Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Dypsis lutescens
(yellow butterfly palm)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Dypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 May 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dypsis lutescens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • yellow butterfly palm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Dypsis lutescens is an ornamental palm very widespread in cultivation all over the tropics, found growing under a wide range of conditions. It has the potential to form thickets excluding native vegetation and...

  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & J. Dransf.

Preferred Common Name

  • yellow butterfly palm

Other Scientific Names

  • Areca flavescens Voss
  • Chrysalidocarpus baronii var. littoralis Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Chrysalidocarpus glaucescens Waby
  • Chrysalidocarpus lutescens H.Wendl.

International Common Names

  • English: areca palm; butterfly palm; cane palm; golden cane palm; golden-yellow palm; yellow palm
  • Spanish: palma enana
  • Portuguese: areca-bambú; palmeira-areca

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: areca; palma areca
  • Madagascar: iafahazo; iafazo; rehazo

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Dypsis lutescens is an ornamental palm very widespread in cultivation all over the tropics, found growing under a wide range of conditions. It has the potential to form thickets excluding native vegetation and spread in secondary forests and disturbed sites. Although this species has become naturalized after being introduced and extensively planted in cultivation in many tropical and subtropical regions, it has only been described as invasive in Cuba and Réunion. The risk of this species escaping from cultivation and colonizing new habitats is high.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Arecales
  •                         Family: Arecaceae
  •                             Genus: Dypsis
  •                                 Species: Dypsis lutescens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The Arecaceae is a family of woody shrubs, vines, or palm trees comprising about 183 genera and 2385 species distributed worldwide, especially abundant in Central America, South America and southeast Asia (Stevens, 2016). Dypsis is a complex and highly variable genus of approximately 140 species of pinnate-leaved palms that has radiated spectacularly in Madagascar and Comoros, with an outlier on Pemba off the coast of Tanzania. This genus is highly diverse in growth form, leaf shape, floral details, and fruit morphology including towering forest giants, bottle palms, litter-trappers, stemless palms, some of the most slender of all palms, and even two climbing members (Dransfield et al., 2008).

Description

Top of page

The following description is adapted from Dransfield and Beentje (1995):

Graceful clustering dioecious palm in tufts of 4-20 plants. Stems 1-7 m high, occasionally with 1-2 small branches, 5-12 cm in diameter. Leaves 5-11, spiral strongly arching; sheath yellowish with white waxy bloom, (28-) 39-60 cm, 11-15 cm in diameter; petiole 19-37 cm long, proximally 1.7-3.5 × 2.5 cm, distally 0.7-2 × 0.8-2 cm, channeled with sharp edges, yellow or yellowish orange, with few abaxial scales; leaflets 44-59 on each side of the rachis, regular, stiff, in one plane on each side of the rachis but the leaflets on opposite sides at an angle of 90-120°, adaxially green, abaxially slightly waxy and grey. Inflorescence interfoliar, sometimes the fruiting stage infrafoliar, spreading, with spreading rachillae, branched to 3 order; peduncle 34-88 cm long, flattened, proximally 2.7-6 × 1-3 cm, distally 1.3 x 2.7 cm in diameter. Staminate flowers with sepals 1.6-1.8 × 2-2.4 mm, hooded, rounded, gibbous, keeled; petals connate for 1-1.3 mm to the receptacle, free for 1.3-2.2 × 2-2.3 mm, ovate, acute; stamens 6, uniseriate, the filaments 2.8- mm long, anthers 1.6-1.8 × 0.8 mm. Pistillate flowers with sepals 2-2.2 × 2.4-2.5 mm, hooded, neither gibbous nor keeled; petals free, 2.8-3.2 × 2.3-3 mm, orbicular or broadly ovate; staminodes 0.3-0.4 mm, thin, empty; ovary c. 3 × 1.4 mm, with short stigmas. Fruit yellow, ellipsoid to obovoid, 12-18 × 7-10 mm, with a pointed apex; endocarp long-fibrous, the fibres almost free. Seed ovoid with an obtuse apex and a pointed base, 11-16 × 6-9.5 mm, with homogeneous endosperm.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

