Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Digitaria insularis



Digitaria insularis (sourgrass)


  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Digitaria insularis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sourgrass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. insularis is an aggressive perennial grass causing major weed problems in its native area, especially in Brazil, Paraquay and Bolivia. It was classed as a principal weed in Venezuela by ...

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Digitaria insularis (sourgrass); habit at Mokolii, Oahu. April 19, 2005
CaptionDigitaria insularis (sourgrass); habit at Mokolii, Oahu. April 19, 2005
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2005 - CC-BY-3.0
Digitaria insularis (sourgrass); habit at Mokolii, Oahu. April 19, 2005
HabitDigitaria insularis (sourgrass); habit at Mokolii, Oahu. April 19, 2005©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2005 - CC-BY-3.0
Digitaria insularis (sourgrass); habit at Nuu Mauka, Maui.  November 27, 2004
CaptionDigitaria insularis (sourgrass); habit at Nuu Mauka, Maui. November 27, 2004
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2004 - CC-BY-3.0
Digitaria insularis (sourgrass); habit at Nuu Mauka, Maui.  November 27, 2004
HabitDigitaria insularis (sourgrass); habit at Nuu Mauka, Maui. November 27, 2004©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2004 - CC-BY-3.0
Digitaria insularis (sourgrass); seedheads. Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 09, 2008
CaptionDigitaria insularis (sourgrass); seedheads. Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 09, 2008
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2008. CC-BY-3.0
Digitaria insularis (sourgrass); seedheads. Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 09, 2008
SeedheadsDigitaria insularis (sourgrass); seedheads. Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 09, 2008©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2008. CC-BY-3.0


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman

Preferred Common Name

  • sourgrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Andropogon insularis L.
  • Digitaria insularis (L.) Fedde
  • Panicum insulare (L.) G.Mey.
  • Panicum leucophaeum Kunth
  • Trichachne insularis (L.) Nees
  • Valota insularis (L.) Chase

International Common Names

  • Spanish: rabo de zorra

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: pasto amargo
  • Brazil: capim acu; capim amargoso; capim flecha; capim pororo; milhete gigante
  • Cuba: barba de indio; torolico
  • Dominican Republic: yerba de zorra
  • Haiti: barbon des antilles; herbe à ble; herbe pental; z'herbe à blé
  • Puerto Rico: Zorra

Summary of Invasiveness

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D. insularis is an aggressive perennial grass causing major weed problems in its native area, especially in Brazil, Paraquay and Bolivia. It was classed as a principal weed in Venezuela by Holm et al. (1979). It is a major weed where introduced to pastures in Hawaii, USA (Kuswata Kartawinata and Mueller-Dombois, 1972); also in Papua New Guinea (Chadhokar, 1978). In Hawaii, a weed risk assessment based on the Australia/New Zealand model rated the species at 20, i.e. high risk (PIER, 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Digitaria
  •                                 Species: Digitaria insularis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Digitaria insularis has been known by a large number of synonyms, since originally being described as Andropogon insularis by Linnaeus. Some of the more frequently quoted are included in the tabulated list, but the only one used at all frequently in recent years has been Trichachne insularis. It is included in the Trichachne section of the genus.


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D. insularis is a tufted perennial grass up to 150 cm high. It is referred to as rhizomatous (e.g. Machado et al., 2006) but the rhizomes are extremely short and swollen. Leaves up to 40 cm long, 15 mm wide, finely scabrid along edges. Sheaths hairy, ligule 3-4 mm long. Culms more-or-less erect, up to 10 mm in diameter. Nodes brown, bearded. Inflorescence a panicle up to 30 cm long, comprising up to 50 racemes, narrowly divergent, congested, white to brownish. Spikelets in pairs up to 4 mm long. Lower glume up to 1 mm long, upper glume and lemma with silky hairs exceeding the spikelet. Caryopsis 1.5 mm long.

Detailed discussion of growth forms, branching patterns, and inflorescence structure in some Digitaria species including D. insularis is provided by Rua (2003).

