Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Etlingera elatior
(torch ginger)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Etlingera elatior (torch ginger)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Etlingera elatior
  • Preferred Common Name
  • torch ginger
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • E. elatior is a fast-growing perennial herb that has been actively introduced as an ornamental throughout the tropics (Ib...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger); plants growing in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico
TitleHabit
CaptionEtlingera elatior (torch ginger); plants growing in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger); plants growing in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico
HabitEtlingera elatior (torch ginger); plants growing in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger); inflorescence. Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. November, 2012.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionEtlingera elatior (torch ginger); inflorescence. Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. November, 2012.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger); inflorescence. Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. November, 2012.
InflorescenceEtlingera elatior (torch ginger); inflorescence. Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. November, 2012.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger); fruits. Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. November 2012.
TitleFruits
CaptionEtlingera elatior (torch ginger); fruits. Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. November 2012.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger); fruits. Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. November 2012.
Fruits Etlingera elatior (torch ginger); fruits. Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. November 2012.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm.

Preferred Common Name

  • torch ginger

Other Scientific Names

  • Achasma yunnanensis T.L. Wu & S.J. Chen
  • Alpinia acrostachya Steud.
  • Alpinia elatior Jack
  • Alpinia magnifica Roscoe
  • Alpinia speciosa (Blume) D.Dietr.
  • Amomum magnificum (Roscoe) Benth. & Hook.f. ex B.D.Jacks.
  • Amomum tridentatum (Kuntze) K.Schum.
  • Bojeria magnifica (Roscoe) Raf.
  • Cardamomum magnificum (Roscoe) Kuntze
  • Cardamomum speciosum (Blume) Kuntze
  • Cardamomum tridentatum Kuntze
  • Diracodes javanica Blume
  • Elettaria speciosa Blume
  • Nicolaia elatior (Jack) Horan.
  • Nicolaia imperialis Horan.
  • Nicolaia intermedia Valeton
  • Nicolaia magnifica (Roscoe) K.Schum. ex Valeton
  • Nicolaia speciosa (Blume) Horan.
  • Phaeomeria magnifica (Roscoe) K.Schum.
  • Phaeomeria speciosa (Blume) Koord.

International Common Names

  • English: Philippine waxflower; torch-ginger; wax-flower
  • Spanish: boca de dragón; flor de cera
  • Chinese: huo ju jiang

Local Common Names

  • Colombia: bastón del Obispo; bastón del rey; heliconia bastón
  • Costa Rica: bastón de emperador
  • French Polynesia: 'awapuhi; opuhi
  • French Polynesia/Marquesas: eka; pua vao
  • Indonesia: bunga kecombrang; honge; kecombrang
  • Malaysia: bunda kantan; kantan
  • Puerto Rico: antorcha
  • USA/Hawaii: ‘awapuhi ko‘oko‘o

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

E. elatior is a fast-growing perennial herb that has been actively introduced as an ornamental throughout the tropics (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). E. elatior is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds where it listed as naturalized and invasive in China, Costa Rica and Hawaii (Wagner et al., 1999; Weber et al., 2008; Chacon and Saborio, 2012; Randall, 2012). It spreads by seeds and by rhizome division and has the potential to grow forming dense thickets principally in moist habitats (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999; Abdelmageed et al., 2011). E. elatior is able to grow in shaded areas beneath the canopy of mature forests, and in the Pacific wet forests of Costa Rica (i.e., Golfo Dulce and Golfito) it is invading relatively unaltered native forests (Hammel et al., 2003; Chacon, 2009).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Zingiberales
  •                         Family: Zingiberaceae
  •                             Genus: Etlingera
  •                                 Species: Etlingera elatior

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The family Zingiberaceae, with more than 1200 species, is the largest of eight families included in the order Zingiberales (Kress, 1990; Kress et al., 2002; Stevens, 2012). The ginger family has a pantropical distribution, with a centre of diversity in the Malesian biogeographic region (Kress, 1990; Kress et al., 2002; Stevens, 2012). The genus Etlingera includes approximately 110 species distributed in tropical and subtropical Indo-Malesia and tropical Australia (Stevens, 2012).

