Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Paspalum vaginatum
(seashore paspalum)

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Datasheet

Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paspalum vaginatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • seashore paspalum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Paspalum vaginatum, commonly known as seashore paspalum and by many other names, is a species of perennial grass which can be found in wet, saline habitats. Reported to have originated from the Americas, it can...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit, on rocks. Hilo Bay, Liliuokalani Park, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit, on rocks. Hilo Bay, Liliuokalani Park, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit, on rocks. Hilo Bay, Liliuokalani Park, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
HabitPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit, on rocks. Hilo Bay, Liliuokalani Park, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
HabitPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Popoia, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Popoia, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Popoia, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
HabitPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Popoia, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.
HabitPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.
HabitPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kapapa, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. April 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kapapa, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. April 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kapapa, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. April 2005.
HabitPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); habit. Kapapa, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. April 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); leaves. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
TitleLeaves
CaptionPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); leaves. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); leaves. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
LeavesPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); leaves. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); close view of leaf sheaths and leaf bases. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
TitleLeaves
CaptionPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); close view of leaf sheaths and leaf bases. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); close view of leaf sheaths and leaf bases. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
LeavesPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); close view of leaf sheaths and leaf bases. Kealia Pond, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); seedheads. Hilo Bay, Liliuokalani Park, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
TitleSeedheads
CaptionPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); seedheads. Hilo Bay, Liliuokalani Park, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); seedheads. Hilo Bay, Liliuokalani Park, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
SeedheadsPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum); seedheads. Hilo Bay, Liliuokalani Park, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paspalum vaginatum Sw.

Preferred Common Name

  • seashore paspalum

Other Scientific Names

  • Digitaria foliosa Lag.
  • Digitaria paspalodes var. longipes (Lange) Willk. & Lange
  • Digitaria tristachya (Lacomte) Schult.
  • Digitaria vaginata (Sw. Philippe)
  • Digitaria vaginata (Sw.) Magner
  • Paspalum boryanum J.Presl
  • Paspalum distichum subsp. vaginatum (Sw.) Maire
  • Paspalum distichum var. littorale (R. Br. ) F. M. Bailey
  • Paspalum distichum var. nanum (Döll) Stapf
  • Paspalum distichum var. tristachyum (Schult.) Alph. Wood
  • Paspalum distichum var.anpinense Hayata
  • Paspalum foliosum (Laq.) Kunth
  • Paspalum furcatum var. fissum Döll
  • Paspalum gayanum E. Desv.
  • Paspalum inflatum A.Rich.
  • Paspalum jaguaense León
  • Paspalum kleinianum J. Presl.
  • Paspalum littorale R. Br.
  • Paspalum squamatum Steud.
  • Sanguinaria vaginata (Sw.) Bubari

Local Common Names

  • : biscuit grass; knot grass; knottweed; salt grass; saltwater couch; saltwater paspalum; seashore grass; silt grass; swamp couch
  • : grama de costa; grama de mar; gramilla; gramilla blanca; gramón
  • : herbe rampante
  • China: hai que bai
  • Cook Islands: mauku t a‘atai; mauku ta‘atai; mauku vairakau
  • Fiji: kambutu
  • French Polynesia: motie; mutie
  • French Polynesia/Marquesas: matie; mutie
  • Kiribati: te utiuti
  • Marshall Islands: katejukjuk; wûjooj
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: dimur; dumwur; timoor
  • Niue: mosie kalalahi
  • Samoa: mutia
  • Tonga: mohuku ano

Summary of Invasiveness

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Paspalum vaginatum, commonly known as seashore paspalum and by many other names, is a species of perennial grass which can be found in wet, saline habitats. Reported to have originated from the Americas, it can be a serious weed of rice in West Africa. In coastal habitats, it can spread at 1-2 m per year and become dominant over native vegetation. In New Zealand, it is of concern having invaded the nesting areas of the endangered New Zealand fairy tern (Sterna nereis), threatening a range of uncommon or endangered plant species, and possibly affecting fish breeding. PIER (2016) assesses it as a 'High Risk' species (score 7) for the Pacific islands and confirms it as invasive in Hawaii (on golf courses) and the Marshall Islands, also on Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean. In Spain it is classed as a species with ‘clear invasive behaviour; dangerous (causing ecological damage or alteration) for natural ecosystems’ (Dana et al., 2007). Similarly it is regarded as a threat to native vegetation in California, USA (Riefner and Columbus, 2008).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Paspalum
  •                                 Species: Paspalum vaginatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Paspalum vaginatum Sw. was originally named by O.G Swartz in 1788. It has been known by many other synonyms (as listed in the Identity section), especially as varieties or subspecies of the closely related Paspalum distichum L. For some time between 1976 and 1983 it was even known as P. distichum and later as P. paspaloides (Michx.) Scribn., but there is now widespread agreement that this was incorrect. A number of varieties and subspecies have been described and are listed in The Plant List (2013). Also, numerous commercial varieties have been developed, mainly for turf, including ‘Aloha’, ‘Salam’, ‘Seadwarf’, ‘Sea Isle 1’, ‘Sea Isle 2000’, ‘Seaspray’ ‘Neptune’, ‘Sea Isle Supreme’, ‘Seaway’ and ‘Seagreen’ (Brosnan and Deputy, 2009).

