Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ambrosia tenuifolia
(lacy ragweed)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2018. Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.109862.20203483166

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Datasheet

Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 23 April 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ambrosia tenuifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lacy ragweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ambrosia tenuifolia is a pioneer herb native to temperate South America that has been introduced in Europe, North America, Southern Africa, Oceania and the Middle East. It competes well in highly disturbed sites where it can become domina...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); inflorescence. Lido degli Estensi FE, Italy. July 2011.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionAmbrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); inflorescence. Lido degli Estensi FE, Italy. July 2011.
Copyright©carlacorazza/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); inflorescence. Lido degli Estensi FE, Italy. July 2011.
InflorescenceAmbrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); inflorescence. Lido degli Estensi FE, Italy. July 2011.©carlacorazza/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); inflorescence. Lido degli Estensi FE, Italy. July 2011.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionAmbrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); inflorescence. Lido degli Estensi FE, Italy. July 2011.
Copyright©carlacorazza/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); inflorescence. Lido degli Estensi FE, Italy. July 2011.
InflorescenceAmbrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); inflorescence. Lido degli Estensi FE, Italy. July 2011.©carlacorazza/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); inflorescences. Hadera, Israel. September 2018.
TitleInflorescences
CaptionAmbrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); inflorescences. Hadera, Israel. September 2018.
Copyright©Yael Orgad/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); inflorescences. Hadera, Israel. September 2018.
InflorescencesAmbrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); inflorescences. Hadera, Israel. September 2018.©Yael Orgad/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); habit. Gral Lavalle, Buenos Aires, Argentina. February 2020.
TitleHabit
CaptionAmbrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); habit. Gral Lavalle, Buenos Aires, Argentina. February 2020.
Copyright©Pablo Preliasco/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); habit. Gral Lavalle, Buenos Aires, Argentina. February 2020.
HabitAmbrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); habit. Gral Lavalle, Buenos Aires, Argentina. February 2020.©Pablo Preliasco/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); habit. Juan Anchorena, Martínez, Buenos Aires, Argentina. January 2020.
TitleHabit
CaptionAmbrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); habit. Juan Anchorena, Martínez, Buenos Aires, Argentina. January 2020.
Copyright©Pablo Preliasco/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); habit. Juan Anchorena, Martínez, Buenos Aires, Argentina. January 2020.
HabitAmbrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed); habit. Juan Anchorena, Martínez, Buenos Aires, Argentina. January 2020.©Pablo Preliasco/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ambrosia tenuifolia Spreng.

Preferred Common Name

  • lacy ragweed

International Common Names

  • English: bur ragweed; lacy ambrosia; narrow-leaf ragweed

Local Common Names

  • USA: false ragweed; slim leaf bur ragweed

Summary of Invasiveness

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Ambrosia tenuifolia is a pioneer herb native to temperate South America that has been introduced in Europe, North America, Southern Africa, Oceania and the Middle East. It competes well in highly disturbed sites where it can become dominant or co-dominant. It propagates by seeds and vegetatively by ramets allowing it to rapidly spread and colonize new areas. Ambrosia tenuifolia is a fast-growing species with the potential to multiply the surface of colonization many times over in a short space of time.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Ambrosia
  •                                 Species: Ambrosia tenuifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Ambrosia is classified within the subfamiliy Asteroideae, the biggest subfamily of the Asteraceae, which comprises 1135 genera and more than 17,200 species (Stevens, 2018).  The genus Ambrosia includes about 45 species, commonly known as ragweeds, that occur primarily across subtropical and warm temperate regions (León de la Luz and Rebman, 2010). Most species are native to the Americas, and the deserts of southwestern USA and northwestern Mexico have been proposed as the center of origin and diversity for this genus (Payne, 1964; León de la Luz and Rebman, 2010). 

Description

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The following description is adapted from Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001) and Montagnani et al. (2017):

Perennial herb; stem 30 to 60 cm high, terete, striate, hirsute; leaves bipinnatifid, hirsute-canescent with ascending hairs; petioles short; blades ovate or lance-ovate in outline; divisions narrowly linear, acute; staminate heads numerous in terminal racemes; involucre broadly obconic, hispidulous, crenate, 2.5 mm broad; paleae of the receptacle filiform, as long as the corollas; corolla puberulent; pistillate heads in the upper axils, mostly solitary; body 2-2.5 mm long, obovoid, hispidulous; beak more than 1 mm long; tubercles 4 or 5, conic, more or less spreading, 0.5 mm long.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Ambrosia tenuifolia is native to temperate South America including Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and probably Peru. It can be found naturalized in Europe, the United States, Puerto Rico, Chile, Southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Turkey and Israel (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Montagnani et al., 2017; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 22 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MauritiusPresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroducedWeed

