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Datasheet

Thaumastocoris peregrinus
(bronze bug)

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Datasheet

Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Thaumastocoris peregrinus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bronze bug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. peregrinus is a serious sap-sucking insect pest infesting non-native Eucalyptus plantations in Southern Africa, South America and Europe. Severe infestations of this sap sucking pest result in leaf...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); adult female. (a) ventral. (b) dorsal. Note mm scale. Museum set specimen. August 2008.
TitleAdult female
CaptionThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); adult female. (a) ventral. (b) dorsal. Note mm scale. Museum set specimen. August 2008.
CopyrightPublic Domain - released by Carlos F. Wilcken/via wikipedia
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); adult female. (a) ventral. (b) dorsal. Note mm scale. Museum set specimen. August 2008.
Adult femaleThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); adult female. (a) ventral. (b) dorsal. Note mm scale. Museum set specimen. August 2008.Public Domain - released by Carlos F. Wilcken/via wikipedia
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Mpumalanga, South Africa.
TitleInfestation
CaptionThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Mpumalanga, South Africa.
Copyright©William M. Ciesla/Forest Health Management International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Mpumalanga, South Africa.
InfestationThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Mpumalanga, South Africa.©William M. Ciesla/Forest Health Management International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Limpopo Province, South Africa.
TitleInfestation
CaptionThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Limpopo Province, South Africa.
Copyright©William M. Ciesla/Forest Health Management International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Limpopo Province, South Africa.
InfestationThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug); infestation on Euvalyptus sp. Limpopo Province, South Africa.©William M. Ciesla/Forest Health Management International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellappé

Preferred Common Name

  • bronze bug

International Common Names

  • English: winter bronze bug

Summary of Invasiveness

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T. peregrinus is a serious sap-sucking insect pest infesting non-native Eucalyptus plantations in Southern Africa, South America and Europe. Severe infestations of this sap sucking pest result in leaf senescence, leaf loss, thinning tree canopies and during severe infestations branch dieback. A current host range of over 30 Eucalyptus species and hybrids, and its ability to survive in a variety of climatic regions, has aided the invasive success of this small insect pest. T. peregrinus is native to Australia, where very little was known about it before 2002, when significantly high infestation levels occurred on street and garden-planted eucalypt trees in the Sydney region of Australia. Since its initial discovery in South Africa in 2003 and Argentina in 2005, this pest has both established itself and rapidly spread into neighboring countries in southern Africa, South America and southern Europe, where the most recent outbreak and pest establishment have been found.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Family: Thaumastocoridae
  •                             Genus: Thaumastocoris
  •                                 Species: Thaumastocoris peregrinus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé was initially misidentified in 2005 as Thaumastocoris australicus Kirkaldy when discovered as a pest of eucalypts in South America and South Africa. The systematic revision of the genus Thaumastocoris resulted in the description of nine new species and re-description of the five established species (Noack et al., 2011). 

Description

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Taken from FAO (2012):

Thaumastocoris species are recognized by a strongly dorso-ventrally compressed and elongate body between 2-3.5 mm in length, a broad head, pedicellate eyes, and elongate conspicuous mandibular plates. Adults of T. peregrinus are light brown with darker areas, and have a flattened body.

Eggs are black and laid in clusters on leaves and twigs. The crawlers and young nymphs are essentially straw brown, with patches on the thorax and abdominal segments.

Distribution

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T. peregrinus is native to the Australian states of New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia. It has been introduced to Africa, South America, Italy, Portugal and New Zealand.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IsraelPresent2014Novoselsky and Freidberg, 2016via PestLens newsletter.

Africa

KenyaPresentIntroduced2009 Invasive Nadel et al., 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentIntroduced2008 Invasive Nadel et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
RéunionPresentStreito et al., 2016
South AfricaPresentIntroduced2003 Invasive Jacobs and Neser, 2005; Nadel et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Unconfirmed report
UgandaPresentIntroduced Invasive BiCEP, 2014Unconfirmed report
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced2007 Invasive Nadel et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014

North America

MexicoPresent2015Jiménez-Quiroz et al., 2016via PestLens newsletter.