E. elatior is one of the species most commercialized as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999). Several forms of E. elatior have been observed in the wild and in cultivation. The forms with pink involucral bracts are normally consumed as a spice. The forms with red or deep red bracts and leaves that are permanently purplish underneath, are more commonly used as an ornamental or as cut flowers, although the pink-bracted ones are equally popular. The white-bracted form is very rare and occurs in the wild. There are two flower types, one with a white-edged labellum (the cultivated ones) and the other with a yellow-edged labellum which is considered the wild type (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999).

Description

Top of page

E. elatior is a coarse herb often growing in large colonies. Pseudostems (shoots) 3-6 m tall. Leaves numerous; ligule to 1.5 cm long, shortly 2-lobed, glabrous; petiole 1.5-4 cm long; leaf blades lanceolate, 38-85 × 8-18 cm, glabrous. Inflorescence a terminal, ovoid head of spirally imbricated flowers, surrounded at base by showy involucral bracts; peduncle 60-150 × 0.8-1.5 cm, clothed with green, glabrous sheaths; involucral bracts 3-6 × 2-3 cm, spreading, the upper obtuse to emarginate, the lower abruptly narrowed to a caudate tip, crimson-pink, glabrous; floral bracts similar to involucral bracts but pinkish, smaller; bracteoles tubular, approximately 2 cm long, unilaterally split; calyx 3-4 cm long, unilaterally split, the apex 3- toothed; corolla pink to red, sometimes white; labellum deep crimson with white or yellow margin; filament short, flat, whitish pubescent; anther red, longer than filament. Fruiting head greenish or reddish, globose, 2-2.5 cm in diameter, short-pubescent; seeds many, black (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

Top of page

E. elatior is native to Indonesia, Malesia, and southern Thailand. However, this species is widely cultivated and can be found naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide (see distribution table for details; Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999; Acevedo and Strong, 2005).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weber et al., 2008
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Possibly naturalized
IndonesiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-JavaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-MoluccasPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-Nusa TenggaraPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-SumatraPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
LaosPresentUSDA-ARS, 2014
MalaysiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
PhilippinesPresentGovaerts, 2014
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009Cultivated
ThailandPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroducedPauwels, 2005Reported only in cultivated areas
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedPauwels, 2005Reported only in cultivated areas
MauritiusPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
RwandaPresentIntroducedPauwels, 2005Reported only in cultivated areas

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Chacón and Saborío, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
PanamaPresentIntroducedCorrea et al., 2004
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014

South America

ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga-Piedrahita et al., 2011
EcuadorPresentIntroducedJørgensen and León-Yànez, 1999
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedJørgensen and León-Yànez, 1999

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack, 2013
FijiPresentIntroducedSmith, 1979
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFlorence et al., 2013
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedHerrera et al., 2010
NauruPresentIntroducedThaman et al., 1994
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee, 1994
PalauPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1987

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

E. elatior has been actively introduced as an ornamental in gardens and yards throughout the tropics (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999). In tropical America, it is often commercialized as a cut-flower and hedge plant (Chacon, 2009). The date of introduction of E. elatior in America is uncertain. It was probably introduced during the last century from Malaysia and Indonesia (Java, Sumatra; Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999). E. elatior is reported in herbarium collections made in 1970 in Panama, and in the 1980s in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Puerto Rico (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of introduction of E. elatior is high. The species and many cultivars are widely commercialized as ornamentals in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Because the species spreads by seeds and rhizome fragments, the potential to colonize new habitats is high. It has the potential to colonize shaded habitats and relatively unaltered forests (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999; Chacon, 2009; Sakai et al., 2013).

Habitat

Top of page

E. elatior grows in primary and secondary forest, forest edges, disturbed areas and secondary vegetation near villages and along roadsides (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999; Hammel et al., 2003; Chacon, 2009; Sakai et al., 2013).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for E. elatior varies from 2n = 48 to 2n = 50 (Eksomtramage et al., 2002). 