Asia

IsraelPresentIntroducedNaturalizedWeed
TurkeyPresentIntroduced

Europe

FrancePresentIntroducedWeed
GermanyPresentIntroduced
ItalyPresentIntroducedWeed
SerbiaPresentIntroducedWeed
SpainPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalized

North America

Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedWeed
United StatesPresentIntroducedLouisiana
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveNoxious weed
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveNoxious weed
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentNative
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasive
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
UruguayPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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In Europe, the oldest record of A. tenuifolia is from France in 1839, with successive reports for Italy in 1935, Spain in 1954 and the Baleares Islands in 2004 (Montagnani et al., 2017). In Australia, it is unknown how and when this species was introduced, but it was first recorded as naturalized in Sydney in 1932 and later near Newcastle in 1937 (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).  In New Zealand it was reported as naturalized in 1950 and in Israel in 1984 (Montagnani et al., 2017; Yair et al., 2017). In Chile it was first recorded as naturalized in 1923 (Ugarte et al., 2011).

Habitat

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Ambrosia tenuifolia can be found growing in grasslands, roadsides, forest gaps, secondary forests and sand dunes. It also grows as weed, primarily in degraded pastures, cultivated fields and ruderal or waste sites associated with frequent and extensive disturbance from human activities (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; Cunningham et al., 2011; Pruski, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal dunes Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal dunes Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The haploid chromosome number reported for A. tenuifolia varies from n=54 to n=72 (Turner et al., 1979; Bernardello, 1986).

Reproductive biology

Ambrosia tenuifolia is a monoecious herb with inflorescences of unisexual heads. Flowers are wind-pollinated (Pruski, 2016; Montagnani et al., 2017).

Physiology and phenology

In South America, A. tenuifolia propagates clonally during spring and summer through ramets that sprout from adventitious root buds. At the end of the summer, it produces a great quantity of seeds that remain dormant in the soil seed bank (Insausti and Grimoldi, 2006).  In Australia, seeds germinate in autumn and seedlings develop an extensive system of creeping roots during winter and early spring. Flowering begins in summer continuing into early autumn and after that the aerial growth dies back. New shoots are produced on the rootstock and along the creeping roots in late autumn (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).

A germination study performed in grasslands in Argentina showed that the combined effect of alternating temperatures and a high red:far-red ratio breaks the dormancy of A. tenuifolia seeds and stimulates germination from the soil seed bank (Insausti and Grimoldi, 2006).

Longevity

Ambrosia tenuifolia is a perennial herb (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; Montagnani et al., 2017). This species forms soil seed banks which can remain viable for many years (Insausti and Grimoldi, 2006).

Activity patterns

In the Pampas in Argentina, gaps in foliar cover caused by disturbances apparently trigger the germination of seeds and the clonal growth of A. tenuifolia (Insausti and Grimoldi, 2006). Once seedlings establish, growth rapidly continues outside the original gaps by lateral clonal expansion through ramets produced from root buds (D’Angela et al., 1988; Insausti and Grimoldi, 2006).

Environmental requirements

Ambrosia tenuifolia grows best in open and disturbed sites where it often outcompetes other plant species for light, nutrients and water. It prefers warm areas with full sunlight and slightly acidic soils.  It does not survive prolonged floods (Insausti et al., 1995; Insausti and Grimoldi, 2006).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
45 40

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 25

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall350>1500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Ambrosia tenuifolia spreads by seed and vegetatively by ramets and root runners. The seeds can be dispersed by wind, water and animals.

Accidental Introduction

Ambrosia tenuifolia may be spread as a contaminant in crops, soil, bird food, fodder, vehicles, agricultural machinery and commercial exchanges (Montagnani et al., 2017).

Due to the frequency and abundance of Ambrosia species in human environments, it is widely accepted that seeds and/or propagules of Ambrosia species have been unintentionally transported outside the Americas by human activities (i.e., trade routes and agriculture). Historically A. tenuifolia has been listed as a “ballast-plant”, involuntarily transported in solid sailing ballasts and then released into new countries during the de-ballasting phase, as it was found growing in dumping areas near harbours in Oregon (Nelson, 1917Montagnani et al., 2017). However solid sailing ballasts have now been replaced by water ballasts this pathway may no longer be relevant for this species.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionWeed in arable land Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)
DisturbanceCommon weed in disturbed areas associated with human activities Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesCommon weed in disturbed areas associated with human activities Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)
Machinery and equipmentSeeds and roots Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)
Ship ballast water and sedimentSolid ballast Yes Yes Nelson (1917)
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds and roots Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)
Land vehiclesSeeds and roots Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)
WaterSeeds and roots Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)
WindSeeds and roots Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Environmental impact

Ambrosia tenuifolia is an invasive herb that grows forming dense thickets that displace native vegetation. It can also invade semi-natural habitats. Additionally, because this species grows as pioneer species in disturbed sites and forest gaps, it has the potential to disrupt and outcompete early successional native plant communities (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; Cunningham et al., 2011; Montagnani et al., 2017).

