Invasive Species Compendium

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Ruellia simplex
(Mexican petunia)

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Datasheet

Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ruellia simplex
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Mexican petunia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • R. simplex is an herb often planted as ornamental that has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and become naturalized and invasive in natural habitats. This species grows as a problematic weed in both disturbed...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia); flowers. Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. September, 2012.
TitleFlowers
CaptionRuellia simplex (Mexican petunia); flowers. Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. September, 2012.
Copyright©Pinus/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia); flowers. Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. September, 2012.
FlowersRuellia simplex (Mexican petunia); flowers. Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. September, 2012.©Pinus/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ruellia simplex C. Wright

Preferred Common Name

  • Mexican petunia

Other Scientific Names

  • Arrhostoxylum microphyllum Nees
  • Cryphiacanthus angustifolius Nees
  • Dipteracanthus spectabilis Hook.
  • Ruellia brittoniana Leonard
  • Ruellia coerulea Morong
  • Ruellia ignorantiae Herter
  • Ruellia longipes Urb.
  • Ruellia malacosperma Greenm.
  • Ruellia microphylla Cav.
  • Ruellia spectabilis Britton non (Hook.) G. Nicholson
  • Ruellia tweedieana Griseb.

International Common Names

  • English: Britton's wild petunia; Mexican blue-bells; Spanish-ladies
  • Spanish: a las doce me voy; guaucí

Local Common Names

  • Dominican Republic: guaucí
  • Puerto Rico: a las doce me voy
  • USA: Mexican bluebell

Summary of Invasiveness

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R. simplex is an herb often planted as ornamental that has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and become naturalized and invasive in natural habitats. This species grows as a problematic weed in both disturbed and undisturbed habitats and once established it has the potential to form dense monocultures which prevent the natural growth and regeneration of native plants (Randall, 2012). It is listed as invasive in south-eastern USA (i.e., Florida, where it is a Category I invasive plant on the FLEPPC list), Hawaii, the Cook Islands, Reunion, French Polynesia, Galapagos Islands, and Australia, where it is spreading rapidly and threatening native vegetation (Weeds of Australia, 2012; Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013; PIER, 2014).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Scrophulariales
  •                         Family: Acanthaceae
  •                             Genus: Ruellia
  •                                 Species: Ruellia simplex

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Acanthaceae includes about 220 genera and 4000 species widespread in both New and Old World Tropics (Scotland and Vollesen, 2000; Stevens, 2012). Species within this family are herbs or woody shrubs, lianas and trees. Members of the Acanthaceae may be recognized by their fruit: a few-seeded, explosively dehiscent capsule within which seeds are borne on hook-like structures called retinacula (the lignified derivatives of the funiculus) (McDade et al., 2009).

The genus Ruellia is very diverse and includes approximately 355 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees (Daniel, 1995; 1999). R. simplex, the name of a species described from material collected in Cuba in 1870, is the oldest name for the Neotropical species generally known as Ruellia tweediana, Ruellia coerulea and Ruellia malacosperma. Therefore R. simplex has priority and reduces the latter names to synonym (Ezcurra and Daniel, 2007). However, the name Ruellia tweediana is still the most commonly used in the horticultural trade (Hupp et al., 2013). 

Description

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R. simplex is an erect, perennial herb to 1 m tall with one to many stems, glabrous, often woody at the base, rhizomatous. Leaves opposite, linear-lanceolate to linear-elliptic, to 25 cm long and 2 cm wide, veins prominently raised beneath; margins entire to wavy, bases tapering, tips pinched to a long point; petioles to 2 cm long, often purplish or red. Flowers in clusters or solitary on long axillary stalks, each flower subtended by 2 linear bracts; calyx lobes 5, linear, to 1 cm long; corolla lavender with a darker purple throat, to 4.5 cm long, tube to 1.5 cm long, flaring to 5 rounded lobes. Fruit a cylindrical capsule containing 4-20 tiny seeds (Langeland et al., 2008). 

