Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Gaillardia pulchella
(Indian blanket)

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Datasheet

Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gaillardia pulchella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian blanket
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • G. pulchella is a plant species widely commercialized as an ornamental and included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). This sp...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Gaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli) typical red flowers. Texas, USA. January, 2003.
TitleFlowers
CaptionGaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli) typical red flowers. Texas, USA. January, 2003.
Copyright©DanielCD/wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Gaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli) typical red flowers. Texas, USA. January, 2003.
FlowersGaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli) typical red flowers. Texas, USA. January, 2003.©DanielCD/wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Gaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit, with typical red flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
TitleFlowers
CaptionGaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit, with typical red flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2004 - CC BY 3.0
Gaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit, with typical red flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
FlowersGaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit, with typical red flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.©Forest & Kim Starr-2004 - CC BY 3.0
Gaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit and yellow flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
TitleHabit and flowers
CaptionGaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit and yellow flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2004 - CC BY 3.0
Gaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit and yellow flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.
Habit and flowersGaillardia pulchella (indian blanket, melekula wai kahuli, waikahuli); habit and yellow flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. July, 2004.©Forest & Kim Starr-2004 - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gaillardia pulchella Foug.

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian blanket

Other Scientific Names

  • Calonnea pulcherrima Buc'hoz
  • Gaillardia bicolor Lam.
  • Gaillardia bicolor var. bicolor
  • Gaillardia drummondii (Hook.) DC.
  • Gaillardia lobata Buckley
  • Gaillardia neomexicana A. Nelson
  • Gaillardia picta D. Don
  • Gaillardia pulchella f. pulchella
  • Gaillardia pulchella var. albiflora Cockerell
  • Gaillardia pulchella var. drummondii (Hook.) B.L.Turner
  • Gaillardia pulchella var. lorenziana Voss
  • Gaillardia pulchella var. pulchella
  • Gaillardia pulchella var. simplex Voss
  • Gaillardia pulchella var. tubulosa Voss
  • Gaillardia scabrosa Buckley
  • Gaillardia villosa Rydb.
  • Galordia alternifolia Raeusch.

International Common Names

  • English: annual gaillardia; firewheel; gaillardia; rose-ring blanket; rose-ring gaillardia
  • French: gaillarde; gaillarde jolie
  • Chinese: tian ren ju

Local Common Names

  • Cook Islands: tiare paratane
  • Czech Republic: kokarda sli
  • Dominican Republic: gallardia
  • Japan: ten nin giku

Summary of Invasiveness

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G. pulchella is a plant species widely commercialized as an ornamental and included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). This species is a fast-growing, annual herb with the capacity to escape from cultivation and colonize disturbed areas, waste ground, gardens, abandoned farmland, coastal forests, forest edges, pastures, roadsides, rocky areas, and riverbanks (Webb et al., 1988; Wagner et al., 1999; PIER, 2014). G. pulchella produces large amounts of wind-dispersed seed, which is a feature facilitating the probability of escaping and colonizing new habitats. Currently, it is listed as invasive in the Dominican Republic, Taiwan, Hawaii, New Caledonia, and French Polynesia (see distribution table for details; Kairo et al., 2003; Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014; PIER, 2014). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Gaillardia
  •                                 Species: Gaillardia pulchella

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Asteraceae is one of the most diverse groups among flowering plants including 1620 genera and about 23,600 species (Stevens, 2012). Species in the Asteraceae are very variable vegetatively, but may be recognized by their “capitulate” and involucrate inflorescences in which numerous small flowers open first on the outside and are infrequently subtended by bracts. The rather small, single-seeded fruits usually have a plumose “pappus” and are frequently dispersed by wind (Stevens, 2012).

The genus Gaillardia includes 15-17 species occurring in North America, Mexico, and South America (mostly Argentina). Some horticultural “Gaillardias” may be derived from hybrids involving species such as G. aristata and G. pulchella. Such horticultural plants sometimes persist after cultivation or occur sporadically in places well beyond the "natural" distribution ranges of the "parent" species; for example scattered and arid localities in Arizona and California (Turner and Whalen, 1975; Barkley et al., 2006). Individuals of G. pulchella from near or on beaches of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, usually with somewhat fleshy leaves and often persisting for more than one year, have been distinguished as G. pulchella var. picta (Barkley et al., 2006). 