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced2005 Invasive Carpintero and Dellapé, 2006; Noack and Coviella, 2006; Nadel et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014Originally misidentified as T. australicus
BrazilWidespreadIntroduced2008 Invasive Wilcken et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-BahiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Espirito SantoPresentWilcken et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-GoiasPresentIntroduced2011Pereira et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentWilcken et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentWilcken et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentBarbosa et al., 2010; Wilcken et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Rio de JaneiroPresentWilcken et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresentWilcken et al., 2010; Savaris et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentSavaris et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentWilcken et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-SergipePresentRibeiro et al., 2015
ChilePresentIntroduced2011 Invasive Ide et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
ParaguayPresentSoliman et al., 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
UruguayPresentIntroduced2008 Invasive Martínez and Bianchi, 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced2016van der Heyden, 2017
GreeceRestricted distributionIntroduced2016EPPO, 2018
ItalyPresentIntroduced2011 Invasive Laudonia and Sasso, 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentEPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentIntroduced2012 Invasive Garcia et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentIntroduced2014EPPO, 2018

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNativeNoack et al., 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentNoack et al., 2009; Noack et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentNativeNoack et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2013
-South AustraliaPresentNativeNoack et al., 2011; CABI/EPPO, 2013
New ZealandPresentSopow and George, 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

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The source and invasion pattern of T. peregrinus into South Africa and South America was identified as having originated in the Sydney region of Australia, where large outbreaks of the pest have occurred since 2002. The rapid movement and distribution of this pest internationally and within a region is likely due to its ease of establishment and spread via wind, birds and the transported of infested plant materials (Nadel et al., 2010; FAO, 2012).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)MyrtaceaeOther
Corymbia henryiMyrtaceaeMain
Corymbia maculata (spotted gum)MyrtaceaeMain
EucalyptusMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus argophloiaMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus benthamiiMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus bicostata (southern blue gum)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus botryoides (southern mahogany)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus bridgesianaMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)MyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus cypellocarpaMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus dorrigoensisMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus dunnii (Dunn's white gum)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus gomphocephala (tuart)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus grandis (saligna gum)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensisMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophyllaMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus largiflorensMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus longirostrataMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus macarthurii (Camden woollybutt)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus maidenii (Maiden's gum)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus microcorys (Tallowwood)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus nicholii (willow-leaved peppermint)MyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus nitens (shining gum)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus occidentalis (swamp yate)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus ovata (swamp gum (Australia))MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus paniculata (grey ironbark)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus pauciflora (cabbage gum)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus pilularis (blackbutt)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus pulverulentaMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus punctataMyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus resinifera (red mahogany)MyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus rudisMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus saligna (Sydney blue gum)MyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus scopariaMyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus sideroxylon (black ironbark)MyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus smithiiMyrtaceaeMain
Eucalyptus tereticornis (forest red gum)MyrtaceaeOther
Eucalyptus viminalis (ribbon eucalyptus)MyrtaceaeOther

Symptoms

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Infestations are first noted by the initial reddening of eucalypt canopy leaves, with the foliage changing to a yellow-brown color. Symptoms of severe T. peregrinus infestations include the loss of leaves leading to canopy thinning and occasionally branch dieback or tree mortality (Nadel et al., 2010; FAO, 2012).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / dieback
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology
 
Each female is capable of producing approximately 60 eggs during her life cycle, which usually hatch within 6 days (Noack and Rose, 2007; Soliman et al., 2012).
 
Life cycle
 
T. pegerinus has a life cycle of approximately 60 days, that includes five nymphal instars (20 days) and an adult life stage (±42 days) (Noack and Rose, 2007; Soliman et al., 2012).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 38.6
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 3.8

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults/Nymphs not specific
Erynia radicans Pathogen Mascarin et al., 2012
Supputius cincticeps Predator Adults/Nymphs not specific Souza et al., 2012

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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The international spread of T. peregrinus is principally human mediated, introduced to new areas on transported plant materials. It may also be dispersed by the wind, by birds or by hitchhiking on people’s clothes (Nadel et al., 2010; FAO, 2012).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
HitchhikerUnintentional movement of both extreme long distances and locally principally through human mediatio Yes Yes Nadel et al., 2010

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftAll life stages but mainly nymphs and adults Yes Garcia et al., 2013; Nadel et al., 2010; Sopow and George, 2012; Wilcken et al., 2010
Land vehiclesAdults and nymphs Yes Nadel et al., 2010
LuggageAll life stages but mainly that of nymphs and adults Yes Yes Nadel et al., 2010; Wilcken et al., 2010
Plants or parts of plantsAll life stages Yes Yes Garcia et al., 2013; Nadel et al., 2010; Sopow and George, 2012; Wilcken et al., 2010
WindAdults Yes Nadel et al., 2010

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark eggs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx eggs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact

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T. peregrinus is a serious insect pest of non-native eucalypts planted in Africa, New Zealand, South America and parts of Southern Europe. It has a wide host range and can attack at least 30 eucalypts. All commercially grown eucalypts in South Africa are susceptible to attack (FAO, 2012). Severe infestations of this sap sucking pest result in leaf senescence, leaf loss, thinning tree canopies and during severe infestations branch dieback (Nadel et al., 2010).

