Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Waitea circinata
(root rot of maize)



Waitea circinata (root rot of maize)


  • Last modified
  • 15 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Waitea circinata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • root rot of maize
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Waitea circinata Warcup & P.H.B. Talbot

Preferred Common Name

  • root rot of maize

Other Scientific Names

  • Chrysorhiza zeae (Voorhees) T.F. Anderson & Stalpers
  • Moniliopsis oryzae (Ryker & Gooch) R.T. Moore
  • Moniliopsis zeae (Voorhees) R.T. Moore
  • Rhizoctonia oryzae Ryker & Gooch
  • Rhizoctonia zeae Voorhees

International Common Names

  • English: sheath spot; sheath spot of rice
  • Spanish: mancha de la vaina; rizoctonia del arroz

EPPO code

  • RHIZOR (Rhizoctonia oryzae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Polyporales
  •                             Family: Corticiaceae
  •                                 Genus: Waitea
  •                                     Species: Waitea circinata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


BangladeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
CambodiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
ChinaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013
-HubeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-SichuanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
IndiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
IranRestricted distributionTelmadarrehei et al., 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2013
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-HonshuPresentInagaki, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-KyushuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-ShikokuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
Korea, Republic ofPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-SarawakPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
MyanmarPresentAye et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013
NepalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
PhilippinesPresentShahjahan and Mew, 1986
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
ThailandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
TurkeyPresentDemirci and Eken, 1999; Eken et al., 2011; Erper et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2013; Ünal et al., 2013
VietnamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013


MalawiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
South AfricaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2013
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
USAWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2013
-AlaskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-ArizonaPresentHyder et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-CaliforniaPresentChen et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-FloridaPresentGREEN, 1958; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-GeorgiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-IdahoPresentPaulitz, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-IndianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-KentuckyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-LouisianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-MinnesotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-MississippiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-MissouriPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-NevadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-New JerseyPresentNjambere et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-New YorkPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-North DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-OhioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-Rhode IslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-South CarolinaPresentHaygood and Martin, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-South DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-TexasPresentJones and Belmar, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-WashingtonPresentPaulitz et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-West VirginiaPresentMcDonald et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-WisconsinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
El SalvadorPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
PanamaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013

South America

BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-ParaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-TocantinsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
ColombiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
VenezuelaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013


FrancePresentBernaux, 1981
HungaryPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2013
UKPresentAli et al., 1998


AustraliaPresentLanoiselet et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
FijiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013
New ZealandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2013

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / discoloration


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Ali A; Hall AM; Gladders P, 1998. The biology and pathology of Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizoctonia oryzae isolated from crown rot of carrots in the UK. In: Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases - 1998: Volume 3: Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, 16-19 November 1998. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 875-880.

Aye SS; Myint YY; Lwin T; Matsumoto M, 2010. First report of Rhizoctonia oryzae isolated from bordered sheath spot of rice in Myanmar. Plant Pathology, 59(2):412.

Bernaux P, 1981. Fungi recorded on rice in Camargue. (Champignons recenses sur le riz en Camargue.) Bulletin Trimestriel de la Societe Mycologique de France, 97(1):15-21.

Burpee L; Martin B, 1992. Biology of Rhizoctonia species associated with turfgrasses. Plant Disease, 76(2):112-117

CABI/EPPO, 2013. Waitea circinata. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1144 (Edition 1).

Chen CM; Douhan GW; Wong FP, 2011. First report of basal leaf blight of kikuyugrass caused by Waitea circinata var. prodigus in southern California. Plant Disease, 95(6):767.

Demirci E; Eken C, 1999. First report of Rhizoctonia zeae in Turkey. Plant Disease, 83(2):200.

Eken C; Genç T; Kaymak Ç, 2011. First report of root rot of faba bean caused by Rhizoctonia zeae in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(4, Supplement):S4.71.

Erper I; Ozkoc I; Karaca GH, 2011. Identification and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia species isolated from bean and soybean plants in Samsun, Turkey. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 44(1):78-84.

Green VE, 1958. Observations on fungus diseases of rice in Florida. Plant Disease Reporter, 42:624-628.

Haygood RA; Martin SB, 1990. Characterization and pathogenicity of species of Rhizoctonia associated with centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass in South Carolina. Plant Disease, 74(7):510-514.

Hyder N; Chen CM; Towers G; Wong FP, 2011. First report of brown ring patch caused by Waitea circinata var. circinata on creeping bentgrass in Arizona. Plant Disease, 95(4):492.

Inagaki K, 1996. Distribution of strains of rice bordered sheath spot fungus, Rhizoctonia oryzae, in paddy fields and their pathogenicity to rice plants. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 62(4):386-392.

Jones RK; Belmar SB, 1989. Characterization and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from rice, soybean, and other crops grown in rotation with rice in Texas. Plant Disease, 73(12):1004-1010.

Lanoiselet VL; Cother EJ; Ash GJ; Harper JDI, 2005. Yield loss in rice caused by Rhizoctonia oryzae and R. oryzae-sativae in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 34(2):175-179.

McDonald SJ; Averell RM; Glass ME; Young HM; Mysliwiec TH; Sanford DL; Fidanza MA, 2010. First report of brown ring patch on Poa annua caused by Waitea circinata var. circinata in West Virginia. Plant Disease, 94(11):1379.

Njambere EN; Clarke BB; Bonos SA; Murphy JA; Buckley R; Tirpak S; Zhang N, 2011. First report of brown ring patch caused by Waitea circinata var. circinata on Poa annua and Agrostis stolonifera in New Jersey. Plant Disease, 95(1):78-79.

Paulitz TC, 2002. First report of Rhizoctonia oryzae on pea. Plant Disease, 86(4):442.

Paulitz TC; Zhang H; Cook RJ, 2003. Spatial distribution of Rhizoctonia oryzae and rhizoctonia root rot in direct-seeded cereals. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 25(3):295-303.

Shahjahan AKM; Mew TW, 1986. Sheath spot of rice in the Philippines. International Rice Research Newsletter, 11(3):17.

Telmadarrehei T; Ghanbary MAT; Rahimian H; Rezazadeh A, 2012. First report of Rhizoctonia oryzae on maize in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 48(2):Pe289, En101.

Ünal F; Dolar FS; Özben S, 2013. First report of Rhizoctonia zeae causing stunting and root rot on wheat in Turkey. In: Fourth International Scientific Symposium "Agrosym 2013", Jahorina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 3-6 October, 2013. Book of Proceedings [ed. by Kovacevic, D.]. Istocno Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina: Faculty of Agriculture, University of East Sarajevo, 641-645.

Distribution Maps

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