Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Thaumastocoris peregrinus
(bronze bug)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 August 2022
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Thaumastocoris peregrinus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bronze bug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. peregrinus is a serious sap-sucking insect pest infesting non-native Eucalyptus plantations in Southern Africa, South America and Europe. Severe infestations of this sap sucking pest result in leaf senescence, leaf loss, thinn...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); adult female. (a) ventral. (b) dorsal. Note mm scale. Museum set specimen. August 2008.
TitleAdult female
CaptionThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); adult female. (a) ventral. (b) dorsal. Note mm scale. Museum set specimen. August 2008.
CopyrightPublic Domain - released by Carlos Wilcken/via wikipedia
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); adult female. (a) ventral. (b) dorsal. Note mm scale. Museum set specimen. August 2008.
Adult femaleThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); adult female. (a) ventral. (b) dorsal. Note mm scale. Museum set specimen. August 2008.Public Domain - released by Carlos Wilcken/via wikipedia
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Mpumalanga, South Africa.
TitleInfestation
CaptionThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Mpumalanga, South Africa.
Copyright©William M. Ciesla/Forest Health Management International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Mpumalanga, South Africa.
InfestationThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Mpumalanga, South Africa.©William M. Ciesla/Forest Health Management International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Limpopo Province, South Africa.
TitleInfestation
CaptionThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Limpopo Province, South Africa.
Copyright©William M. Ciesla/Forest Health Management International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Limpopo Province, South Africa.
InfestationThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Limpopo Province, South Africa.©William M. Ciesla/Forest Health Management International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellappé

Preferred Common Name

  • bronze bug

International Common Names

  • English: winter bronze bug

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

T. peregrinus is a serious sap-sucking insect pest infesting non-native Eucalyptus plantations in Southern Africa, South America and Europe. Severe infestations of this sap sucking pest result in leaf senescence, leaf loss, thinning tree canopies and during severe infestations branch dieback. A current host range of over 30 Eucalyptus species and hybrids, and its ability to survive in a variety of climatic regions, has aided the invasive success of this small insect pest. T. peregrinus is native to Australia, where very little was known about it before 2002, when significantly high infestation levels occurred on street and garden-planted eucalypt trees in the Sydney region of Australia. Since its initial discovery in South Africa in 2003 and Argentina in 2005, this pest has both established itself and rapidly spread into neighboring countries in southern Africa, South America and southern Europe, where the most recent outbreak and pest establishment have been found.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Family: Thaumastocoridae
  •                             Genus: Thaumastocoris
  •                                 Species: Thaumastocoris peregrinus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé was initially misidentified in 2005 as Thaumastocoris australicus Kirkaldy when discovered as a pest of eucalypts in South America and South Africa. The systematic revision of the genus Thaumastocoris resulted in the description of nine new species and re-description of the five established species (Noack et al., 2011). 

Description

Top of page

Taken from FAO (2012):

Thaumastocoris species are recognized by a strongly dorso-ventrally compressed and elongate body between 2-3.5 mm in length, a broad head, pedicellate eyes, and elongate conspicuous mandibular plates. Adults of T. peregrinus are light brown with darker areas, and have a flattened body.

Eggs are black and laid in clusters on leaves and twigs. The crawlers and young nymphs are essentially straw brown, with patches on the thorax and abdominal segments.

Distribution

Top of page

T. peregrinus is native to the Australian states of New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia. It has been introduced to Africa, South America, Italy, Portugal and New Zealand.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
KenyaPresentIntroduced2009InvasiveOriginal citation: Nadel et al. (2012)
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresentIntroduced2008Invasive
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
South AfricaPresentIntroduced2003Invasive
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
UgandaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUnconfirmed report
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced2007Invasive

Asia

IsraelPresent2014via PestLens newsletter.