Based on the international impact of T. peregrinus, the current native distribution (Australia) and host range of Thaumastocoris safordi, T.nadeli and T. freomooreae has resulted in these species being identified as potential threats to international eucalypt forestry (Noack et al., 2011; Nadel and Noack, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts forestry
Impact mechanisms
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Detection and Inspection

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On infested trees, adults, nymphs and black egg capsules are usually clustered in high numbers on leaves (FAO, 2012).

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

An improved understanding as to the invasion pathways used by T. peregrinus is still required; however, it is suggested to be principally human mediated (Nadel et al., 2010). To decrease the likelihood of accidental introductions from an urban center where the T. peregrinus is a pest to another urban center where it does not occur requires better monitoring and control at transport hubs, such as international airports and harbours (Giliomee, 2011). This, however, requires improved regulatory procedures and monitoring by staff adequately trained in identification and detection techniques.

Chemical control

‘Systemic insecticides have been found to be an effective tool for the control of T. peregrinus, but this approach is generally not feasible for large scale application such as plantations’ (FAO, 2012).

Biological control

The most feasible way to control T. peregrinus in non-native eucalypt forest plantation is through the use of biological control agents. Currently research has focused on the Hymenopterid Cleruchoides noackae Lin and Huber, an egg parasitoid native to Australia (Nadel and Noack, 2012; Nadel et al., 2012; Mutitu et al., 2013). Following research both on the biology and host specificity of C. noackae undertaken in quarantine, this biological control agent was recently released in South Africa and South America. International efforts are ongoing to identify other potential biological control agents to control this pest.

References

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Barbosa LR, Santos F, Wilcken CF, Soliman EP, 2010. Record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) in the State of Parana, Brazil. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira, 30:75 - 77

BiCEP, 2014. Biological Control of Eucalypt Pests (BiCEP). www.bicep.net.au

CABI/EPPO, 2013. Thaumastocoris peregrinus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 775

Carpintero DL, Dellapé PM, 2006. A new species of Thaumastocoris Kirkaldy from Argentina (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae: Thaumastocorinae). Zootaxa, 1228:61 - 68

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2018. EPPO Global Database (available online). https://gd.eppo.int

FAO, 2012. Thaumastocoris peregrinus. Forest Pest Species Profiles. http://www.fao.org/forestry/37416-068554951d2006931794ba801340d0ea2.pdf

Garcia A, Figueiredo E, Valente C, Monserrat VJ, Branco M, 2013. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus in Portugal and of the neotropical predator Hemerobius bolivari in Europe. Bulletin of Insectology, 66(2):251-256. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Giliomee JH, 2011. Recent establishment of many alien insects in South Africa - a cause for concern. African Entomology, 19(1):151-155. http://journals.sabinet.co.za/essa

Ide M S, Ruiz G C, Sandoval C A, Valenzuela E J, 2011. Detection of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) associated to Eucalyptus spp. in Chile. (Detección de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) asociado a Eucalyptus spp. en Chile.) Bosque, 32(3):309-313. http://www.biblioteca.uach.cl

Jacobs DH, Neser S, 2005. Thaumastocoris australicus Kirkaldy (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae): a new insect arrival in South Africa, damaging to Eucalyptus trees. South African Journal of Science, 101(5/6):233-236

Jiménez-Quiroz E, Vanegas-Rico JM, Morales-Martínez O, Lomeli-Flores JR, Rodríguez-Leyva E, 2016. First record of the bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé 2006 (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), in Mexico. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 32(1):35-39

Laudonia S, Sasso R, 2012. The bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus: a new insect recorded in Italy, damaging to Eucalyptus trees. Bulletin of Insectology, 65(1):89-93. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Martínez G, Bianchi M, 2010. First record in Uruguay of the bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellappé, 2006 (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae). (Primer registro para Uruguay de la chinche del eucalipto, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero y Dellappé, 2006 (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae).) Agrociencia (Montevideo), 14(1):15-18

Mascarin GM, Duarte Vda S, Brandão MM, Delalibera Júnior Í, 2012. Natural occurrence of Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), an invasive pest recently found in Brazil. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology [SIP Symposium on Resistance to Bt Crops. 2011 International Congress on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control, OECD Symposium on Disease in Aquatic Crustaceans and 44th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Invertebrate Pathology, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 7-11 August 2011.], 110(3):401-404. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201112000845

Mutitu EK, Garnas JR, Hurley BP, Wingfield MJ, Harney M, Bush SJ, Slippers B, 2013. Biology and rearing of Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid for the biological control of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(5):1979-1985. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jee/2013/00000106/00000005/art00008