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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R. simplex is native to Mexico, the West Indies, western Bolivia, southwestern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and northeastern Argentina (Ezcurra and Daniel, 2007; USDA-ARS, 2014). It has been introduced as an ornamental in North America, Australia, Asia, and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean (see distribution table for details, PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). The status of Ruellia in the West Indies is still unclear and for some islands such as St Lucia, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Trinidad and Tobago, the species has been listed as both native and introduced (Liogier, 1997; Graveson, 2012; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated as ornamental
JapanPresentIntroducedMito and Uesugi, 2004Cultivated as ornamental

Africa

RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive Meyer and Lavergne, 2004Listed as R. brittoniana

North America

MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Chiapas, Hidalgo, Puebla, Veracruz
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999Listed as R. brittoniana
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentIntroducedBalick et al., 2000Listed as R. brittoniana
Cayman IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
CubaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014Listed as both native and introduced
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
JamaicaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
MontserratPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentLiogier, 1997; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Listed as both native and introduced
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson, 2012Cultivated and naturalized
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008Chaco, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Jujuy, Misiones, Salta, Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Tucumán
BrazilPresentNativeEzcurra and Daniel, 2007
-GoiasPresentNativeProfice et al., 2014
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeProfice et al., 2014
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeProfice et al., 2014
-PernambucoPresentNativeProfice et al., 2014
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeProfice et al., 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeProfice et al., 2014
-Sao PauloPresentNativeProfice et al., 2014
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008
ParaguayPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Misiones, Ñeembucú, Paraguarí, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro
UruguayPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008Artigas, Canelones, Florida, Montevideo, Rivera, Tacuarembó, Orientales

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2012Listed as R. tweediana
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2012Listed as R. tweediana
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive McCormack, 2013Listed as R. brittoniana
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013Listed as R. brittoniana
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedWhistler and Steele, 1999Listed as R. brittoniana
US Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999Listed as R. brittoniana. Midway Attoll and Sand Is.

History of Introduction and Spread

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R. simplex has been introduced as an ornamental in gardens. However, it has escaped from cultivation and naturalized into natural habitats. In the USA, it was first noticed as naturalized along the Florida through Louisiana coast lines in 1933 (Smith et al., 2014). In Australia, in the last 20 years, this species has gone from being relatively uncommon to being one of the most common and widespread species recently ranked among the 200 most invasive plant (Weeds of Australia, 2012). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of R. simplex is very high. Even though this species has been listed as invasive in many areas of the world, it is still widely commercialized as an ornamental. Ornamental features such as its ability to grow in a wide range of conditions and the numerous cultivars available in the nursery and landscape industry explain its popularity among consumers, landscapers and growers (Hammer, 2002). In addition, R. simplex produces large numbers of seeds with high rates of germination (Hammer, 2002; Langeland et al., 2008; Hupp et al., 2013; Smith et al., 2014). Therefore, the risk of new R. simplex invasions principally in areas near to cultivation is very high. 

Habitat

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R. simplex grows in wet, disturbed sites including drainage ditches, shores of ponds or lakes, and moist to wet wooded areas. It grows well in both wet and dry conditions, and plants may survive in drier sites with full sunlight exposure. In Florida (USA), it can be found in pine flatwoods, prairies, freshwater marshes, rivers, springs, pastures and hardwood hammocks (Langeland et al., 2008). In Hawaii, it often grows in dry habitats such as cracks in sidewalks and disturbed, shaded gulch bottoms (Wagner et al., 1999). In Australia, it grows as a weed of waterways, riparian vegetation, dams, ponds, wetlands and drainage ditches (Weeds of Australia, 2012). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for R. simplex (as R. brittoniana) is n = 17 (Bedi et al., 1981). Within the genus Ruellia, extensive artificial hybridizations were conducted in the 1960s and 1970s to understand genetic relationships between species for taxonomic purposes (Hupp et al., 2013). Natural hybrids between R. caroliniensis, R. strepens, R. pedunculata, and R. purshiana have been reported (Long, 1974). 

