Survey of invasive alien plant species on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia. Survey of invasive alien plant species on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia. Castries, Saint Lucia: Department of Forestry

HEAR, 2012. Alien species in Hawaii. Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesInHawaii/index.html

Hill R, 2013. Notes on the ecology of Tradescantia fluminensis and a biological control programme for its management. Private Bag 4704, Christchurch, New Zealand: Richard Hill and Associates

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp

Hunt DR, 1981. Precursory notes on Commelinaceae for the Flora of Trinidad and Tobago. American Commelinaceae. Kew Bulletin, 36(1):195-197

Hunt DR, 1986. Campelia, Rhoeo and Zebrina united with Tradescantia: American Commelinaceae: XIII. Kew Bulletin, 41(2):401-405

ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Lorence DH, Flynn T, 1997. New naturalized plant records for Kaua'i. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, No. 49:9-13

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated

Merrill ED, 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 1. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing, 463 pp

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8(2):171-191

Naturetrek, 2012. Naturetrek Tour Report, 24 March - 6 April 2012. Naturetrek Tour Report, 24 March - 6 April 2012. Alresford, Hampshire, UK: Naturetrek. http://www.naturetrek.co.uk/reports_new/TTO01_report_120324_Trinidad_Tobago.pdf

Noltie HJ, 1994. Flora of Bhutan, Volume 3, Part 1. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden

Oppenheimer H, 2007. New plant records from Moloka'i, Lana'i, Maui, and Hawai'i for 2006. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006. Part 2: Notes, 96:17-34. [Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96.]

Oppenheimer HL, Bartlett RT, 2000. New plant records from Maui, O'ahu, and the Hawai'i Islands. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1999. Part 2: Notes, 64:1-10. [Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 64.]

Orchard AE, 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Peekel PG, 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Lae, Papua New Guinea: Office of Forests, Division of Botany, 638 pp

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry . http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Rivers J, 2004. Botanical survey update of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific, 16 pp

Sakurai T, Ichikawa S, 2001. Karyotypes and Giemsa C-banding patterns of Zebrina pendula, Z. purpusii and Setcreasea purpurea, compared with those of Tradescantia ohiensis. Genes and Genetic Systems, 76(4):235-242

Smith AC, 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: A new flora of Fiji. Volume I. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 494 pp

Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 34

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Space JC, Imada CT, 2004. Report to the Republic of Kiribati on invasive plant species on the islands of Tarawa, Abemama, Butaritari and Maiana. Cont. no. 2003-006 to the Pac. Biol. Surv. USDA Forest Service and Bishop Museum, Honolulu

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Organizations

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USA: PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), University of Hawaii, Honolulu, http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Contributors

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13/6/2012 Original text by:

Roger Graveson, Box 2074, Gros Islet, Saint Lucia, West Indies.

17/07/13 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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