Reproductive Biology

E. elatior produces strongly zygomorphic animal-pollinated flowers. Within its native distribution range (i.e., Borneo and Malesia) this species is visited by the small spider-hunter (Arachnothera longirostra) and by the sunbird Anthreptes malacensis (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999; Sakai et al., 2013). In Thailand, E. elatior is visited by birds of the Nectariniidae family and by butterflies (Kittipanangkul and Ngamriabsakul, 2006). 

Physiology and Phenology

E. elatior starts flowering in the second year after planting a piece of rhizome. Flowering occurs throughout the year and continuous harvesting is possible (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999). 

Environmental Requirements

E. elatior occurs mainly at lower elevations in wet and moist habitats in tropical and subtropical regions. It grows best at mean annual temperatures ranging from 10°C to 35°C. It is tolerant to acid soils and shaded conditions and has a medium drought tolerance (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999; Hammel et al., 2003; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). E. elatior can become very robust when it is planted in moist, relatively shaded locations, preferably near pools, streams or drains (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999).

 

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 35

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Zingiberaceae plants are frequently infected with pathogens such as rhizome rot caused by Phythium species and leaf spot due to Colletotrichum species (Keng and Hing, 2004).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

E. elatior spreads by seeds and vegetatively by rhizomes. In cultivation, it is propagated primarily by rhizome fragments (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999). It produces fleshy fruits facilitating its dispersal by animals including birds, bats, ants and rodents (PROTA, 2014).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosWidely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999
Cut flower tradeWidely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999
FoodFruits are consumed by humans Yes Yes Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999
Hedges and windbreaks Yes Hammel et al., 2003
Medicinal usePlants used in traditional medicine mainly in Asia Yes Jackie et al., 2011
Nursery tradeWidely commercialized Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Sakai et al., 2013

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Host and vector organismsSeeds can be dispersed by ants, birds, bats, and rodents Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
MailSeeds sold online Yes Yes PROTA, 2014

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

E. elatior is listed as invasive in China, Costa Rica, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico (Wagner et al., 1999; Weber et al., 2008; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Chacon and Saborio, 2012; Randall, 2012). This species has the potential to grow forming dense thickets and to outcompete native vegetation. It is also able to invade shaded areas beneath the canopy of primary and secondary forests including areas in relatively unaltered native forests (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999; Hammel et al., 2003; Chacon, 2009).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

E. elatior is commonly planted as an ornamental and hedge plant. It is also cultivated on a commercial scale as a cut-flower in Hawaii and Australia (Wagner et al., 1999; Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999). In Southeast Asia, flowers, fruits, and young and tight buds are consumed by humans as spice in curries, fish soups, stir-fried vegetables and salads. In Malaysia E. elatior is used for flavouring 'laksa' (a special noodle dish) and many other local dishes. In southeastern Asia, it is also used in traditional medicine. A decoction of its fruit is traditionally used to treat earache while a decoction of the leaves may be applied for cleansing wounds. The stem is made into matting in Sumatra. The stems also have potential as raw material for the manufacture of paper. The rhizome is reported to yield a yellow dye (Ibrahim and Setyowati, 1999).

The essential oils of E. elatior were analysed by Jaafar et al. (2007) and by Zoghbi and Andrade (2005). Antioxidative constituents were determined by Mohamed et al. (2005) and Chan et al. (2007), while antimicrobial activity is reported by Mackeen et al. (1997) and Chan et al. (2007).

 

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Human food and beverage

  • Food additive
  • Fruits
  • Root crop
  • Seeds

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • Propagation material

References

Top of page

Abdelmageed AHA; Faridah QZ; Norhana FMA; Julia AA; Midhzar Abdul Kadir, 2011. Micropropagation of Etlingera elatior (Zingiberaceae) by using axillary bud explants. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(18):4465-4469. http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR/PDF/pdf2011/16Sept/Abdelmageed%20et%20al.pdf

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 52:1-416. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/PRFlora/monocots/

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Chacon E, 2009. [English title not available]. (Las plantas invasoras en Costa Rica: Cuáles acciones debemos realizar?.) Revista Biocenosis, 22:31-33.