Description

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Perennial with short rhizomes (a few cm only) and long above-ground runners (up to 2 m long), rooting at each node. Culms solitary or tufted, many-noded, 10-50 cm tall. Leaf sheaths imbricate, often keeled, margins membranous; leaf blades distichous, linear, rather stiffly ascending, 2.5-15 × 0.3-0.8 cm, apex acute; ligule 0.5-1 mm. Inflorescence of (1-)2(-3) racemes arising together at culm apex; racemes 2-5 cm, usually closely approximate when young, later spreading; spikelets single, in 2 rows; rachis 1-2 mm wide. Spikelets pale brownish green, narrowly lanceolate-oblong, strongly flattened, 3.5-4 mm, acute; lower glume absent or rarely a tiny vestige; upper glume thinly papery, weakly 5-veined, midvein often suppressed, glabrous; lower lemma resembling upper glume; upper lemma pale green, 2.5-3 mm, shorter than spikelet, cartilaginous, apex minutely pubescent. Caryopsis narrowly obovate, slightly concavo-convex, 2.5-3 mm long, subacute (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; PIER, 2016).

Rhizomes are often mentioned in descriptions of P. vaginatum but their depth and abundance are not stated. They are generally neither long nor deep, and certainly most of the spreading and recovery properties of the weed are attributable to the above ground stolons/runners.

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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P. vaginatum is generally believed to have originated in the Americas, though Chen et al. (2005) studied the range of genetic diversity and concluded that its origin could be in Africa. ISSG (2016) indicated it is native only in USA and Ecuador and introduced everywhere else, but Lansdown et al. (2013) and most other sources now consider it to be native not only throughout the Americas and Africa but also in much of Asia (including Australia), and introduced to Europe, northern Africa, the Azores, New Zealand, Hawaii and Fiji. In the Pacific, PIER (2016) indicated it is native across many islands but definitely introduced to others, including Hawaii. It is widely grown as a turf grass and almost certainly occurs in many areas where it has not necessarily naturalized, such as some provinces of China.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
AngolaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
BeninPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Cabo VerdePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
CameroonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Equatorial GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EthiopiaPresentNativeFröman and Persson (1974)
GabonPresentNativeMichez et al. (2013)
GambiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
GhanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
GuineaPresentNativeJacques-felix and Chezeau (1960)Also on Kabak Island
KenyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
MadagascarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
MauritiusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
MoroccoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
MozambiquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
NigeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
RéunionPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
SenegalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
SeychellesPresentNativeRobertson (1989)
Sierra LeonePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
SomaliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
South AfricaPresentNativeLansdown et al. (2013)
TanzaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Zanzibar IslandPresentNativeClayton and Renvoize (1982)
TunisiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
UgandaPresentNativeHarker and Napper (1960)

Asia

BahrainPresentNativeChaudhary et al. (1981)
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)Diego Garcia
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)
-HainanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-YunnanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Cocos IslandsPresentNativePIER (2016)
Hong KongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
IndiaPresent, LocalizedNativeBor (1960); IRRI (1989)Low sandy coasts of southern India
-OdishaPresentNativeSubudhi and Choudhury (1999)
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
JapanPresent, LocalizedNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
LaosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
MaldivesPresentNativePIER (2016)Male Atoll
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
OmanPresentNativeLonard et al. (2015)
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeChaudhary and Akram (1987)Serious infestations in the northeastern Arabian Peninsula
SingaporePresentNativePIER (2016)
South KoreaPresentNativeKim KyungMoon et al. (2009)
Sri LankaPresentNativeIRRI (1989)
TaiwanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
YemenPresentNativeLansdown et al. (2013)Including Socotra