Europe

AlbaniaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced2016Original citation: van der Heyden (2017)
GibraltarPresent
GreecePresent, Localized
-CretePresent
ItalyPresent, LocalizedIntroduced2011Invasive
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresent, Localized
MaltaPresent2020via PestLens newsletter
PortugalPresentIntroduced2012Invasive
SpainPresent

North America

MexicoPresent2015via PestLens newsletter.
United StatesPresent, Few occurrences2016
-CaliforniaPresent, Few occurrences2016Los Angeles County

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNative
-Australian Capital TerritoryPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresentNative
-South AustraliaPresentNative
New ZealandPresentIntroduced2012

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced2005InvasiveOriginally misidentified as T. australicus
BrazilPresent, WidespreadIntroduced2008Invasive
-BahiaPresent
-Distrito FederalPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-GoiasPresentIntroduced2011
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
-SergipePresent
ChilePresentIntroduced2011Invasive
ParaguayPresent
UruguayPresentIntroduced2008Invasive

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The source and invasion pattern of T. peregrinus into South Africa and South America was identified as having originated in the Sydney region of Australia, where large outbreaks of the pest have occurred since 2002. The rapid movement and distribution of this pest internationally and within a region is likely due to its ease of establishment and spread via wind, birds and the transported of infested plant materials (Nadel et al., 2010; FAO, 2012).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)LithomyrtusOther
Corymbia henryiLithomyrtusMain
Corymbia maculata (spotted gum)LithomyrtusMain
EucalyptusLithomyrtusMain
EucalyptusLithomyrtusUnknown
Eucalyptus argophloiaLithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus benthamiiLithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus bicolorLithomyrtusUnknown
Eucalyptus bicostata (southern blue gum)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus botryoides (southern mahogany)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus bridgesianaLithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)LithomyrtusOther
Eucalyptus cypellocarpaLithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus dorrigoensisLithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus dunnii (Dunn's white gum)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)LithomyrtusMain
Jiménez-Quiroz et al. (2016); Nadel et al. (2010)
Eucalyptus gomphocephala (tuart)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus grandis (saligna gum)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensisLithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophyllaLithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus largiflorensLithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus longirostrataLithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus macarthurii (Camden woollybutt)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus maidenii (Maiden's gum)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus microcorys (Tallowwood)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus nicholii (willow-leaved peppermint)LithomyrtusOther
Eucalyptus nitens (shining gum)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus occidentalis (swamp yate)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus ovata (swamp gum (Australia))LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus paniculata (grey ironbark)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus pauciflora (cabbage gum)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus pilularis (blackbutt)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus pulverulentaLithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus punctataLithomyrtusOther
Eucalyptus resinifera (red mahogany)LithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus rudisLithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus saligna (Sydney blue gum)LithomyrtusOther
Eucalyptus scopariaLithomyrtusOther
Eucalyptus sideroxylon (black ironbark)LithomyrtusOther
Eucalyptus smithiiLithomyrtusMain
Eucalyptus tereticornis (forest red gum)LithomyrtusOther
Eucalyptus urophylla (Timor mountain gum)LithomyrtusUnknown
Eucalyptus viminalis (ribbon eucalyptus)LithomyrtusOther

Symptoms

Top of page

Infestations are first noted by the initial reddening of eucalypt canopy leaves, with the foliage changing to a yellow-brown color. Symptoms of severe T. peregrinus infestations include the loss of leaves leading to canopy thinning and occasionally branch dieback or tree mortality (Nadel et al., 2010; FAO, 2012).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / dieback
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page
Reproductive Biology
 
Each female is capable of producing approximately 60 eggs during her life cycle, which usually hatch within 6 days (Noack and Rose, 2007; Soliman et al., 2012).
 
Life cycle
 
T. pegerinus has a life cycle of approximately 60 days, that includes five nymphal instars (20 days) and an adult life stage (±42 days) (Noack and Rose, 2007; Soliman et al., 2012).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 38.6
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 3.8

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs not specific
Erynia radicans Pathogen Mascarin et al. (2012)
Supputius cincticeps Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs not specific Souza et al. (2012)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

The international spread of T. peregrinus is principally human mediated, introduced to new areas on transported plant materials. It may also be dispersed by the wind, by birds or by hitchhiking on people’s clothes (Nadel et al., 2010; FAO, 2012).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
HitchhikerUnintentional movement of both extreme long distances and locally principally through human mediatio Yes Yes Nadel et al. (2010)

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftAll life stages but mainly nymphs and adults Yes Garcia et al. (2013); Nadel et al. (2010); Sopow and George (2012); Wilcken et al. (2010)
Land vehiclesAdults and nymphs Yes Nadel et al. (2010)
LuggageAll life stages but mainly that of nymphs and adults Yes Yes Nadel et al. (2010); Wilcken et al. (2010)
Plants or parts of plantsAll life stages Yes Yes Garcia et al. (2013); Nadel et al. (2010); Sopow and George (2012); Wilcken et al. (2010)
WindAdults Yes Nadel et al. (2010)