Nadel RL, Noack AE, 2012. Current understanding of the biology of Thaumastocoris peregrinus in the quest for a management strategy. International Journal of Pest Management, 58(3):257-266. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ttpm20

Nadel RL, Slippers B, Scholes MC, Lawson SA, Noack AE, Wilcken CF, Bouvet JP, Wingfield MJ, 2010. DNA bar-coding reveals source and patterns of Thaumastocoris peregrinus invasions in South Africa and South America. Biological Invasions, 12(5):1067-1077. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h17n2r78p84l6r53/?p=9bce9af54752452dad382719b8c074a4&pi=11

Nadel RL, Wingfield MJ, Scholes MC, Lawson SA, Noack AE, Neser S, Slippers B, 2012. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae): a potential biological control agent for Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). BioControl, 57(3):397-404. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102853

Noack AE, Cassis G, Rose HA, 2011. Systematic revision of Thaumastocoris Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae). Zootaxa, 3121:1-60. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2011/f/z03121p060f.pdf

Noack AE, Coviella CE, 2006. Thaumastocoris australicus Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae): first record of this invasive pest of Eucalyptus in the Americas. General and Applied Entomology, 35:13-14

Noack AE, Kaapro J, Bartimote-Aufflick K, Mansfield S, Rose HA, 2009. Efficacy of imidacloprid in the control of Thaumastocoris peregrinus on Eucalyptus scoparia in Sydney, Australia. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, 35(4):192-196. http://joa.isa-arbor.com/browse.asp?Journals_ID=1

Noack AE, Rose HA, 2007. Life-history of Thaumastocoris peregrinus and Thaumastocoris sp. in the laboratory with some observations on behaviour. General and Applied Entomology, 36:27-33

Novoselsky T, Freidberg A, 2016. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in the Middle East, with biological notes on its relations with eucalyptus trees. Israel Journal of Entomology, 46:43-55

Pereira JM, Melo APCde, Fernandes PM, Soliman EP, 2013. Occurrence of the Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in Goiás State. (Ocorrência de Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) no Estado de Goiás.) Ciência Rural, 43(2):254-257. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782013000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Ribeiro GT, Sá Jdos S, Rolim Gda S, Correia-Oliveira ME, Mendonça Mda C, Poderoso JCM, 2015. First report Thaumastocoris peregrinus in Eucalyptus plantations in the state of Sergipe, Brazil (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). Entomologica Americana, 121(1/4):23-26. http://www.bioone.org/loi/nynt

Savaris M, Lampert S, Pereira PRVda S, Salvadori JR, 2011. First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus for the state of Santa Catarina, and new areas of occurrence for the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. (Primeiro registro de Thaumastocoris peregrinus para o estado de Santa Catarina, e novas áreas de ocorrência para o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.) Ciência Rural, 41(11):1874-1876. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782011001100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Soliman EP, Wilcken CF, Pereira JM, Dias TKR, Zaché B, Pogetto MHFAdal, Barbosa LR, 2012. Biology of Thaumastocoris peregrinus in different eucalyptus species and hybrids. Phytoparasitica, 40(3):223-230. http://www.springerlink.com/content/1h88617821411450/

Sopow S, George S, 2012. Bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus: a new Eucalyptus pest in New Zealand. Surveillance (Wellington), 39(2):43-46. http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/publications/surveillance/index.htm

Souza GK, Pikart TG, Pikart FC, Serrão JE, Wilcken CF, Zanuncio JC, 2012. First record of a native heteropteran preying on the introduced eucalyptus pest, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), in Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 95(2):517-520. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

Streito JC, Matocq A, Legros V, Genson G, Pierre É, Pluot-Sigwalt D, 2016. Report of the invasive species Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006, on Reunion Island (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Thaumastocoridae). (Présence sur l'île de la Réunion de l'espèce invasive Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Thaumastocoridae).) Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 121(1):65-72

van der Heyden, T., 2017. The first record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) for Albania. Revista gaditana de Entomología, 8(1): 133-135. https://biotaxa.org/RGDE/article/view/32709

Wilcken CF, Soliman EP, Sá LANde, Barbosa LR, Dias TKR, Ferreira Filho PJ, Oliveira RJR, 2010. Bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) on Eucalyptus in Brazil and its distribution. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 50(2):201-205. http://www.plantprotection.pl

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Biological Control of Eucalypt Pests (BiCEP)www.bicep.net.au
Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI)www.fabinet.up.ac.za
Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais (IPEF) (Forestry Science and Research Institute)www.ipef.br

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Distribution Maps

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