Europe

FrancePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
ItalyPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)Including Sicily and Sardinia
PortugalPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
-AzoresPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
SpainPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedSiverio et al. (2011); Lonard et al. (2015)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
BahamasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
BarbadosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Cayman IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
CubaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
El SalvadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
GuadeloupePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
HaitiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
HondurasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
MartiniquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Baja Sur
NicaraguaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Puerto RicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveRiefner and Columbus (2008); USDA-NRCS (2016)
-FloridaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-GeorgiaPresent, LocalizedNativeUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveHerbarium Pacificum Staff (1999); Wagner et al. (1999); Oppenheimer (2003); USDA-ARS (2016)Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, Oahu
-LouisianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-MississippiPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-New MexicoPresentNativeLansdown et al. (2013)
-North CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-South CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-TexasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2016)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentPIER (2016)Ta’u, Tatuila
AustraliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Lord Howe IslandPresentOrchard (1994)Possibly native. Has not been recorded for about a century
-New South WalesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Northern TerritoryPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-QueenslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-South AustraliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-VictoriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedFloraBase (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
Cook IslandsPresentNativeMcCormack (2013)Nassau, Aitutaki, Mangaia, Raratonga islands
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentNativeLorence and Flynn (2010); Herrera et al. (2011)Kosrae, Pohnpei
FijiPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
French PolynesiaPresentNativePIER (2016); Florence et al. (2013)Agakauitai, Aukena, Makaroa, Mangareva, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oas, Nuku Hivca, Ua Huka, Ua Pou, Bora Bora, Huahine, Maupiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tupai, Makatea, Niau, Rangiroa, Takapoto, Tepoto, Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai islands
GuamPresentISSG (2015)
KiribatiPresentPIER (2016)Butaritari, Tarawa islands
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)Kili, Kwajalein, Arno, Majuro, Mili, Wotje
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveEdgar and Connor (2000)Occasionally spreads into pasture
NiuePresentNativeSykes (1970)
PalauPresentLorence and Flynn (2010a)
Papua New GuineaPresentHenty (1969)
SamoaPresentNativeWaterhouse (1997)
TongaPresentNativePIER (2016)
TuvaluPresentIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick (1997); Waterhouse (1997)
VanuatuPresentNativeWaterhouse (1997)

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
BrazilPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-AlagoasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-BahiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-CearaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-MaranhaoPresentNativeCosta and Mesquita (2016)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-ParaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-ParaibaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-ParanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-PernambucoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-SergipePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
ChilePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
ColombiaPresentNativeLansdown et al. (2013)
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentNativePIER (2016)Isabela, San Cristobal islands
French GuianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
GuyanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
ParaguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
UruguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Although there is some uncertainty about the exact native range of P. vaginatum, it is now widespread and regarded as native across the Americas and much of Asia and Africa. In Benin, it has replaced mangroves which were dominant in coastal swamps up to 3000 years ago, but it is not clear how early it established there (Tossou et al., 2008). It has, however, almost certainly been introduced relatively recently into several less tropical countries of northern Africa, also into southern Europe and the Azores, and to Hawaii, Fiji and New Zealand. In USA, Riefner and Columbus (2008) refer to it as probably being deliberately introduced to California in the 1970s. FloraBase (2016) also treats it as introduced to Western Australia. But in none of these cases is there reliable information on the date of introduction.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Balearic Islands 1952 GBIF (2016) Majorca. Earliest herbarium specimen
California 1970s Yes Riefner and Columbus (2008) Possibly introduced from Southern USA
Cape Verde 1987 Basto (1987) First reported
Fiji 1921 GBIF (2016) Earliest herbarium specimen
New Zealand 1877 Graeme and Kendal (2001) Earliest herbarium specimen
Spain 1953 GBIF (2016) Earliest herbarium specimen

Risk of Introduction

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P. vaginatum is not likely to be introduced accidentally but there is some risk of intentional introduction as a turf grass, as forage or for soil binding and soil remediation in coastal areas.

Habitat

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P. vaginatum is almost invariably associated with wet, saline conditions whether coastal or inland. It is found in coastal salt marshes of the tropics and sub-tropics. On various islands in the Pacific region, P. vaginatum is found in coastal sunny areas, near beaches and sometimes on the beach, in brackish marshy areas and mangrove swamps (PIER, 2016). It is best suited to compacted inorganic marsh soils of moderate salinity and is tolerant of drought, salt, a wide range of soil pH, extended periods of low light intensity, and flooding or extended wet periods (ISSG, 2016). In New Zealand, P. vaginatum grows on the open coast, but is most widespread in sheltered estuaries, lagoons and creeks that are influenced by tidal fluxes. It is found in coastal, often brackish areas. It often forms swards near the edge of mud flats, or on sandy and shingly shores, occasionally spreading into pasture nearby. It grows on estuarine mudflats, fine gravel, silty sand, sand; and in dryer situations above the high tide mark along exposed rocky coastlines, in crevices or beside brackish pools. It is not known inland (Graeme and Kendall, 2001).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Inland saline areas Secondary/tolerated habitat
Estuaries Secondary/tolerated habitat
Lagoons Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Present, no further details
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat
Wetlands Principal habitat
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat
Coastal dunes Secondary/tolerated habitat
Mangroves Present, no further details
Mud flats Principal habitat
Intertidal zone Present, no further details
Salt marshes Principal habitat
Freshwater
  Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
  Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Rivers / streams Present, no further details
Marine
Inshore marine Present, no further details

Hosts/Species Affected

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In many regions, P. vaginatum is a serious weed of rice, especially in saline and brackish soils (Bernard, 1988; Terry, 1981).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
turfgrassesOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

According to IPCN (2016), the chromosome number of P. vaginatum is 2n=20, but Lonard et al. (2015) report that tetraploidy (2n=40), hexaploidy (2n=60) and aneuploidy (2n=18) may also occur.