Chacón E; Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Chan EWC; Lim YY; Mohammed Omar, 2007. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of leaves of Etlingera species (Zingiberaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia. Food Chemistry, 104(4):1586-1593. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03088146

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Correa A; Galdames MDC; Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp.

Eksomtramage L; Sirirugsa P; Jivanit P; Maknoi C, 2002. Chromosome counts of some zingiberaceous species from Thailand. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 24:311-319.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR; Sachet M-H; Oliver R, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesia 20: 1-2, 19-129.

Govaerts R, 2014. World Checklist of Zingiberaceae. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Habsah Mohamad; Lajis NH; Faridah Abas; Abdul Manaf Ali; Mohamad Aspollah Sukari; Kikuzaki H; Nakatani N, 2005. Antioxidative constituents of Etlingera elatior. Journal of Natural Products, 68(2):285-288.

Hammel BE; Grayum MH; Herrera C; Zamora N, 2003. Manual of plants of Costa Rica. Vol. III. (Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. III.) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 93:1-884.

Herrera K; Lorence DH; Flynn T; Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia:146 pp.

Ibrahim H; Setyowati FM, 1999. Etlingera. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 13: Spices. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 123-126.

Idárraga-Piedrahita A; Ortiz RDC; Callejas Posada R; Merello M, 2011. Flora of Antioquia. (Flora de Antioquia.) Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia:939 pp.

Jaafar FM; Osman CP; Ismail NH; Awang K, 2007. Analysis of essential oils of leaves, stems, flowers and rhizomes of Etlingera elatior (Jack) RM Smith. The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 11:269-273.

Jackie T; Haleagrahara N; Chakravarthi S, 2011. Antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior flower extract against lead acetate-induced perturbations in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rats. BMC Research Notes, 4:67.

Jørgensen PM; León-Yànez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard, 75. i-viii, 1-1182.

Keng CL; Hing TW, 2004. In vitro propagation of Zingiberaceae species with medicinal properties. Journal of Plant Biotechnology, 6:181-188.

Kittipanangkul N; Ngamriabsakul C, 2006. Pollen and pollinator limitation of seed initiation in Etlingera littoralis (Zingiberaceae) in Klong Klai Basin, Khao Nan National Park, Thailand. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, 3:207-2017.

Kress WJ, 1990. The phylogeny and classification of the Zingiberales. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 77:698-721.

Kress WJ; Prince LM; Williams KJ, 2002. The phylogeny and a new classification of the gingers (Zingiberaceae): evidence from molecular data. American Journal of Botany, 89(10):1682-1696.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

Mackeen MM; Ali AM; El-Sharkawy SH; Manap MY; Salleh KM; Lajis NH; Kawazu K, 1997. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of some Malaysian traditional vegetables (ulam). International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 35(3):174-178.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Pauwels L, 2005. Cultivated and/or Exotic Plants in Central Africa (provisional list of R. Congo - Rwanda - Burundi). http://users.chello.be/cr28796/CultAfrC.htm

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Sakai S; Kawakita A; Ooi K; Inoue T, 2013. Variation in the strength of association among pollination systems and floral traits: evolutionary changes in the floral traits of Bornean gingers (Zingiberaceae). American Journal of Botany, 100(3):546-555. http://www.amjbot.org/content/100/3/546.full

Smith AC, 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: A new flora of Fiji. Volume I. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 494 pp.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Thaman RR; Fosberg FR; Manner HI; Hassall DC, 1994. The flora of Nauru. Atoll Research Bulletin, 392:1-223.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Weber E; Sun ShiGuo; Li Bo, 2008. Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biological Invasions, 10(8):1411-1429. http://www.springerlink.com/content/c25570xj6u44645h/?p=3d093fec46ab4097b45b287d6033e986&pi=21

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Zoghbi MDG; Andrade EH, 2005. Volatiles of the Etlingera elatior and Zingiber spectabile: two Zingiberaceae cultivated in the Amazon. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 17:209-211.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Plant Resources of South-East Asiahttp://proseanet.org/prosea/
PROTA: Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota4u.org/

Contributors

Top of page

24/02/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map