Description

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G. pulchella is an annual, biennial and sometimes perennial herb, 5–35(–60+) cm. Leaves cauline; petiolar bases 0–3+ cm; blades linear, oblong, or spatulate, 1–5(–12) cm × 4–12(–35) mm, (bases of distal ± clasping) margins usually entire, sometimes toothed or lobed, faces closely strigillose or hirtellous to ± villous (hairs jointed). Peduncles 3–10(–20) cm. Phyllaries 18–28, narrowly triangular- to linear-attenuate, 6–14 mm, usually ciliate with jointed hairs. Receptacular setae 1.5–3 mm. Ray florets usually 8–14, rarely 0; corollas usually reddish to purplish proximally, yellow to orange distally, rarely yellow, reddish, or purplish throughout, 13–30 mm. Disc florets 40–100; corollas yellowish to purple or brown, often bicolored, tubes 0.8–1.2 mm, throats campanulate to urceolate, 3–4 mm, lobes deltate to ovate, often attenuate, 1–3 mm, jointed hairs 0.3 mm. Cypselae obpyramidal, 2–2.5 mm, hairs 1.5–2 mm, inserted at bases and on angles; pappi of 7–8 deltate to lanceolate, aristate scales 4–7 mm (scarious bases 1–2.5 × 0.7–1.3 mm; Barkley et al., 2006). 

Plant Type

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Annual
Biennial
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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G. pulchella is native to North America and Mexico (USDA-NRCS, 2014). It has been widely cultivated as an ornamental and can be found cultivated and naturalized in Europe, South Africa, Central America, and on islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean (DAISIE, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroduced1979
ChinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalised; Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalised; Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-ShanghaiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated and naturalised; Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee (2014)

Europe

Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentIntroducedCasual alien
CzechiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
FrancePresentIntroducedCultivated
ItalyPresentIntroducedCasual alien
NorwayPresentIntroduced1946
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
RomaniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
RussiaPresentIntroducedCultivated in European part of Russia
SlovakiaPresentIntroduced1994
SloveniaPresentIntroducedCasual alien
SpainPresentIntroducedCasual alien
UkrainePresentIntroducedCasual alien

North America

BahamasPresentIntroduced
CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentIntroduced
-ManitobaPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced
-QuebecPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentNative
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentNative
-AlaskaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentNative
-ArkansasPresentNative
-CaliforniaPresentNative
-ColoradoPresentNative
-ConnecticutPresentNative
-DelawarePresentNative
-FloridaPresentNative
-GeorgiaPresentNative
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IllinoisPresentNative
-IndianaPresentNative
-IowaPresentNative
-KansasPresentNative
-LouisianaPresentNative
-MainePresentNative
-MassachusettsPresentNative
-MichiganPresentNative
-MinnesotaPresentNative
-MississippiPresentNative
-MissouriPresentNative
-NebraskaPresentNative
-NevadaPresentNative
-New HampshirePresentNative
-New JerseyPresentNative
-New MexicoPresentNative
-New YorkPresentNative
-North CarolinaPresentNative
-OhioPresentNative
-OklahomaPresentNative
-PennsylvaniaPresentNative
-South CarolinaPresentNative
-South DakotaPresentNative
-TennesseePresentNative
-TexasPresentNative
-VermontPresentNative
-VirginiaPresentNative
-WisconsinPresentNative

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced1915
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroducedCultivated
KiribatiPresentIntroducedCultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
PalauPresentIntroducedCultivated

South America

ColombiaPresentIntroducedCultivated; Original citation: Idarraga-Piedrahita et al. (2011)

History of Introduction and Spread

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The history of introduction of G. pulchella is uncertain. It was probably introduced as an ornamental. For the West Indies, there is only one herbarium collection made in the Dominican Republic (where now it is listed as invasive) in 1945 (US Herbarium Collection). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of G. pulchella is moderate. This species has been listed as a weed and it is able to escape from cultivation and become naturalized into new habitat (principally ruderal and disturbed habitats) forming monospecific stands when it grows under favourable environmental conditions (Barkley et al., 2006; DAISIE, 2014; PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Habitat