A range of 69 accessions of P. vaginatum showed three main genetic clusters. Those from Hawaii showed the least variability and those from Africa the highest, with those from North America intermediate (Chen et al., 2005).

A comprehensive transcriptone analysis has been reported by Jia et al. (2014). A total of 81,220 unigenes containing 8,7542,503 bp sequence information were formed by initial sequence splicing, with an average read length of 1,077 bp.

Reproductive Biology

Seed viability is apparently low and few were found in a seed bank in a densely-infested site in Lousiana, USA (Lonard et al., 2015). This may be partly attributed to the self-incompatibility reported by Carpenter (1958), who found that only one of four Australian and South African populations studied was self-fertile. Lonard et al. (2015) reported that a germination rate of less than 5% at room temperature was improved by a constant 35°C temperature or by an alternating temperature regime of 25°C to 35°C. Shin et al. (2006) and Shim et al. (2008) also found alternating 25/35°C to be optimal, together with KNO3, but also found benefit from light. Serena et al. (2012) report that germination is unaffected by salinity levels up to 12.5 dS.m-1.

Physiology and Phenology

P. vaginatum has C4 photosynthesis.

Shonubi (2010) describes how P. vaginatum is able to accumulate salt in older leaves and store water to keep salinity to tolerable levels in the younger ones – not demonstrated in the related Paspalum scrobiculatum. Liu et al. (2012) conclude that the high salinity tolerance in P. vaginatum could be associated with a high abundance of proteins involved in ROS detoxification and energy metabolism.

Sexual reproductive phases occur during the summer, autumn and early winter throughout southwest USA.

P. vaginatum Flowers and fruits from June to September (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

Longevity

No specific information has been seen but established swards are likely to persist for many years. No information on seed longevity has been found.

Nutrition

In studies in Egypt, P. vaginatum was highly responsive to nitrogen as nitrate (but not as ammonium), showing increased growth up to the maximum 17.5 g/m2 (El-Maadawy et al., 2006). For turf, the optimal dose of nitrogen is about 150 kg/ha per annum (Gates, 2003; Shadow, 2016). However, P. vaginatum is also tolerant of infertile conditions.

Associations

Lonard et al. (2015) provide extensive lists of species associated with P. vaginatum in a range of territories in North and South America and in West Africa. They also note that there is commonly an association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Garcia and Mendoza (2008) further confirmed that greatest arbuscular colonization was associated with the highest nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in plant tissue, suggesting a correspondence with increases in the rate of nutrient transfer between the symbiotic partners.

Graeme and Kendall (2001) also describe a wide range of plant associations in New Zealand including mangrove, saltmarsh and backswamp communities involving Juncus krausii subsp.australiensis, Leptocarpus similis (Apodasmia similis), Sarcocornia quinqueflora, Suaeda novae-zealandiae, Samolus repens, Selliera radicans, Leptinella spp., Triglochin striata, Isolepis cernua, Schoenus nitens, Plagianthus divaricatus, Baumea juncea (Machaerina juncea), Coprosma propinqua, Olearia solandri, Leptospermum scoparium, Phormium tenax and Cortaderia toetoe. Also spinifex-shorebindweed sandfield with associated Pimelea arenaria (Pimelea villosa subsp. arenaria) and Desmoschoenus spiralis (Ficinia spiralis); and Juncus maritimus-Leptocarpus similis Rushland with Mimulus repens.

Environmental Requirements

P. vaginatum tolerates a wide range of environmental soil and climatic conditions, especially being highly tolerant of salinity, up to 600 mM NaCl, (35 ppt salinity) the natural level in undiluted sea water and even hyper-saline conditions (up to 50 ppt) although growth may be inhibited at these levels. Its growth is best at low salinity levels (Lonard, 2016). In Australia Barrett-Lennard et al, (2013) found the optimum salinity level for P. vaginatum to be 6-16 dS/m (seawater has 50 dS/M). Gaetani et al. (2013) also found it to grow best at about 2/3rd the full salinity of sea water in Italy. It enjoys water-logged conditions and survives a water table at or above soil level for at least 10 months of the year. It also tolerates seasonal flooding to a depth of 50 cm or more for at least 45 days (Lonard et al., 2015). Some turf-grass varieties can tolerate drought, but Barrett-Lennard et al. (2013) found that its growth increased many-fold as the watertable depth rose from 1.3 to 0.9 m below the soil surface. It can also tolerate temporary freezing conditions.