Plant Type

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Grass / sedge
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated


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D. insularis is native to the Americas, from Argentina in the south to southern USA in the north. It is assumed to be introduced to the more northern state of Illinois, USA. Elsewhere it has been introduced to the Philippines and a number of Pacific Islands including Fiji, Papua New Guinea and Hawaii. The status of one record from South Africa is uncertain (GBIF, 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


South AfricaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)


JapanPresent, LocalizedIntroducedBonin Islands

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative
Cayman IslandsPresentNative
Costa RicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentNative
Netherlands AntillesPresentNativeSaba, St Eustatius
Puerto RicoPresentNative
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNative
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeSt Vincent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNative
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-IllinoisPresent, LocalizedIntroduced


Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveRalik Chain
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveSaipan, Tinian Islands
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced
U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedMidway Atoll
-Wake IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

BoliviaPresent, WidespreadNative
BrazilPresent, WidespreadNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
French GuianaPresentNative
ParaguayPresent, WidespreadNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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No information has been found on the history of introduction to Asia and the Pacific and it is unclear how the introductions have occurred other than, presumably, by contamination of the seed of pasture species. Earliest collections recorded by GBIF (2012) indicate presence in Hawaii by 1925, Marshall and Northern Mariana Islands by 1946 and Papua New Guinea by 1959.

Risk of Introduction

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D. insularis is not traded as either a forage crop or an ornamental suggesting that the risk of introduction should be low.


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In its native areas in South America it is a plant of low altitude swamps, pastures, railway tracks, roadsides, pastures and disturbed forest. Generally in moist conditions but also occurring in some drier situations. In Hawaii, USA, it is "naturalized in abandoned fields, pastures, disturbed sites, and along roadsides, 0-340 m.” In New Guinea, it is "a weed of grazing land, headlands and roadsides; not a serious problem in cultivation" (PIER, 2012).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Principal habitat
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Principal habitat
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Secondary/tolerated habitat

Hosts/Species Affected

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D. insularis affects pastures and a wide range of perennial crops including coffee, tea, citrus, pineapple, forest nurseries, etc.; also cotton and maize.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Biology and Ecology

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The chromosome number is reported to be 2n=36 (Gould and Soderstrom, 1967).

Reproductive Biology

Reproduction is almost totally from prolific seed production though there may be regeneration from cut culm fragments and from the rhizomatous shoot bases. Mondo et al. (2010) found the best temperatures for germination were 20-35°C. They also concluded that D. insularis did not require light for germination. However, Pyon (1976) obtained best germination under light. Germination in complete darkness was poor except at 25-35°C alternating temperature. Optimum constant temperature was 30°C.

Physiology and Phenology

Smith and Brown (1973) confirm that D. insularis has Krantz anatomy and C4 physiology.

D. insularis was capable of emerging from a maximum depth of 5 cm but percentage emergence was greatly reduced at sowing depths >3 cm (Pyon et al., 1977).

In a study by Machado et al. (2006), height, leaf area and dry matter were evaluated at 7-day intervals between 14 and 112 days after emergence (DAE). The highest leaf area and dry matter were recorded at 98 and 105 DAE, respectively. Leaves showed greater participation in total dry matter accumulation, followed by roots + rhizome, up to 105 DAE. Dry matter accumulation was slow up to 45 DAE and then increased due to rhizome formation. Relative growth rate decreased with time due to higher photo-assimilate accumulation.

Plants growing from rhizomatous shoot bases have high stomatal index and a large number of stomata per mm2, thick adaxial and abaxial epidermis faces, and a thick leaf lamina. The intense colouration in the rhizomes treated with lugol indicated the presence of a great amount of starch, regardless of the origin of the material (Machado et al., 2008).

Flowering in D. insularis was not affected by day-length (Pyon et al., 1977).

Environmental Requirements

D. insularis is a plant of the tropics and sub-tropics, associated in USA with USDA hardiness zones 9-11, i.e. average minimum winter temperatures above 20°C. It certainly survives under significantly cooler conditions but is susceptible to frost.


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Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 13
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -1


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration07number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Maize chlorotic mottle virus Pathogen
Maize dwarf mosaic virus Pathogen
Mocis latipes Herbivore
Radopholus similis Parasite
Sporisorium panici-leucophaei Pathogen
Xanthomonas citri Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

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D. insularis is affected by the smut Sporisorium panici-leucophaei in North, Central and South America (Perez et al., 2002). A fungal endophyte, Pseudocercosporella trichachnicola occurs in the USA (White and Morrow, 1990). The canker bacterium Xanthomonas citri occurs in Brazil (Pereira et al., 1976). It has also tested positive for the maize viruses MDMV-A [Maize dwarf mosaic virus strain A] and MCMV [Maize chlorotic mosaic virus] in Hawaii, USA (Jiang et al., 1992).