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark arthropods/eggs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx arthropods/eggs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) arthropods/eggs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches arthropods/eggs; arthropods/nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact

Top of page

T. peregrinus is a serious insect pest of non-native eucalypts planted in Africa, New Zealand, South America and parts of Southern Europe. It has a wide host range and can attack at least 30 eucalypts. All commercially grown eucalypts in South Africa are susceptible to attack (FAO, 2012). Severe infestations of this sap sucking pest result in leaf senescence, leaf loss, thinning tree canopies and during severe infestations branch dieback (Nadel et al., 2010).

Based on the international impact of T. peregrinus, the current native distribution (Australia) and host range of Thaumastocoris safordi, T.nadeli and T. freomooreae has resulted in these species being identified as potential threats to international eucalypt forestry (Noack et al., 2011; Nadel and Noack, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts forestry
Impact mechanisms
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

On infested trees, adults, nymphs and black egg capsules are usually clustered in high numbers on leaves (FAO, 2012).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

An improved understanding as to the invasion pathways used by T. peregrinus is still required; however, it is suggested to be principally human mediated (Nadel et al., 2010). To decrease the likelihood of accidental introductions from an urban center where the T. peregrinus is a pest to another urban center where it does not occur requires better monitoring and control at transport hubs, such as international airports and harbours (Giliomee, 2011). This, however, requires improved regulatory procedures and monitoring by staff adequately trained in identification and detection techniques.

Chemical control

‘Systemic insecticides have been found to be an effective tool for the control of T. peregrinus, but this approach is generally not feasible for large scale application such as plantations’ (FAO, 2012).

Biological control

The most feasible way to control T. peregrinus in non-native eucalypt forest plantation is through the use of biological control agents. Currently research has focused on the Hymenopterid Cleruchoides noackae Lin and Huber, an egg parasitoid native to Australia (Nadel and Noack, 2012; Nadel et al., 2012; Mutitu et al., 2013). Following research both on the biology and host specificity of C. noackae undertaken in quarantine, this biological control agent was recently released in South Africa and South America. International efforts are ongoing to identify other potential biological control agents to control this pest.

References

Top of page

Barbosa LR, Santos F, Wilcken CF, Soliman EP, 2010. Record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) in the State of Parana, Brazil. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira, 30:75 - 77

BiCEP, 2014. Biological Control of Eucalypt Pests (BiCEP). www.bicep.net.au

CABI, EPPO, 2017. Thaumastocoris peregrinus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests , (No.December) Wallingford, UK: CABI.Map 775 (1st revision).

Carpintero DL, Dellapé PM, 2006. A new species of Thaumastocoris Kirkaldy from Argentina (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae: Thaumastocorinae). Zootaxa, 1228:61 - 68

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2018. EPPO Global Database (available online). https://gd.eppo.int

FAO, 2012. Thaumastocoris peregrinus. Forest Pest Species Profiles. http://www.fao.org/forestry/37416-068554951d2006931794ba801340d0ea2.pdf

Garcia A, Figueiredo E, Valente C, Monserrat VJ, Branco M, 2013. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus in Portugal and of the neotropical predator Hemerobius bolivari in Europe. Bulletin of Insectology, 66(2):251-256. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Giliomee JH, 2011. Recent establishment of many alien insects in South Africa - a cause for concern. African Entomology, 19(1):151-155. http://journals.sabinet.co.za/essa

Ide M S, Ruiz G C, Sandoval C A, Valenzuela E J, 2011. Detection of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) associated to Eucalyptus spp. in Chile. (Detección de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) asociado a Eucalyptus spp. en Chile.) Bosque, 32(3):309-313. http://www.biblioteca.uach.cl

Inghilesi, A. F., Cervo, R., Pennacchio, F., Roversi, P. F., Tricarico, E., Mazza, G., 2013. Alien insects on Eucalytpus spp.: an Australian biocenosis in Tuscany. Redia, 96, 21-26. http://www.redia.it

Jacobs DH, Neser S, 2005. Thaumastocoris australicus Kirkaldy (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae): a new insect arrival in South Africa, damaging to Eucalyptus trees. South African Journal of Science, 101(5/6):233-236