It responds well to nitrogen up to 17.5 g/m2, but is also tolerant of infertile conditions (Brosnan and Deputy, 2008).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
0-44 0-40

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -10
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 0

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral
  • very alkaline

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow
  • sodic

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Belonolaimus longicaudatus Parasite not specific
Bipolaris Pathogen not specific
Curvularia Pathogen not specific
Drechslera Pathogen not specific
Euphoria sepulcralis Predator not specific
Fusarium Pathogen not specific
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis Pathogen not specific
Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus Parasite not specific
Helminthosporium Pathogen not specific
Hoplolaimus galeatus Parasite not specific
Laetisaria fuciformis Pathogen not specific
Marasmiellus mesosporus Pathogen not specific
Meloidogyne marylandi Parasite not specific
Microdochium paspali Pathogen not specific
Popillia japonica Predator not specific
Rice yellow mottle virus Pathogen not specific
Schizaphis graminum Predator not specific
Sclerotinia homoeocarpa Pathogen not specific
Sphenophorus arizonensis Predator not specific
Sphenophorus venatus Predator not specific
Spodoptera frugiperda Predator not specific
Sporisorium paspali-notati Pathogen not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Gaeumannomyces graminis, an ectotrophic pathogen on roots and stolons, is found in turfgrass plots in Florida and in China. This species also commonly infects wheat, rice, and other cereals. Dollar spot, Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, is the most economically important turfgrass disease in North America, while Helminosporium spp., Bipolaris spp., Drechslera spp, and Fusarium sp. have also been reported as pathogens. Basidiomycetes Rhizoctonia solani, and Waitea circinata, have been identified as pathogens of P. vaginatum in South Africa (Lonard et al., 2015). In Sri Lanka, a turf yellowing disease is caused by a Curvularia sp. (Malkanthi et al., 2014). In China, red thread caused by Laetisaria fuciformis is reported by Zhang Wu et al. (2015b); a leaf blight caused by new species, Microdochium paspali (Zhang et al., 2015a); and W. circinata by Zhang et al. (2014). Marasmiellus mesosporus has been recorded from the Dominican Republic (Miller et al., 2010).

Rice yellow mottle Sobemovirus has been identified from P. vaginatum in Nigeria (Salaudeen et al., 2008).

As many as 10 genera of parasitic nematodes have been identified associated with cultivars of P. vaginatum, the most damaging being Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Hoplolaimus galeatus. These, and Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus cause stunted root growth, decreased water and nutrient absorption, and necrotic lesions on aerial shoots. B. longicaudatus and H. galeatus populations were absent when seawater was used for irrigation (Lonard et al., 2015). Helicotylenchus, Mesocriconema and Pratylenchus species are recorded in turf grasses in Barbados (McGroary et al., 2014) and Meloidogyne marylandi in Israel (Oka et al., 2004)

Lonard et al. (2015) note that P. vaginatum is relatively resistant to many insect but report damage from the aphid Schizaphis graminum in Florida, USA, through feeding and through transmission of plant viruses. It is also relatively susceptible to army worms Spodoptera frugiperda, and to the beetle Euphoria sepulcralis. The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica is also recorded from Florida (Braman and Raymer, 2006). The beetles Sphenophorus arizonensis and S. venatus are reported from Mexico (León-García et al., 2012; Ordaz-González et al., 2014).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

This may occur along coastlines by the break-up and transfer of stolon fragments. On a local basis it may spread up to 2 m per year from established patches. Seeds could also be spread by water movement.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

No certain vectors have been identified but seeds and vegetative parts may be spread by animals that feed on it, including turtles, manatees, etc. Seeds may also be spread by wading birds but no instances have been documented.

Accidental Introduction

Accidental introduction may occur on a local basis through movement of turf and garden waste. Long-distance accidental introduction is very unlikely.

Intentional Introduction

Intentional introduction for turf, forage or other purposes has been the major cause of spread in the past and is likely to continue.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionVia cultivation equipment Yes
Disturbance Yes
Forage Yes Yes
Garden waste disposal Yes
Habitat restoration and improvement Yes Yes
Landscape improvement Yes Yes
Seed trade Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Floating vegetation and debris Yes Yes
Land vehicles Yes
Machinery and equipment Yes
Water Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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P. vaginatum has most economic impact as a weed of rice in brackish situations. Terry (1981) refers to it as the most serious weed of mangrove rice in Gambia. It has similarly been a major weed of coastal rice in Sierra Leone (Bernard, 1988). In the Philippines, Ar et al. (1982) recorded 15% yield reduction in transplanted rice when P. vaginatum was introduced 3 weeks after transplanting.