Dypsis lutescens is endemic to Madagascar, mainly in the north-east coastal region between Mahanoro and Antalaha but it has also been recorded in Daraina and Farafangana (Rakotoarinivo and Dransfield, 2012). It has been widely introduced as an ornamental palm around the world (Dransfield et al., 2008; PIER, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). The wide naturalized range of this species is in contrast to its native distribution range in Madagascar, where it is restricted to a specific habitat: white sand forest in a narrow strip close to the sea (Dransfield and Beentje, 1995).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 29 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MadagascarPresentNativeOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); USDA-ARS (2016)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedMeyer et al. (2008)
-RodriguesPresentIntroducedMeyer et al. (2008)
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasiveMeyer et al. (2008)

Asia

ChinaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
IndiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)Andaman and Nicobar Islands
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
JapanPresentIntroducedPIER (2016)Bonin Island
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)Cultivated

North America

BelizePresentIntroducedBalick et al. (2000)
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Guana
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Oviedo Prieto and González-Oliva (2015)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
HaitiPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
HondurasPresentIntroducedNelson (2008)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Saba
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
United StatesPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)Florida and Hawaii
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)Cultivated
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedStaples et al. (2000)

Oceania

Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedHerrera et al. (2010)Cultivated
-PohnpeiPresentIntroducedHerrera et al. (2010)Cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedLorence and Wagner (2013)Cultivated
PalauPresentIntroducedLorence and Wagner (2013)
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedMeyer (2007)

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedJørgensen et al. (2014)Beni, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz
ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga-Piedrahita et al. (2011)Cultivated
EcuadorPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation (2008)Galapagos Islands only
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation (2008)Cultivated
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Dypsis lutescens is one of the most popular ornamental palms in the tropics, where it is widely naturalized. However, there is little information available about the history of its introduction. In the Caribbean Basin this species is reported as introduced as early as the 1700’s (USDA-ARS, 2016). In 1837 it was introduced in Tahiti and in 1856 in Réunion (Meyer et al., 2008). In the 21st Century it has become a popular ornamental palm in Europe (Benítez and Soto, 2010).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of introduction of D. lutescens is high. This species is one the world’s most commonly cultivated palms (Dransfield et al., 2008). The plants produce bright-yellow fruits which can be dispersed by birds (Meyer et al., 2008) and many commercial cultivars are dispersed by dividing rhizomes, tubers, corms and bulbs (Ellison and Ellison, 2001). Therefore, the probability to escape from cultivation and to colonize new habitats, principally in areas near cultivation, remains high.

Habitat

Top of page

Within its native distribution range in Madagascar, D. lutescens occurs mainly in swampy areas along the white sand dunes on the coast of the Indian Ocean, but is also found on rock, along rivers in the lowlands and on alluvium areas at much higher elevations, up to 300 m in Mananara Avaratra, Makira and Daraina (Rakotoarinivo and Dransfield, 2012). In cultivation it prefers to grow in gardens, yards and disturbed sites in moist and wet habitats with full to filtered sun (Staples and Herbst, 2005).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for D. lutescens is 2n = 32 (Pedrosa et al., 1999).

Reproductive Biology

Dypsis lutescens is a dioecious palm (meaning that it has distinct male and female individuals) pollinated by insects, principally bees (Dransfield and Beentje, 1995).

Physiology and Phenology

In Cuba, plants fruit from July to September with a peak in August (Benítez and Soto, 2010). Fresh seeds germinate within 8 weeks (Ellison and Ellison, 2001).

Longevity and Activity Patterns

Dypsis lutescens is a perennial, slow-growing palm (Dransfield et al., 2008).

Population Size and Structure

In Madagascar, the population size of this palm in the wild is estimated at more than a thousand individuals (Dransfield and Beentje, 1995).

Environmental Requirements

Dypsis lutescens prefers tropical to subtropical climates, but it can grow in warm-temperate areas and can tolerate shade, full sun and coastal conditions. It grows on sandy and rocky mildly acidic soils with pH ranging from 6.1 to 6.5 (Ellison and Ellison, 2001; Dransfield et al., 2008).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 20 35

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Plants growing in the wild produce yellow fruits with viable seeds which are dispersed mostly by birds. 