Jiménez-Quiroz E, Vanegas-Rico JM, Morales-Martínez O, Lomeli-Flores JR, Rodríguez-Leyva E, 2016. First record of the bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé 2006 (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), in Mexico. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 32(1):35-39

Jiménez-Quiroz, E., Vanegas-Rico, J. M., Morales-Martínez, O., Lomeli-Flores, J. R., Rodríguez-Leyva, E., 2016. First record of the bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé 2006 (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), in Mexico. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 32(1), 35-39. doi: 10.3954/1523-5475-32.1.35

Laudonia S, Sasso R, 2012. The bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus: a new insect recorded in Italy, damaging to Eucalyptus trees. Bulletin of Insectology, 65(1):89-93. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Martínez G, Bianchi M, 2010. First record in Uruguay of the bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellappé, 2006 (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae). (Primer registro para Uruguay de la chinche del eucalipto, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero y Dellappé, 2006 (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae).) Agrociencia (Montevideo), 14(1):15-18

Mascarin GM, Duarte Vda S, Brandão MM, Delalibera Júnior Í, 2012. Natural occurrence of Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), an invasive pest recently found in Brazil. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology [SIP Symposium on Resistance to Bt Crops. 2011 International Congress on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control, OECD Symposium on Disease in Aquatic Crustaceans and 44th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Invertebrate Pathology, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 7-11 August 2011.], 110(3):401-404. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201112000845

Mutitu EK, Garnas JR, Hurley BP, Wingfield MJ, Harney M, Bush SJ, Slippers B, 2013. Biology and rearing of Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid for the biological control of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(5):1979-1985. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jee/2013/00000106/00000005/art00008

Nadel RL, Noack AE, 2012. Current understanding of the biology of Thaumastocoris peregrinus in the quest for a management strategy. International Journal of Pest Management, 58(3):257-266. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ttpm20

Nadel RL, Slippers B, Scholes MC, Lawson SA, Noack AE, Wilcken CF, Bouvet JP, Wingfield MJ, 2010. DNA bar-coding reveals source and patterns of Thaumastocoris peregrinus invasions in South Africa and South America. Biological Invasions, 12(5):1067-1077. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h17n2r78p84l6r53/?p=9bce9af54752452dad382719b8c074a4&pi=11

Nadel RL, Wingfield MJ, Scholes MC, Lawson SA, Noack AE, Neser S, Slippers B, 2012. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae): a potential biological control agent for Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). BioControl, 57(3):397-404. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102853

Nascimento-Machado, D. do, Corrêa-Costa, E., Perini, C. R., Andrade-Ugalde, G., Alves-Saldanha, M., Leitão, J. V., Lovato-Colpo, T., Arnemman, J. A., Cordero-Rivera, A., 2019. The ongoing dispersion of the Eucalyptus bronze bug (Thaumastocoris peregrinus) in Spain. Forest Systems, 28(3), doi: 10.5424/fs/2019283-15353

Noack AE, Cassis G, Rose HA, 2011. Systematic revision of Thaumastocoris Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae). Zootaxa, 3121:1-60. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2011/f/z03121p060f.pdf

Noack AE, Coviella CE, 2006. Thaumastocoris australicus Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae): first record of this invasive pest of Eucalyptus in the Americas. General and Applied Entomology, 35:13-14

Noack AE, Kaapro J, Bartimote-Aufflick K, Mansfield S, Rose HA, 2009. Efficacy of imidacloprid in the control of Thaumastocoris peregrinus on Eucalyptus scoparia in Sydney, Australia. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, 35(4):192-196. http://joa.isa-arbor.com/browse.asp?Journals_ID=1

Noack AE, Rose HA, 2007. Life-history of Thaumastocoris peregrinus and Thaumastocoris sp. in the laboratory with some observations on behaviour. General and Applied Entomology, 36:27-33

Novoselsky T, Freidberg A, 2016. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in the Middle East, with biological notes on its relations with eucalyptus trees. Israel Journal of Entomology, 46:43-55

Novoselsky, T., Freidberg, A., 2016. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in the Middle East, with biological notes on its relations with eucalyptus trees. Israel Journal of Entomology, 46, 43-55. http://www.entomology.org.il/sites/default/files/pdfs/Novoselsky_Freidberg_2016_IJE_ThaumastocorisMiddleEast.pdf

