Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gaillardia pulchella
(Indian blanket)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gaillardia pulchella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian blanket
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • G. pulchella is a plant species widely commercialized as an ornamental and included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Ra...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Gaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli) typical red flowers. Texas, USA. January, 2003.
TitleFlowers
CaptionGaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli) typical red flowers. Texas, USA. January, 2003.
Copyright©DanielCD/wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Gaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli) typical red flowers. Texas, USA. January, 2003.
FlowersGaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli) typical red flowers. Texas, USA. January, 2003.©DanielCD/wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Gaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit, with typical red flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
TitleFlowers
CaptionGaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit, with typical red flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Gaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit, with typical red flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
FlowersGaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit, with typical red flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Gaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit and yellow flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
TitleHabit and flowers
CaptionGaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit and yellow flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Gaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit and yellow flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
Habit and flowersGaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit and yellow flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gaillardia pulchella Foug.

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian blanket

Other Scientific Names

  • Calonnea pulcherrima Buc'hoz
  • Gaillardia bicolor Lam.
  • Gaillardia bicolor var. bicolor
  • Gaillardia drummondii (Hook.) DC.
  • Gaillardia lobata Buckley
  • Gaillardia neomexicana A. Nelson
  • Gaillardia picta D. Don
  • Gaillardia pulchella f. pulchella
  • Gaillardia pulchella var. albiflora Cockerell
  • Gaillardia pulchella var. drummondii (Hook.) B.L.Turner
  • Gaillardia pulchella var. lorenziana Voss
  • Gaillardia pulchella var. pulchella
  • Gaillardia pulchella var. simplex Voss
  • Gaillardia pulchella var. tubulosa Voss
  • Gaillardia scabrosa Buckley
  • Gaillardia villosa Rydb.
  • Galordia alternifolia Raeusch.

International Common Names

  • English: annual gaillardia; firewheel; gaillardia; rose-ring blanket; rose-ring gaillardia
  • French: gaillarde; gaillarde jolie
  • Chinese: tian ren ju

Local Common Names

  • Cook Islands: tiare paratane
  • Czech Republic: kokarda sli
  • Dominican Republic: gallardia
  • Japan: ten nin giku

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

G. pulchella is a plant species widely commercialized as an ornamental and included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). This species is a fast-growing, annual herb with the capacity to escape from cultivation and colonize disturbed areas, waste ground, gardens, abandoned farmland, coastal forests, forest edges, pastures, roadsides, rocky areas, and riverbanks (Webb et al., 1988; Wagner et al., 1999; PIER, 2014). G. pulchella produces large amounts of wind-dispersed seed, which is a feature facilitating the probability of escaping and colonizing new habitats. Currently, it is listed as invasive in the Dominican Republic, Taiwan, Hawaii, New Caledonia, and French Polynesia (see distribution table for details; Kairo et al., 2003; Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014; PIER, 2014). 

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Gaillardia
  •                                 Species: Gaillardia pulchella

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The family Asteraceae is one of the most diverse groups among flowering plants including 1620 genera and about 23,600 species (Stevens, 2012). Species in the Asteraceae are very variable vegetatively, but may be recognized by their “capitulate” and involucrate inflorescences in which numerous small flowers open first on the outside and are infrequently subtended by bracts. The rather small, single-seeded fruits usually have a plumose “pappus” and are frequently dispersed by wind (Stevens, 2012).

The genus Gaillardia includes 15-17 species occurring in North America, Mexico, and South America (mostly Argentina). Some horticultural “Gaillardias” may be derived from hybrids involving species such as G. aristata and G. pulchella. Such horticultural plants sometimes persist after cultivation or occur sporadically in places well beyond the "natural" distribution ranges of the "parent" species; for example scattered and arid localities in Arizona and California (Turner and Whalen, 1975; Barkley et al., 2006). Individuals of G. pulchella from near or on beaches of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, usually with somewhat fleshy leaves and often persisting for more than one year, have been distinguished as G. pulchella var. picta (Barkley et al., 2006). 

Description

Top of page

G. pulchella is an annual, biennial and sometimes perennial herb, 5–35(–60+) cm. Leaves cauline; petiolar bases 0–3+ cm; blades linear, oblong, or spatulate, 1–5(–12) cm × 4–12(–35) mm, (bases of distal ± clasping) margins usually entire, sometimes toothed or lobed, faces closely strigillose or hirtellous to ± villous (hairs jointed). Peduncles 3–10(–20) cm. Phyllaries 18–28, narrowly triangular- to linear-attenuate, 6–14 mm, usually ciliate with jointed hairs. Receptacular setae 1.5–3 mm. Ray florets usually 8–14, rarely 0; corollas usually reddish to purplish proximally, yellow to orange distally, rarely yellow, reddish, or purplish throughout, 13–30 mm. Disc florets 40–100; corollas yellowish to purple or brown, often bicolored, tubes 0.8–1.2 mm, throats campanulate to urceolate, 3–4 mm, lobes deltate to ovate, often attenuate, 1–3 mm, jointed hairs 0.3 mm. Cypselae obpyramidal, 2–2.5 mm, hairs 1.5–2 mm, inserted at bases and on angles; pappi of 7–8 deltate to lanceolate, aristate scales 4–7 mm (scarious bases 1–2.5 × 0.7–1.3 mm; Barkley et al., 2006). 