Reproductive Biology

In R. simplex, cleistogamy (self-fertilization without flower opening) is known to occur. For this species the number of flowers appears to be related to the amount of light the plant receives. Plants in more direct sunlight have been observed to produce more flowers than plants in shaded conditions (Hupp et al., 2013). R. simplex flowers and fruits all year long (Langeland et al., 2008; Smith et al., 2014).

Physiology and Phenology

R. simplex produces on average 20.6 seeds per capsule with 98% to 100% germination rate under optimal conditions (30-20°C). R. simplex grows well in both wet and dry conditions, although a comparative study evaluating the growth and reproduction activity of plants growing in wet and dry conditions showed that seed-pod production was three times greater in wet compared to dry conditions (Wilson et al., 2004).

Environmental Requirements

R. simplex grows in a wide range of environmental conditions, from wetlands to almost xeric habitats. It tolerates a wide variety of soil types including heavy clay, acidic, sandy, loamy, and occasionally wet soils. It grows well in sun and shade. It is very heat tolerant; moderately salt tolerant and drought tolerant. Under adverse conditions (-9.4°C) this species will freeze but it can re-sprout from the roots (Langeland et al., 2008). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -9.4
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 33

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8002000mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceWeed Yes Yes Hammer, 2002
Garden waste disposalSeeds and rhizomes Yes Yes Hupp et al., 2013
HorticultureGrown as ornamental Yes Yes Hupp et al., 2013
Nursery tradeGrown as ornamental Yes Yes Hupp et al., 2013
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Hupp et al., 2013

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes Yes Hupp et al., 2013

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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R. simplex is a problematic and highly invasive herb that is altering ecosystem processes and successfully outcompeting native species for available resources (Smith et al., 2014). This species grows as a weed and forms dense stands in open areas, along riverbanks, and in the understory of natural forests, displacing and disrupting the establishment of native vegetation. For example, in the USA (Florida and Texas), R. simplex dominates creek banks and forms solid, acre-size patches in cypress and hardwoods adjacent creeks where it creates a dense monoculture excluding all native groundcover (Langeland et al., 2008; Hupp et al., 2013; Smith et al., 2014). It is also invading pine flatwoods, prairies, freshwater marshes, rivers, springs, and pasture (Turner 1991). In Australia, it is regarded as an environmental weed and it was recently ranked among the 200 most invasive plant species because its infestations prevent the natural growth and regeneration of native riparian plants (Weeds of Australia, 2012). In summary, R. simplex is a very invasive species that is spreading very rapidly in areas where it has been introduced. All of the various growth and colour forms (i.e., cultivars) of this species are exceptionally weedy (Hammer, 2002).

Impact on Biodiversity

In Australia, R. simplex prevents the natural growth and regeneration of native riparian species such as Backhousia myrtifolia, Glochidion ferdinandii, Syzygium floribundum, Carex spp. and Callistemon spp. (Weeds of Australia, 2012). In Florida, R. simplex out-competes the native species Ruellia caroliniensis (Hupp et al., 2013).

 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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R. simplex has been widely commercialized as an ornamental. It is also grown as a potted-plant. Many cultivars of this species have been selected commercially and are now available in the nursery and landscape industry. Despite being highly weedy, R. simplex is very popular among consumers, landscapers and growers (Hammer, 2002). 

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Prevention and Control

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Eradication of R. simplex may prove to be extremely difficult. Hand pulling of this species can be difficult due to underground rhizomes, and all vegetative material must be removed to prevent vegetative re-growth. R. simplex is believed to have a persistent seed bank in the soil. This allows seedlings to germinate for years after adult plants have been fully removed (Hupp et al., 2013).