Pereira JM, Melo APCde, Fernandes PM, Soliman EP, 2013. Occurrence of the Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in Goiás State. (Ocorrência de Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) no Estado de Goiás.) Ciência Rural, 43(2):254-257. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782013000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

PereiraI, J. M., Campos de Melo, A. P., Fernandes, P. M., Soliman, E. P., 2013. Occurence of the Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in Goiás State. (Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in Goiás State). 43(2), 254-257. doi: 10.1590/S0103-84782013000200010

Ribeiro GT, Sá Jdos S, Rolim Gda S, Correia-Oliveira ME, Mendonça Mda C, Poderoso JCM, 2015. First report Thaumastocoris peregrinus in Eucalyptus plantations in the state of Sergipe, Brazil (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). Entomologica Americana, 121(1/4):23-26. http://www.bioone.org/loi/nynt

Saliba, I. L., Lunz, A. M., Batista, T. F., Schwartz, G., 2019. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) in Pará state, Brazil. Acta Amazonica, 49(3), 179-182. doi: 10.1590/1809-4392201803161

Savaris M, Lampert S, Pereira PRVda S, Salvadori JR, 2011. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus for the state of Santa Catarina, and new areas of occurrence for the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. (Primeiro registro de Thaumastocoris peregrinus para o estado de Santa Catarina, e novas áreas de ocorrência para o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.) Ciência Rural, 41(11):1874-1876. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782011001100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Soliman EP, Wilcken CF, Pereira JM, Dias TKR, Zaché B, Pogetto MHFAdal, Barbosa LR, 2012. Biology of Thaumastocoris peregrinus in different eucalyptus species and hybrids. Phytoparasitica, 40(3):223-230. http://www.springerlink.com/content/1h88617821411450/

Sopow S, George S, 2012. Bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus: a new Eucalyptus pest in New Zealand. Surveillance (Wellington), 39(2):43-46. http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/publications/surveillance/index.htm

Souza GK, Pikart TG, Pikart FC, Serrão JE, Wilcken CF, Zanuncio JC, 2012. First record of a native heteropteran preying on the introduced eucalyptus pest, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), in Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 95(2):517-520. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

Streito JC, Matocq A, Legros V, Genson G, Pierre É, Pluot-Sigwalt D, 2016. Report of the invasive species Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006, on Reunion Island (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Thaumastocoridae). (Présence sur l'île de la Réunion de l'espèce invasive Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Thaumastocoridae).) Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 121(1):65-72

van der Heyden, T., 2017. The first record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) for Albania. Revista gaditana de Entomología, 8(1): 133-135. https://biotaxa.org/RGDE/article/view/32709

Wilcken CF, Soliman EP, Sá LANde, Barbosa LR, Dias TKR, Ferreira Filho PJ, Oliveira RJR, 2010. Bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) on Eucalyptus in Brazil and its distribution. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 50(2):201-205. http://www.plantprotection.pl

Distribution References

Barbosa LR, Santos F, Wilcken CF, Soliman EP, 2010. Record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) in the State of Parana, Brazil. In: Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira, 30 75 - 77.

BiCEP, 2014. Biological Control of Eucalypt Pests (BiCEP)., http://www.bicep.net.au

CABI, EPPO, 2017. Thaumastocoris peregrinus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 775 (1st revisio. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20173373947

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carpintero DL, Dellapé PM, 2006. A new species of Thaumastocoris Kirkaldy from Argentina (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae: Thaumastocorinae). In: Zootaxa, 1228 61 - 68.

Diaz E A B, Coronel R S, Godziewski D, 2013. Considerations About Two New Eucalyptus Pests in Paraguay, the Shell Psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and the Brown Bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). (CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE DOS NUEVAS PLAGAS DEL EUCALIPTO EN PARAGUAY, EL PSÍLIDO DE LA CONCHA O ESCUDO GLYCASPIS BRIMBLECOMBEI (HEMIPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) Y LA CHINCHE MARRÓN THAUMASTOCORIS PEREGRINUS (HEMIPTERA: THAUMASTOCORIDAE)). Boletín del Museo nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay. 17 (1), 72-75. http://www.faunaparaguay.com/BenitezDiaz17.pdf