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In North America, G. pulchella grows on sandy or calcareous soils, often in disturbed places, mostly in grasslands or open places at elevations from 0-1800 metres (Barkley et al., 2006). In Hawaii, G. pulchella is naturalized on disturbed or cultivated ground (Wagner et al., 1999). In New Zealand, it grows on sand dunes, waste land, roadsides, gardens and arable land, river banks, stony river terraces, railway yards, bare soil, and grassy places (Webb et al., 1988). In Taiwan, it is naturalized in coastal regions, and is particularly abundant in Penghu Hsien (Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal dunes Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for G. pulchella is 2n = 24 (Ward, 1983).

Reproductive Biology and Phenology

In North America, G. pulchella starts to produce flowers in spring, mostly from May to August. In the autumn, seeds are dispersed for the next growing season (Barkley et al., 2006).

Longevity

G. pulchella has the potential to grow as an annual, biennial or perennial herb, depending mainly on the prevailing micro-environmental conditions and the latitude (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).        

Environmental Requirements

G. pulchella grows best in areas with full sunlight and moderate and sandy-loam, neutral to alkaline soils (pH 7.1 to 8.5). It has good tolerance of saline and drought conditions. 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 1.7

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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G. pulchella spreads by seeds. Each plant has the potential to produce hundreds of seeds which are adapted to wind-dispersal (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeWidely cultivated as ornamental and escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
Medicinal useUsed in traditional Native-American medicine Yes Yes Turner and Whalen (1975)
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
WindSeeds are wind-dispersed Yes Yes Turner and Whalen (1975)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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G. pulchella can invade disturbed areas, pastures, roadsides, forest edges, sand dunes, gardens and arable land, river banks, and sandy river terraces (Webb et al., 1988). Under suitable environmental conditions, this species has the potential to grow forming monospecific stands and consequently altering plant communities by displacing and out-competing native species (Wagner et al., 1999; PIER, 2014). 

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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In North America, Native American cultures use G. pulchella in traditional medicine. Tea of roots is used to treat gastroenteritis; and chewed powdered root is applied to skin disorders and for sore eyes. It is also believed that this species brings good luck. G. pulchella is also widely cultivated as an ornamental and many horticultural varieties have been created (Barkley et al., 2006; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Uses List

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Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Religious

Environmental

  • Amenity

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • Potted plant

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Barkley TM; Brouillet L; Strother JL, 2006. Asteraceae. Flora of North America, Provisional Publication. Flora of North America Association. http://floranorthamerica.org/volumes

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014. Digital flora of Taiwan, eFloras website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=100

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Idárraga-Piedrahita A; Ortiz RDC; Callejas Posada R; Merello M, 2011. Flora of Antioquia. (Flora de Antioquia.) Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia:939 pp.

Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Lorence DH; Flynn T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Lawai, Hawaii: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 26.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Nelson CH, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Honduras (Catalogue of the vascular plants of Honduras). Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, 1576 pp.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Turner BL; Whalen M, 1975. Taxonomic study of Gaillardia pulchella (Asteraceae-Heliantheae). Wrightia, 5:189-192.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Hawai'i, USA: University of Hawai'i Press, 1948 pp.

Ward DE, 1983. Chromosome counts from New Mexico and southern Colorado. Phytologia, 54:302-309.

Webb CJ; Sykes WR; Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV. Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: DSIR Botany Division, 1365 pp. http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Book.aspx?fileName=Flora%204.xml

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International. 132 pp.

Lorence DH, Flynn T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist., Lawai, Hawaii, National Tropical Botanical Garden. 26.

MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

McCormack G, 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. In: Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2, Rarotonga: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Nelson CH, 2008. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Honduras. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Honduras)., Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. 1576 pp.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Wagner W L, Herbst D R, Sohmer S H, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Hawaii, USA: University of Hawai'i Press. 1948 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Florida Native Plant Society : blanket flowerhttp://www.fnps.org/assets/pdf/pubs/gaillardia_pulchella_blanketflower_3_1.pdf
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global Compositae Checklisthttp://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/Default.aspx
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
PIERhttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Contributors

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18/06/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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