It must also have an economic impact where it invades golf courses, though it is not clear what control methods are used and at what cost.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Williams et al. (2000) list potential effects of P. vaginatum in New Zealand to include modified hydrological and nutrient regimes, and changes in erosion and deposition. ISSG (2016) refers to modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture and general habitat degradation. Graeme and Kendal (2001) comment that P. vaginatum ‘may cause sediment build-up and change open sandy/mud flats into vegetated areas’. Invasion of P. vaginatum is associated with an increase in sediment accumulation and changing hydrology in New Zealand estuaries (Shaw and Allen, 2003; ISSG, 2016).

Impact on Biodiversity

P. vaginatum can form dense monospecific groundcover in brackish marshes and estuaries, and affect the abundance of native species. This can lead to changes in invertebrate communities - in the Galapagos it is associated with a move from aquatic to more terrestrial communities (Siemens, 2006), and this in turn can impact on foraging habitat and food resources for waterbirds. In South Africa, concern has been expressed about the invasion of P. vaginatum on the sand and mud-flats of the Wilderness Lakes wetland (a designated Ramsar site), which are considered to be rendered unsuitable for wading birds due to this and other grasses (Graeme and Kendal, 2001). In New Zealand, it is of concern having invaded the nesting areas of the endangered New Zealand fairy tern (Sternula nereis) (Brooks et al., 2011). Williams et al. (2000) list other potential effects of P. vaginatum in New Zealand to include changes in vegetation structure and composition, suppression of native species regeneration, facilitation of other weed invasion, changes in plant and animal biodiversity, and altered animal/bird behaviour. Plant species uncommon or endangered in New Zealand, considered to be at risk of replacement by P. vaginatum, include Eleocharis neozelandica, Mimulus repens and Suadea novae-zelandiae (Graeme and Kendal, 2001). They also comment that P. vaginatum is of particular concern for its competitiveness with native low-growing sea meadow species including Samolus repens, Selliera radicans, and Sarcocornia quinqueflora. These species often inhabit only a thin band of the saltmarsh on estuary margins, and are therefore at risk of being completely out-competed by P. vaginatum. Fish breeding may also be detrimentally affected.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Sternula nereis davisaeUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesNew ZealandCompetitionBrooks et al., 2011 Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration

Social Impact

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P. vaginatum-dominated swamps are described by Gelfand (1955) as a dangerous source of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae in Mauritius.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

P. vaginatum has a wide range of uses, including as a forage, for landscaping and turf, especially for golf courses, and for erosion control (Lansdown et al., 2013). Much of the literature relates to its use as a turf, in USA, Hawaii and elsewhere, including Malaysia. Brosnan and Deputy (2008) provide a useful guide to its propagation and care in Hawaii. As a turf grass it has the great merit of being tolerant of irrigation with sea water. As a forage for livestock, P. vaginatum can provide dry matter at a rate of 4-10 tonnes per hectare per year It has also been widely tested and used for phytoremediation of soils to reduce salinity, sodicity and oil pollution (Lonard et al., 2015).

Social Benefit

P. vaginatum provides aesthetic satisfaction as an attractive turf grass in domestic gardens. It is not known to have any significant therapeutic uses.

Environmental Services

P. vaginatum provides food for green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii (McDermid et al., 2015) and for hippopotamus in Gabon (Michez et al., 2013). Also for wild geese, ducks, other water birds, manatees, nutria, rabbits etc. (Lonard et al., 2015). In Nigeria, it provides shelter for the breeding of the Palaemonid prawns Macrobrachium macrobrachion, Nematopalaemon hastatus and Palaemon maculatus (Eniade and Bello-Olusoji, 2011). In Brazil, it is used to stabilise sand dunes (Rocha et al., 2002). In New Zealand P. vaginatum is believed to be beneficial for the breeding of inanga fish (Galaxias maculatus).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation
  • Landscape improvement
  • Revegetation
  • Soil conservation

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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P. vaginatum may be confused with the closely related P. distichum but the latter has more turgid spikelets, a prominent middle nerve on the lower lemma, absent in P. vaginatum, the upper glume being minutely hairy and the presence of a distinct if variable lower glume. They also differ in habitat, P. distichum rarely occurring in saline conditions. The latter is also more temperate in its distribution. The loose papery leaf sheaths of P. vaginatum may also be a helpful distinguishing feature (Graeme and Kendal, 2001).

Many other species of Paspalum can also occur as weeds. One of the most widespread of these is a complex of closely-related taxa which include P. commersonii and P. orbiculare but which are usually known as P. scrobiculatum (qv). This is widespread in Asia and Africa. It is not likely to be confused with P. distichum as it has a tufted habit whether spreading or erect; annual or perennial, but without runners or rhizomes. The inflorescence also differs in having spikelets almost round in outline.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control

Physical/mechanical control

Mechanical control alone is not really an option as it can so readily regenerate from rhizome and stolon fragments. However, cultivation, mowing and fire have all been used in conjunction with herbicide to achieve integrated control (see IPM section).