Chemical Control

Hupp et al. (2013) list several herbicides which have been tested for control of R. simplex in Florida. It is suggested that herbicides should be applied to the entire plant, covering as much of the upper and lower surfaces of leaves and stems as possible. Plants are killed back to the ground within around two months, but because of regrowth a second application is likely to be necessary. Hupp et al. suggest that due to the need for repeat applications, long-term management of large escaped populations will be costly.

Ecosystem Restoration

For an effective revegetation strategy following control of R. simplex, a recent study suggests that native species should be sown at higher densities to compensate for the slower germination relative to R. simplex (Smith et al., 2014 and references therein).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Balick MJ; Nee M; Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

Bedi YS; Bir SS; Gill BS, 1981. Chromosome number reports LXXI. Taxon, 30:153.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Daniel TF, 1995. Acanthaceae. 4. Flora Chiapas [ed. by Breedlove, D. E.]. San Francisco, USA: California Academy of Sciences, 1-158.

Daniel TF, 1999. Taxonomic notes on Mexican Ruellia (Acanthaceae). Brittonia, 51(2):124-127.

Ezcurra C; Daniel TF, 2007. Ruellia simplex, an older and overlooked name for Ruellia tweediana and Ruellia coerulea (Acanthaceae). Darwiniana, 45:201-203.

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013. List of Invasive Plant Species., USA: Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. http://www.fleppc.org/list/list.htm

Freyre R; Wilson SB, 2014. Ruellia simplex R10-105-Q54 ('Mayan Pink'). HortScience, 49(4):499-502. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hammer RL, 2002. Mexican Bluebell (Ruellia tweediana Griseb.) A Pretty Invasive Weed. Wildland Weeds, 2002(Spring):6-8.

Hupp KVS; Fox AM; Wilson SB; Barnett EL; Stocker RK, 2013. Natural areas weeds: Mexican petunia (Ruellia tweediana). Document ENH1155. Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

Langeland KA; Cherry HM; McCormick CM; Craddock Burks KA, 2008. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida IFAS Extension.

Liogier AH, 1997. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico.

Long RW, 1974. Variation in natural populations of Ruellia caroliniensis (Acanthaceae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 101:1-6.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

McDade LA; Kiel C; Tripp E, 2009. Acanthaceae. The Tree of Life Web Project. http://tolweb.org/Acanthaceae/20878

Meyer JY; Lavergne C, 2004. Beautés fatales: Acanthaceae species as invasive alien plants on tropical Indo-Pacific islands. Diversity and Distributions, 10(5/6):333-347.

Mito T; Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8(2):171-191.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Profice SR; Kameyama C; Côrtes ALA; Braz DM; Indriunas A; Vilar T; Pessoa C; Ezcurra C; Wasshausen D, 2014. Acanthaceae. (Acanthaceae.) Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB21673

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Scotland RW; Vollesen K, 2000. Classification of Acanthaceae. Kew Bulletin, 55:513-589.

Smith AM; Adams CR; Wilson SB, 2014. Mexican petunia (Ruellia simplex) invasions: management challenges and research opportunities. Wildland Weeds, 2014(Spring):20-25.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Turner BL, 1991. Texas species of Ruellia (Acanthaceae). Phytologia, 71(4):281-299.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wagner WI; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

Weeds of Australia, 2012. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=

Whistler WA; Steele O, 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Botanical survey of the Kwajalein Atoll Islands. 111 pp.

Wilson SB; Wilson PC; Albano JA, 2004. Growth and development of the native Ruellia caroliniensis and invasive Ruellia tweediana. HortScience, 39(5):1015-1019.

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Zuloaga FO; Morrone O; Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) ([English title not available])., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 3348 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Acanthaceae Online Resourceshttp://www.rsabg.org/acanthaceae/
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plantshttp://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Councilhttp://www.fleppc.org
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Tree of Life Web Project: Acanthaceaehttp://tolweb.org/Acanthaceae/20878

Contributors

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24/2/2014 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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