Intentional Introduction

Cultivars are spread by dividing rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs (Ellison and Ellison, 2001).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from gardens Yes Dransfield and Beentje, 1995
Garden waste disposalCultivar spreads by rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs Yes Yes Dransfield and Beentje, 1995
Ornamental purposesOne of the world’s most commonly cultivated palms Yes Yes Ellison and Ellison, 2001

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesOne of the most important ornamental palms in commerce Yes Yes Ellison and Ellison, 2001
MailPlants and seeds widely commercialized Yes Yes Ellison and Ellison, 2001

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Dypsis lutescens has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized outside of its native range. It has the potential to form thickets excluding native vegetation and spread in secondary forests and disturbed sites. Thicket formation is encouraged by humans cutting the larger shoots (Meyer et al., 2008; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Conflict
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Dypsis lutescens is one the world’s most commonly cultivated palms (Dransfield et al., 2008). It is grown as an ornamental in gardens, yards, and parks in tropical and subtropical regions, and elsewhere indoors as a houseplant (Ellison and Ellison, 2001).

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Balick, M. J., Nee, M., Atha, D. E., 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize, New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden.246 pp.

Benítez, B., Soto, F., 2010. Areca palm (Dypsis lutescens, H. Wendel) growth. (El cultivo de la palma areca (Dypsis lutescens, H. Wendel)). Cultivos Tropicales, 31(1), 62-69.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.unpaginated.

Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Dransfield J, Uhl N, Asmussen C, Baker WJ, Harley M, Lewis C, 2008. Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. World Checklist of Arecaceae, Richmond, UK: Kew Publishing, Kew Royal Botanic Gardens .

Dransfield, J., Beentje, H., 1995. The palms of Madagascar, Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.xii + 475 pp.

Ellison, D., Ellison, A., 2001. Cultivated palms of the world, [ed. by Ellison, D., Ellison, A. ]. Pretoria, South Africa: Briza Publications.x + 257 pp.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Herrera, K., Lorence, D. H., Flynn, T., Balick, M. J., 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia, 10, 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R. D. C., Callejas Posada, R., Merello, M., 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares, vol. 2: Listado de las plantas vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia: Universidad de Antioquia.939 pp.

Jørgensen, P. M., Nee, M. H., Beck, S. G., 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.1741 pp.

Meyer, J. Y., Lavergne, C., Hodel, D. R., 2008. Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean). Palms, 52(2), 71-83. http://www.palms.org

Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Pedrosa, A., Gitaí, J., Barros e Silva, A. E., Felix, L. P., Guerra, M., 1999. Cytogenetics of angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco - V. (Citogenética de angiospermas coletadas em Pernambuco - V). Acta Botanica Brasilica, 13(1), 49-60.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Rakotoarinivo M, Dransfield J, 2012. Dypsis lutescens. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012, IUCN.https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/195960/2436709 doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T195960A2436709.en

Staples GW, Herbst DR, 2005. A tropical garden flora: plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bishop Museum Press.908 pp.

Staples, G. W., Herbst, D. R., Imada, C. T., 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, https://bishopmuseumpress.org/products/op65

Stevens, P. F., 2016. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 13. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 13 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Balick M J, Nee M, Atha D E, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden. 246 pp.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation. unpaginated.

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Govaerts R, 2016. World Checklist of Arecaceae., London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Herrera K, Lorence D H, Flynn T, Balick M J, 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia. 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz R D C, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares, vol. 2: Listado de las plantas vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia: Universidad de Antioquia. 939 pp.

Jørgensen P M, Nee M H, Beck S G, 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 1741 pp.

Lorence DH, Wagner WL, 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands., National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/

Meyer J Y, Lavergne C, Hodel D R, 2008. Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean). Palms. 52 (2), 71-83. http://www.palms.org

Meyer J-Y, 2007. [English title not available]. (Rapport de mission sur l'ile d'Uvea (Wallis et Futuna) du 6 au 17 novembre 2007: inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire)., http://www.li-an.fr/jyves/Meyer_2007_Rapport_Plantes_Introduites_Wallis.pdf

Nelson CH, 2008. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Honduras. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Honduras)., Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. 1576 pp.

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Staples G W, Herbst D R, Imada C T, 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. https://bishopmuseumpress.org/products/op65

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

19/05/16 Original text by:

Dr. Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany - Smithsonian NMNH

Dr. Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez, Department of Botany - Smithsonian NMNH

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map