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Garcia A, Figueiredo E, Valente C, Monserrat V J, Branco M, 2013. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus in Portugal and of the neotropical predator Hemerobius bolivari in Europe. Bulletin of Insectology. 66 (2), 251-256. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Ide M S, Ruiz G C, Sandoval C A, Valenzuela E J, 2011. Detection of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) associated to Eucalyptus spp. in Chile. (Detección de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) asociado a Eucalyptus spp. en Chile.). Bosque. 32 (3), 309-313. http://www.biblioteca.uach.cl DOI:10.4067/S0717-92002011000300012

Inghilesi A F, Cervo R, Pennacchio F, Roversi P F, Tricarico E, Mazza G, 2013. Alien insects on Eucalytpus spp.: an Australian biocenosis in Tuscany. Redia. 21-26. http://www.redia.it

Jacobs D H, Neser S, 2005. Thaumastocoris australicus Kirkaldy (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae): a new insect arrival in South Africa, damaging to Eucalyptus trees. South African Journal of Science. 101 (5/6), 233-236.

Jiménez-Quiroz E, Vanegas-Rico J M, Morales-Martínez O, Lomeli-Flores J R, Rodríguez-Leyva E, 2016a. First record of the bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé 2006 (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), in Mexico. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology. 32 (1), 35-39. DOI:10.3954/1523-5475-32.1.35

Jiménez-Quiroz E, Vanegas-Rico JM, Morales-Martínez O, Lomeli-Flores JR, Rodríguez-Leyva E, 2016. First record of the bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé 2006 (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), in Mexico. In: Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 32 (1) 35-39.

Laudonia S, Sasso R, 2012. The bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus: a new insect recorded in Italy, damaging to Eucalyptus trees. Bulletin of Insectology. 65 (1), 89-93. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Malumphy C, Guillem R, Perez C, Bensusan K, 2020. Insect pest species of Eucalyptus in Gibraltar. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 156 (1), 51-57. DOI:10.31184/M00138908.1561.4010

Martínez G, Bianchi M, 2010. First record in Uruguay of the bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellappé, 2006 (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae). (Primer registro para Uruguay de la chinche del eucalipto, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero y Dellappé, 2006 (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae).). Agrociencia (Montevideo). 14 (1), 15-18.

Mascarin G M, Duarte V da S, Brandão M M, Delalibera Júnior Í, 2012. Natural occurrence of Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), an invasive pest recently found in Brazil. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 110 (3), 401-404. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201112000845 DOI:10.1016/j.jip.2012.03.025

Mifsud D, Carapezza A, 2020. A new Eucalyptus pest in Malta: Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae). In: Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Malta. 11 129-132. https://www.um.edu.mt/library/oar/handle/123456789/68254

Nadel R L, Slippers B, Scholes M C, Lawson S A, Noack A E, Wilcken C F, Bouvet J P, Wingfield M J, 2010. DNA bar-coding reveals source and patterns of Thaumastocoris peregrinus invasions in South Africa and South America. Biological Invasions. 12 (5), 1067-1077. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h17n2r78p84l6r53/?p=9bce9af54752452dad382719b8c074a4&pi=11 DOI:10.1007/s10530-009-9524-2

Nascimento-Machado D do, Corrêa-Costa E, Perini C R, Andrade-Ugalde G, Alves-Saldanha M, Leitão J V, Lovato-Colpo T, Arnemman J A, Cordero-Rivera A, 2019. The ongoing dispersion of the Eucalyptus bronze bug (Thaumastocoris peregrinus) in Spain. Forest Systems. 28 (3), DOI:10.5424/fs/2019283-15353

Noack A E, Cassis G, Rose H A, 2011. Systematic revision of Thaumastocoris Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae). Zootaxa. 1-60. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2011/f/z03121p060f.pdf

Noack A E, Coviella C E, 2006. Thaumastocoris australicus Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae): first record of this invasive pest of Eucalyptus in the Americas. General and Applied Entomology. 13-14.

Noack A E, Kaapro J, Bartimote-Aufflick K, Mansfield S, Rose H A, 2009. Efficacy of imidacloprid in the control of Thaumastocoris peregrinus on Eucalyptus scoparia in Sydney, Australia. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 35 (4), 192-196. http://joa.isa-arbor.com/browse.asp?Journals_ID=1

Novoselsky T, Freidberg A, 2016. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in the Middle East, with biological notes on its relations with eucalyptus trees. In: Israel Journal of Entomology, 46 43-55.