Social Impact

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Social impact

The Ambrosia genus represents a global risk to public health and many Ambrosia species including A. tenuifolia are considered harmful weeds because they produce large amounts of pollen, which is an aeroallergen that causes hay fever (Montagnani et al., 2017).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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In the Southern Cone of South America A. tenuifolia has been cultivated as a traditional medicinal herb (Montagnani et al., 2017).

Uses List

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Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Chemical control

There is no information available for the chemical control of A. tenuifolia, however herbicides such as glyphosate, glufosinate, 2,4-D, triclopyr, dicamba and metsulfuron-methyl and picloram have been used to control other invasive Ambrosias such as A. artemisiifolia and A. psilostachya (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; Lombard et al., 2005).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bernardello LM, 1986. (Números cromosómicos en Asteraceae de Córdoba). Darwiniana, 27, 169–178.

Cunningham GM, Mulham WE, Milthorpe PL, Leigh JH, 2011. Plants of Western New South Wales, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.

D’Angela E, Facelli JM, Jacobo E, 1988. The role of the permanent soil seed bank in early stages of a postagricultural succession in the Inland Pampa, Argentina. Vegetatio, 74, 39–45.

Fraga, P., García, Ó., 2004. Notes and contributions to the knowledge of the flora of Menorca (VI). (Notes i contribucions al coneixement de la flora de Menorca (VI)). Bolletí de la Societat d'Història Natural de les Balears, 47, 143-152.

Insausti, P., Grimoldi, A. A., 2006. Gap disturbance triggers the recolonization of the clonal plant Ambrosia tenuifolia in a flooding grassland of Argentina. Austral Ecology, 31(7), 828-836. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2006.01641.x

Insausti, P., Soriano, A., Sánchez, R. A., 1995. Effects of flood-influenced factors on seed germination of Ambrosia tenuifolia. Oecologia, 103(1), 127-132. doi: 10.1007/BF00328433

León de la Luz JL, Rebman JP, 2010. A new Ambrosia (Asteraceae) from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. In: Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México,86. 65-70.

Lombard, A., Gauvrit, C., Chauvel, B., 2005. Chemical control of Ambrosia artemisiifolia on non-crop areas: are there alternatives to glyphosate?. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, 70(3), 447-457.

Montagnani, C., Gentili, R., Smith, M., Guarino, M. F., Citterio, S., 2017. The worldwide spread, success, and impact of ragweed (Ambrosia spp.). Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 36(3), 139-178. doi: 10.1080/07352689.2017.1360112

Nelson JC, 1917. The introduction of foreign weeds in ballast as illustrated by ballast-plants at Linnton, Oregon. Torreya, 17, 151–160.

Parsons, W. T., Cuthbertson, E. G., 2001. Noxious weeds of Australia, (Ed.2) . Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.xii + 698 pp.

Payne WW, 1964. A re-evaluation of the genus Ambrosia (Compositae). Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 45, 401-438.

Pruski JF, 2016. Asteraceae. In: Flora Mesoamericana [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang F]. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Stevens, P. F., 2018. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Turner BL, Bacon J, Urbatsh L, Simpson B, 1979. Chromosome numbers in South American Compositae. American Journal of Botany, 66, 173–178.

Ugarte, E, Lira, F, Fuentes, N, Klotz, S, 2011. Vascular alien flora, Chile. In: Check List , 7(3) . 365-382.

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Yair, Y., Sibony, M., Rubin, B., 2017. Four Ambrosia species in Israel: invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 64(1/2), 93-98. doi: 10.1080/07929978.2017.1288399

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Fraga P, García Ó, 2004. Notes and contributions to the knowledge of the flora of Menorca (VI). (Notes i contribucions al coneixement de la flora de Menorca (VI).). Bolletí de la Societat d'Història Natural de les Balears. 143-152.

GRIIS, 2017. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

Parsons W T, Cuthbertson E G, 2001. Noxious weeds of Australia. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. xii + 698 pp.

Ugarte E, Lira F, Fuentes N, Klotz S, 2011. Vascular alien flora, Chile. In: Check List, 7 (3) 365-382.

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Yair Y, Sibony M, Rubin B, 2017. Four Ambrosia species in Israel: invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences. 64 (1/2), 93-98. DOI:10.1080/07929978.2017.1288399

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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30/01/18 Original text by:

Dr. Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH

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