Biological control

There have been no attempts at biological control.

Chemical control

P. vaginatum is not readily controlled by herbicides. Dalapon can be relatively ineffective while glyphosate followed by burning or slashing before ploughing and puddling gave effective control before planting rice in Sierra Leone (Bernard, 1988). These treatments gave better weed control between April and June than in March. Parker (1982) reported that fluazifop-butyl and sethoxydim were superior to glyphosate in pot experiments. Brosnan and Breeden (2009), in experiments to destroy a turf-grass variety, had disappointing results from glyphosate and fluazifop-butyl but succeeded with dazomet granules. A combination of MSMA plus triclopyr plus clopyralid ‘suppressed’ P. vaginatum turf grasses but did not kill them (Johnson and Duncan, 2001). Asulam was effective against P. vaginatum but was not selective in Cynodon dactylon turf (Davis et al., 1997). Atrazine, bispyribac-sodium, and trifloxysulfuron proved too damaging for selective control of Poa annua in P. vaginatum turf but probably not damaging enough for full control (McCullough et al., 2012). Seedlings being established for turf were damaged by MSMA, imazaquin, fluazifop, triclopyr, siduron, and ethofumesate (Patton et al., 2009) but again, these may not be fully effective for control.

For control of other weeds in P. vaginatum turf, clopyralid, halosulfuron, metsulfuron, quinclorac, carfentrazone were found safe on seedlings (Patton et al., 2009). Bentazone, clopyralid, dicamba, halosulfuron, imazaquin, mecoprop+2,4-D+dicamba, metsulfuron, and quinclorac were also reported selective by Unruh et al. (2006). In Hawaii, three-way mixtures of 2,4-D, MCPP, and dicamba are labeled for use on P. vaginatum turf and provide postemergence control of many broadleaf weeds while halosulfuron and sulfosulfuron are registered for control of sedges. Sea water can also be used to control e.g. Digitaria sanguinalis and Mimosa strigillosa (Wiecko, 2003).

A turf-grass type of P. vaginatum has been developed with resistance to the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (Kim et al., 2009).

IPM

Slashing or burning P. vaginatum followed by paraquat or glyphosate has given good control. Ploughing and puddling the first year followed by glyphosate and puddling the second year also gave effective P. vaginatum control in Sierra Leone (Bernard, 1988).

References

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Ar WS; Sudiman A; Noor S, 1982. Studies of yield loss due to weeds in different upland crops and rice. In: Report of a workshop on cropping systems research in Asia [Rockwood, W.G.; Argosino, G. (Editors)]. Los Banos, Philippines: IRRI, 533-537.

Barrett-Lennard EG; Bennett SJ; Altman M, 2013. Survival and growth of perennial halophytes on saltland in a Mediterranean environment is affected by depth to watertable in summer as well as subsoil salinity. Crop & Pasture Science, 64(2):123-136. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/40.htm

Basto MFP, 1987. Notes on the flora of the Cape Verde islands. (Anotações á flora de Cabo Verde.) Boletim da Sociedade Borteriana, 60:179-186.

Bernard HM, 1988. The biology and control of Paspalum vaginatum (SW), a weed destructive to mangrove swamp rice in Sierra Leone. Weedwatcher, No. 4-5:9.

Bor NL, 1960. The Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (Excluding Bambusae). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.

Braman SK; Raymer PL, 2006. Impact of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) feeding on seashore paspalum. Journal of Economic Entomology, 99(5):1699-1704. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1603/0022-0493-99.5.1699

Brooks J; Davis A; Baird K; Bellingham M, 2011. Issues and options for the conservation and recovery of the critically endangered New Zealand fairy tern., New Zealand: Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society of New Zealand, 53 pp. http://www.forestandbird.org.nz/files/file/CONSERVATION%20OF%20NEW%20ZEALAND%20FAIRY%20TERN_PartOne.pdf

Brosnan JT; Breeden GK, 2009. Surface applications of dazomet provide nonselective control of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) turf. Weed Technology, 23(2):270-273. http://wssa.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1614%2FWT-08-147.1

Brosnan JT; Deputy J, 2008. Seashore Paspalum. Turf Management leaflet TM-1. Hawaii, USA: Cooperative Extension Service, University of Hawaii, 8 pp. http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/TM-1.pdf

Carpenter JA, 1958. Production and use of seed in seashore Paspalum. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 24:252-56.

Chaudhary SA; Akram M, 1987. Weeds of Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia: National Herbarium, Regional Agriculture and Water Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Water.