Novoselsky T, Freidberg A, 2016a. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in the Middle East, with biological notes on its relations with eucalyptus trees. Israel Journal of Entomology. 43-55. http://www.entomology.org.il/sites/default/files/pdfs/Novoselsky_Freidberg_2016_IJE_ThaumastocorisMiddleEast.pdf

Pereira J M, Melo A P C de, Fernandes P M, Soliman E P, 2013. Occurrence of the Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in Goiás State. (Ocorrência de Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) no Estado de Goiás.). Ciência Rural. 43 (2), 254-257. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782013000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt DOI:10.1590/S0103-84782013000200010

PereiraI J M, Campos de Melo A P, Fernandes P M, Soliman E P, 2013. Occurence of the Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in Goiás State. (Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in Goiás State.). 43 (2), 254-257. DOI:10.1590/S0103-84782013000200010

Petrakis P V, 2018. First record of the bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus in Greece. Entomologia Hellenica. 27 (1), 1-9. DOI:10.12681/eh.18703

Ribeiro G T, Sá J dos S, Rolim G da S, Correia-Oliveira M E, Mendonça M da C, Poderoso J C M, 2015. First report Thaumastocoris peregrinus in Eucalyptus plantations in the state of Sergipe, Brazil (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). Entomologica Americana. 121 (1/4), 23-26. http://www.bioone.org/loi/nynt

Saavedra M C, Avila G A, Withers T M, Holwell G I, 2015. The potential global distribution of the Bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 17 (4), 375-388. DOI:10.1111/afe.12117

Saliba I L, Lunz A M, Batista T F, Schwartz G, 2019. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) in Pará state, Brazil. Acta Amazonica. 49 (3), 179-182. DOI:10.1590/1809-4392201803161

Savaris M, Lampert S, Pereira P R V da S, Salvadori J R, 2011. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus for the state of Santa Catarina, and new areas of occurrence for the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. (Primeiro registro de Thaumastocoris peregrinus para o estado de Santa Catarina, e novas áreas de ocorrência para o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.). Ciência Rural. 41 (11), 1874-1876. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782011001100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt DOI:10.1590/S0103-84782011001100004

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Soliman E P, Wilcken C F, Pereira J M, Dias T K R, Zaché B, Pogetto M H F A dal, Barbosa L R, 2012. Biology of Thaumastocoris peregrinus in different eucalyptus species and hybrids. Phytoparasitica. 40 (3), 223-230. http://www.springerlink.com/content/1h88617821411450/ DOI:10.1007/s12600-012-0226-4

Sopow S, George S, 2012. Bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus: a new Eucalyptus pest in New Zealand. Surveillance (Wellington). 39 (2), 43-46. http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/publications/surveillance/index.htm

Souza G K, Pikart T G, Pikart F C, Serrão J E, Wilcken C F, Zanuncio J C, 2012. First record of a native heteropteran preying on the introduced eucalyptus pest, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), in Brazil. Florida Entomologist. 95 (2), 517-520. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/ DOI:10.1653/024.095.0245

Streito J C, Matocq A, Legros V, Genson G, Pierre É, Pluot-Sigwalt D, 2016. Report of the invasive species Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006, on Reunion Island (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Thaumastocoridae). (Présence sur l'île de la Réunion de l'espèce invasive Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Thaumastocoridae).). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 121 (1), 65-72.

van der Heyed T, 2017. The first record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellape, 2006 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) for Albania. Revista gaditana de Entomología. 8 (1), 133-135. https://www.biotaxa.org/RGDE/article/view/32709/29053

Vivas L, Crespo J, Jacinto V, 2015. First record of the invasive species Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 in Spain and new data for Portugal (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). (Primer registro de la especie invasora Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 en España y nuevos datos para Portugal (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae)). BV news Publications Cientificas. 4 (48), 30-35. https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/THMCPE/distribution/ES

Wilcken C F, Soliman E P, Sá L A N de, Barbosa L R, Dias T K R, Ferreira Filho P J, Oliveira R J R, 2010. Bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) on Eucalyptus in Brazil and its distribution. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 50 (2), 201-205. http://www.plantprotection.pl DOI:10.2478/v10045-010-0034-0

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Biological Control of Eucalypt Pests (BiCEP) http://www.bicep.net.au
Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI) http://www.fabinet.up.ac.za
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais (IPEF) (Forestry Science and Research Institute) http://www.ipef.br

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: