Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Albonectria rigidiuscula
(green point gall)

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Datasheet

Albonectria rigidiuscula (green point gall)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Albonectria rigidiuscula
  • Preferred Common Name
  • green point gall
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Perithecia (200-320 µm high x 190-300 µm diameter) from Sach's medium.
TitlePerithecia
CaptionPerithecia (200-320 µm high x 190-300 µm diameter) from Sach's medium.
CopyrightJenn-Wen Huang
Perithecia (200-320 µm high x 190-300 µm diameter) from Sach's medium.
PeritheciaPerithecia (200-320 µm high x 190-300 µm diameter) from Sach's medium. Jenn-Wen Huang

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Albonectria rigidiuscula (Berk. & Broome) Rossman & Samuels

Preferred Common Name

  • green point gall

Other Scientific Names

  • Calonectria eburnea Rehm
  • Calonectria lichenigena Speg.
  • Calonectria rigidiuscula (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.
  • Calonectria sulcata Starbäck
  • Calonectria tetraspora (Seaver) Sacc. & Trotter
  • Fusarium decemcellulare Brick
  • Fusarium rigidiusculum W.C. Snyder & H. N. Hansen
  • Fusarium spicaria-colorantis Sacc. & Trotter
  • Nectria rigidiuscula Berk. & Broome
  • Scoleconectria tetraspora Seaver
  • Spicaria colorans De Jonge

International Common Names

  • English: cushion gall disease; die-back of cocoa; witches' broom of mango
  • Spanish: agalla del mango; escoba de bruja del mango
  • French: fusariose du cacaoyer; gale du cacaoyer
  • Chinese: zhu ku bin

EPPO code

  • CALORI (Nectria rigidiuscula)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Albonectria
  •                                     Species: Albonectria rigidiuscula

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HubeiPresentWang et al., 2015
-SichuanPresentQi et al., 2013
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresentWadia and Manoharachary, 1980
-BiharPresentPrasad and Sinha, 1979
-Indian PunjabPresentSingh and Kang, 1989
-KeralaPresentRao and Varghese, 1991
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentBooth and Waterston, 1964
-KalimantanPresentBooth and Waterston, 1964
IranPresentChehri, 2017
MalaysiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-SabahPresentEPPO, 2014
PhilippinesWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentHuang et al., 1992

Africa

CameroonPresentBooth and Waterston, 1964
Central African RepublicPresent
CongoPresentBooth and Waterston, 1964
Côte d'IvoireWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014
GhanaWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014
MadagascarPresentBooth and Waterston, 1964
NigeriaWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014
Sierra LeoneWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014

North America

MexicoWidespreadEPPO, 2014
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresent
-OklahomaPresentBooth and Waterston, 1964

Central America and Caribbean

BelizeWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Costa RicaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
CubaPresentPérez et al., 2012
DominicaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Dominican RepublicWidespreadEPPO, 2014
GrenadaWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014
GuatemalaWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014
HondurasPresentBooth and Waterston, 1964
JamaicaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
NicaraguaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
PanamaWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentSerrato-Diaz et al., 2015
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentBooth and Waterston, 1964
BrazilWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-AmazonasPresentMatos et al., 2016
-BahiaPresentAbreu, 1985
-ParaPresentDurate et al., 1982
-Rio de JaneiroPresentBrioso, 2012
ColombiaWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014
EcuadorWidespreadEPPO, 2014
GuyanaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
PeruWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SurinameWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaWidespreadBooth and Waterston, 1964; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks, 2002
French PolynesiaPresentBooth and Waterston, 1964
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentEPPO, 2014
New CaledoniaPresentBooth and Waterston, 1964
Papua New GuineaWidespreadEPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / rot
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / galls
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / witches broom

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Wood

References

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Abreu JMde (Director), 1985. Development of research and experimentation in agriculture and animal husbandry. Principal results 1983. Desenvolvimento da pesquisa e experimentac^circumflex~ao agropecuária. Principais resultados 1983., 96pp.; 40 ref.

Adis J, Fonseca OJM, Strassen RZ, 1985. A thrips as vector of the "supersprouting" fungus disease in guaraná plants of the Central Amazon. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 10(3):677-679; 3 ref.

Archibald JF, 1961. Transmission of gall diseases of cacao, mango, and pigeon pea. Nature, 190:284.

Booth C, 1960. Studies on Pyrenomycetes. V. Mycological Papers, No. 74:13-15.

Booth C, Waterston JM, 1964. Calonectria rigidiuscula. Descriptions of pathogenic fungi and bacteria, No. 21. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Brioso PST, 2012. Canker in Calycophyllum spruceanum in Rio de Janeiro State. (Cancro em Calycophyllum spruceanum no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.) Summa Phytopathologica, 38(1):97. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-54052012000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Brunt AA, Wharton AL, 1962a. Calonectria rigidiuscula (Berk. & Br.) Sacc. the cause of a gall disease of cocoa in Ghana. Nature, 193:903-904.

Brunt AA, Wharton AL, 1962b. Etiology of a gall disease of cocoa in Ghana caused by Calonectria rigidiuscula (Berk. & Br.) Sacc. Annals of Applied Biology, 50:283-289.

Bugnicourt F, 1952. Note on the mycoflora of rice seed in the Territories of the South Pacific. Rev. Mycol. 17 (Suppl. colon.1), 26-29.

Chang JC, Chen T, 1984. Blight canker of Leucaena leucocephala. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry, 17(3):47-59.