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Biennial
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page

G. pulchella is native to North America and Mexico (USDA-NRCS, 2014). It has been widely cultivated as an ornamental and can be found cultivated and naturalized in Europe, South Africa, Central America, and on islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean (DAISIE, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Cultivated and naturalised
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Cultivated and naturalised
-ShanghaiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Cultivated and naturalised
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014Naturalised

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-ManitobaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-OntarioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-QuebecPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-AlaskaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-ArizonaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-ArkansasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-ColoradoPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-DelawarePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-FloridaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999
-IllinoisPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-IndianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-IowaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-KansasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-LouisianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MainePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MichiganPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MississippiPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MissouriPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-NebraskaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-NevadaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-New HampshirePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-New JerseyPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-New MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-New YorkPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-OhioPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-OklahomaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-South DakotaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-TennesseePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-TexasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-VermontPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-WisconsinPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
HondurasPresentIntroducedNelson, 2008

South America

ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdarraga-Piedrahita et al., 2011Cultivated

Europe

Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Casual alien
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Cultivated
FrancePresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Cultivated
ItalyPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Casual alien
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Naturalised
RomaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
Russian FederationPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Cultivated in European part of Russia
SloveniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Casual alien
SpainPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Casual alien
UkrainePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Casual alien

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive McCormack, 2013
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated
KiribatiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedLorence and Flynn, 2010Cultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive MacKee, 1994
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

The history of introduction of G. pulchella is uncertain. It was probably introduced as an ornamental. For the West Indies, there is only one herbarium collection made in the Dominican Republic (where now it is listed as invasive) in 1945 (US Herbarium Collection). 

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of introduction of G. pulchella is moderate. This species has been listed as a weed and it is able to escape from cultivation and become naturalized into new habitat (principally ruderal and disturbed habitats) forming monospecific stands when it grows under favourable environmental conditions (Barkley et al., 2006; DAISIE, 2014; PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Habitat

Top of page

In North America, G. pulchella grows on sandy or calcareous soils, often in disturbed places, mostly in grasslands or open places at elevations from 0-1800 metres (Barkley et al., 2006). In Hawaii, G. pulchella is naturalized on disturbed or cultivated ground (Wagner et al., 1999). In New Zealand, it grows on sand dunes, waste land, roadsides, gardens and arable land, river banks, stony river terraces, railway yards, bare soil, and grassy places (Webb et al., 1988). In Taiwan, it is naturalized in coastal regions, and is particularly abundant in Penghu Hsien (Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural
Deserts Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for G. pulchella is 2n = 24 (Ward, 1983).

Reproductive Biology and Phenology

In North America, G. pulchella starts to produce flowers in spring, mostly from May to August. In the autumn, seeds are dispersed for the next growing season (Barkley et al., 2006).

Longevity

G. pulchella has the potential to grow as an annual, biennial or perennial herb, depending mainly on the prevailing micro-environmental conditions and the latitude (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).        

Environmental Requirements

G. pulchella grows best in areas with full sunlight and moderate and sandy-loam, neutral to alkaline soils (pH 7.1 to 8.5). It has good tolerance of saline and drought conditions. 

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 1.7

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

G. pulchella spreads by seeds. Each plant has the potential to produce hundreds of seeds which are adapted to wind-dispersal (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeWidely cultivated as ornamental and escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
Medicinal useUsed in traditional Native-American medicine Yes Yes Turner and Whalen, 1975
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
WindSeeds are wind-dispersed Yes Yes Turner and Whalen, 1975

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

Top of page

G. pulchella can invade disturbed areas, pastures, roadsides, forest edges, sand dunes, gardens and arable land, river banks, and sandy river terraces (Webb et al., 1988). Under suitable environmental conditions, this species has the potential to grow forming monospecific stands and consequently altering plant communities by displacing and out-competing native species (Wagner et al., 1999; PIER, 2014). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

In North America, Native American cultures use G. pulchella in traditional medicine. Tea of roots is used to treat gastroenteritis; and chewed powdered root is applied to skin disorders and for sore eyes. It is also believed that this species brings good luck. G. pulchella is also widely cultivated as an ornamental and many horticultural varieties have been created (Barkley et al., 2006; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Uses List

Top of page

Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Religious

Environmental

  • Amenity

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • Potted plant

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Barkley TM; Brouillet L; Strother JL, 2006. Asteraceae. Flora of North America, Provisional Publication. Flora of North America Association. http://floranorthamerica.org/volumes

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014. Digital flora of Taiwan, eFloras website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=100

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Idárraga-Piedrahita A; Ortiz RDC; Callejas Posada R; Merello M, 2011. Flora of Antioquia. (Flora de Antioquia.) Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia:939 pp.

Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Lorence DH; Flynn T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Lawai, Hawaii: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 26.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Nelson CH, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Honduras (Catalogue of the vascular plants of Honduras). Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, 1576 pp.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Turner BL; Whalen M, 1975. Taxonomic study of Gaillardia pulchella (Asteraceae-Heliantheae). Wrightia, 5:189-192.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Hawai'i, USA: University of Hawai'i Press, 1948 pp.

Ward DE, 1983. Chromosome counts from New Mexico and southern Colorado. Phytologia, 54:302-309.

Webb CJ; Sykes WR; Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV. Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: DSIR Botany Division, 1365 pp. http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Book.aspx?fileName=Flora%204.xml

Contributors

Top of page

18/06/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map