Chaudhary SA; Parker C; Kasasian L, 1981. Weeds of central, southern and eastern Arabian peninsula. Tropical Pest Management, 27(2):181-190.

Chen ZB; Kim W; Newman M; Wang ML; Raymer P, 2005. Molecular characterization of genetic diversity in the USDA seashore paspalum germplasm collection. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal [10th International Turfgrass Research Conference, Llandudno, UK, 10-15 July, 2005.], 10:543-549.

Chippindall LKA, 1955. Part 1. A Guide to the Identification of Grasses in South Africa. In: The Grasses and Pastures of South Africa [ed. by Meredith]., South Africa: Central News Agency, 1-527.

Chromosome Reports IPCN, 2016. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN

Clayton WD; Renvoize SA, 1982. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Graminea (Part 3). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, 448 pp.

Costa JP; Mesquita MLR, 2016. Floristic and phytosociology of weeds in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil. Revista Ciência Agronômica, 47(2):414-420. http://www.ccarevista.ufc.br/seer/index.php/ccarevista/article/view/3803/1359

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Davis SD; Duncan RR; Johnson BJ, 1997. Suppression of seashore paspalum in bermudagrass with herbicides. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 15(4):187-190.

Edgar E; Connor HE, 2000. Flora of New Zealand - Vol. V: Gramineae. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press, lxxxii + 650 pp.

El-Maadawy EI; Mansour HA; Zaki MH, 2006. Studies on the fertilization and irrigation of turfgrasses: I - Effect of NPK and Fe fertilization on the vegetative growth and chemical composition of Paspalum vaginatum turfgrass. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 44(2):663-684.

Eniade AA; Bello-Olusoji AO, 2011. The abiotic ecology of breeding ground of palaemonid prawns in the Ilaje Estuary, Ondo State, Nigeria. Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 5(1):31-37. http://www.wiloludjournal.com/pdf/fishaq/2011/31-37.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

FloraBase, 2016. The Western Australian Flora. Western Australia, Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation. http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/

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Gaetani M; Lulli F; Andreucci A; Masini A; Vittori G; Volterrani M, 2013. Sejani Sprouting and plant regeneration capability in saline conditions of seashore paspalum, manilagrass, and hybrid bermudagrass stolons. Propagation of Ornamental Plants, 13(2):57-64.

García IV; Mendoza RE, 2008. Relationships among soil properties, plant nutrition and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-plant symbioses in a temperate grassland along hydrologic, saline and sodic gradients. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 63(3):359-371. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/fem

Gates M, 2003. Seashore paspalum. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Plant Guide., USA: USDA. http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_pava.pdf

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Gelfand HM, 1955. Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles melas Theobald in a coastal Area of Liberia, West Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 49(6):508-527 pp.

Graeme M; Kendal H, 2001. Saltwater Paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) - a Weed Review. Environment Waikato Technical Report 2001/18. Waikato, Hamilton East, New Zealand: Environment Waikato Regional Council, 52 pp.

Harker KW; Napper D, 1960. An illustrated guide to the grasses of Uganda. Entebbe: Government Printer, Uganda Protectorate, 63 pp.

Henty EE, 1969. A manual of the grasses of New Guinea. Bot. Bull, No. 1:215 pp.

Herbarium Pacificum Staff, 1999. New Hawaiian plant records for 1998. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1998. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 58 [ed. by Evenhuis, N. L. \Eldredge, L. G.]. 3-11. http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pdf/herbarium1999.pdf

Herrera K; Lorence DH; Flynn T; Balick MJ, 2011. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Lawai, Hawaii: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp.

IRRI, 1989. Weeds Reported in Rice in South and South East Asia. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

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Jacques-Felix H; Chezeau R, 1960. Soils and plant communities of the coastal zone of French Guinea and their relationship with rice cultivation. 1. Kabak Island. (Sols et groupements végétaux de la zone littorale de Guinée dans leurs rapports avec la riziculture. 1. L'lle du Kabak.) Agron. trop., Paris, 15(3):325-41.

Jia XP; Ye XQ; Liang LJ; Deng YM; Sun XB; She JM, 2014. Transcriptome characteristics of Paspalum vaginatum analyzed with Illumina sequencing technology. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 23(6):242-252.

Johnson BJ; Duncan RR, 2001. Effects of herbicide treatments on suppression of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) in bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.). Weed Technology, 15(1):163-169.

Kim KyungMoon; Song InJa; Lee HyoYeon; Raymer P; Kim BeomSeok; Kim Wook, 2009. Development of seashore paspalum turfgrass with herbicide resistance. Korean Journal of Crop Science / Hanguk Jakmul Hakhoe Chi, 54(4):427-432. http://www.cropscience.or.kr

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29/04/2016 Original text by:

Chris Parker, Consultant, UK

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