Chao G-P, Wu W-S, 1979. Mycological investigations on the cultivated plants at Highland farms (III). Memoirs of the College of Agriculture National Taiwan University, 19(1):87-95

Chehri, K., 2017. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Campylocarpon fasciculare and Fusarium spp., the cause of black disease of grapevine in Iran., 40(4), 587-599. http://www.pertanika.upm.edu.my/Pertanika%20PAPERS/JTAS%20Vol.%2040%20(4)%20Nov.%202017%20(View%20Full%20Journal).pdf

Crowdy SH, 1947. Observations on the pathogenicity of Calonectria rigidiuscula (Berk. & Br.) Sacc. on Theobroma cacao L. Annals of Applied Biology, 34:45-59.

Darvas JM, Kotzé JM, Wehner FC, 1987. Field occurrence and control of fungi causing postharvest decay of avocados. Phytophylactica, 19(4):453-455; 15 ref.

Delgado A, 1991. Efficacy of fungicides to control greenpoint cushions gall in cocoa. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad del Zulia, 8(2):87-105

Delgado Avila A, 1991. Efficacy of fungicides for control of greenpoint cushion galls artificially induced in cocoa seedlings. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad del Zulia, 8(1):29-47

Duarte M de LR, Freire Fdas CO, Albuquerque FC de, Correa MPF, 1982. Trunk gall of guarana. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 7(1):129-132

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Huang JW, Sun SK, Maa HY, Chen JH, 1992. Studies on the genus Fusarium of Taiwan (III). Transactions of the Mycological Society of Republic of China, 7(3-4):1-17; 5 ref.

Kay D, 1961. Die-back of cocoa. Tech. Bull. W. Afr. Cocoa Res. Inst., 8, 20pp.

Manil P, Bonnier C, Fraselle J, 1949. Referring to the 'isometabolic point' of cultures of various species of Fusarium. Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol., 31(3-4):804-809.

Matos KS, Almeida LBde, Nascimento AR, Hanada RE, Silva GFda, 2016. Inflorescence oversprouting and vascular and rachis necrosis caused by Fusarium decemcellulare in Anacardium occidentale in Brazil. Plant Disease, 100(8):1781. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

McElroy C, Jones WH, Rinehart FA, 1954. An investigation of the soil microflora of two grassland plots. Proc. Okla Acad. Sci., 33(1952):163-168.

Meiffren M, Belin M, 1960. Trial of mixed insecticidal and fungicidal control of beetle of coffee branches, Xyleborus morstatti. Café, Cacao, Thé, 4(3):150-158.

Nash SM, Snyder WC, 1962. Quantitative estimations by plate counts of propagules by the bean root rot Fusarium in field soil. Phytopathology, 52:567-572.

Nicot J, 1953. Notes on the fungal microflora of some soils under large-scale cultivation in tropical Africa and in Madagascar. Rev. Mycol., 18(Suppl. colon.2), 88-93.

Owen H, 1956. Further observations on the pathogenicity of Calonectria rigidiuscula (Berk. & Br.) Sacc. to Theobroma cacao L. Annals of Applied Biology, 44(2):307-321.

Pérez Vicente L, Martínez de la Parte E, Cantillo Pérez T, 2012. First report in Cuba of green point gall of cocoa cushion caused by Albonectria rigidiuscula (Fusarium decemcellulare). Fitosanidad, 16(1):19-25. http://www.inisav.cu/fitosanidad/2012/16(1)12.pdf

Prasad SS, Sinha AK, 1979. Some new records of fungi on mango. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, B, 49(3):117-118

Qi YanXiang, Pu JinJi, Zhang Xin, Zhang He, Lu Ying, Yu QunFang, Zhang HuiQiang, Xie YiXian, 2013. First report of dieback of mango caused by Fusarium decemcellulare in China. Journal of Phytopathology, 161(10):735-738. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Rao VG, Varghese KIM, 1991. On two fungal rots of cacao. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 7(3):428-430; 5 ref.

Reinking OA, 1943. Parasitic and other Fusaria counted in Costa Rica and Panama soils. Zentralbl. Bakt. Ab. 2, XC, 1-4, 4-17.

Resplandy MR, Chevaugeon J, Delassus M, Luc M, 1954. First annotated list of parasitic fungi of cultivated plants in the Ivory Coast. Ann. Inst. Rech. Agron. Ser. C (Ann. Epiphyt.), 5(1):1-61.

Rondón GA, Materán M, 1990. Annatto and mamón, new hosts of Fusarium decemcellulare in Venezuela. Fitopatología Venezolana, 3(2):27-28; 8 ref.

Serrato-Diaz LM, Perez-Cuevas M, Rivera-Vargas LI, Goenaga R, French-Monar RD, 2015. First report of Fusarium decemcellulare causing inflorescence wilt and vascular and flower necrosis of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), longan (Dimocarpus longan), and mango (Mangifera indica). Plant Disease, 99(8):1187. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Singh I, Kang MS, 1989. New host records of some fungi from India. Plant Disease Research, 4(2):183.

Singh UP, Singh HB, 1978. Occurrence of Fusarium decemcellulare on living galls of Zizyphus mauritiana in India. Mycologia, 70(5):1126-1129

Thresh JM, 1960. Capsids as a factor influencing the effect of swollen-shoot disease on cacao in Nigeria. Emp. J. Exp. Agric., 28(111):193-200.

Voelcker OJ, 1946. Annual report West African Cacao Research Institute. April 1945- March 1946. Mimeograph, quoted in Review of Applied Mycology, 25:548. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Wadia KDR, Manoharachary C, 1980. Three postharvest diseases of Zizyphus mauritiana fruits from India. Plant Disease, 64(3):323-324

Wang YX, Chen JY, Li DW, Huang JB, Zheng L, 2015. First report of canker of Magnolia denudata caused by Fusarium decemcellulare in Hubei, China. Plant Disease, 99(7):1036-1037. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Distribution Maps

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