In Brazil, the noctuid Mocis latipes  and the nematode Radopholus similis occur on D. insularis (Silva and Neves, 1984 and Zem and Lordello, 1983, respectively).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (non-biotic)

Natural dispersal occurs by movement of seed with wind or water.

Vector Transmission (biotic)

Local movement by livestock internally or externally is likely but there is no documentation of this.

Accidental Introduction

There is little documentation of how D. insularis has come to be introduced so widely. It has not been promoted as a forage grass, so it is presumed that introduction has occurred by accidental contamination of seed lots of more desirable pasture grass species.

Intentional Introduction

No evidence for deliberate introduction has been seen.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Seed trade Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aircraft Yes
Land vehicles Yes
Livestock Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes
Water Yes
Wind Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants weeds/seeds
True seeds (inc. grain) weeds/seeds Yes

Impact Summary

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Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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No crop-loss data are available but it is clearly regarded as an economic problem in a wide range of crops, especially in Brazil and Paraguay and particularly in non-conventional sugarcane (Arevalo and Bertoncini, 2005) and also in no-till coffee, manila hemp (Musa textilis), citrus, Eucalyptus grandis, passion fruit, rubber, guarana (Paullinia cupana), Japanese plums (Prunus salicina), cotton and pineapple.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

D. insularis is seen as an undesirable dominant grass where natural forest has been replaced by derived savannah in lowland Bolivia (Veldman and Putz, 2011).

D. insularis is among species displacing Hawaiian Pili grass (Heteropogon contortus) in the Hawaiian Islands (Daehler and Goergen, 2005).

Impact on Biodiversity

In Hawaii, D. insularis is among species considered to be threatening a number of native species including Scaevola coriacea, Silene lanceolata, Schiedea kealiae, Sesbania tomentosa and Panicum fauriei var. carteri [Panicum fauriei] (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010 a,b,c,d; 2011).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Panicum fauriei var. carteri (Carter's panicgrass)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011)
Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010a)
Schiedea kealiae (Waianae Range schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010c)
Sesbania tomentosaNational list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010d)
Silene lanceolata (Kauai catchfly)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - shadingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010b)

Risk and Impact Factors

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  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control


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D. insularis is used in traditional medicine for bladder and kidney inflammation in Cuba; also as a diuretic and for dressing contusions and wounds;  in Paraguay it is used with other herbs in abortive medicine (Delfeld, 2012). Extracts of D. insularis are also effective in the in vitro treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats (Aleida et al., 2003).

Panicles may be used to decorate altars and homes in Central America and Puerto Rico, and the stems for weaving hats (Delfeld, 2012).

It is not considered good as forage in Mexico (Ramirez et al., 2009). Some sources say it is grazed readily by cattle. Others suggest it is unpalatable to cattle, e.g. in Argentina and in Papua New Guinea (Chadhokar, 1976).

Uses List

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  • Ritual uses

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical


  • Cut flower

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Among closely related species in Mexico, D. insularis is distinguished from other species having sterile lemmas with glabrous veins by being pilose between the central veins of the lemma and having hairs on the sides of the central veins tawny or yellow to whitish. In Digitaria patens and D. californica, the space between the central veins is glabrous and the hairs to the sides are white to purplish (Sánchez-Ken, 2012). In Arizona, USA, D. cognata differs from D. insularis in having felty pubescence near the base of the stems (Austin, 2010).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

D. insularis can be crowded out through competition with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) under natural conditions in Hawaii, USA (Pyon, 1976). D. insularis growth is slow up to 45 days after emergence, but increased from 45 to 105 days, suggesting the possibility of good cultural control by crops that have fast initial growth and large leaf area (Machado et al., 2006).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Seedlings are readily controlled by cultivation but not so once the plants are established with rhizomes.

Chemical Control

Glyphosate has been used as the standard herbicide in plantation crops and in glyphosate-resistant crops such as soyabean and cotton, but glyphosate-resistance has developed in repeatedly glyphosate-treated soyabean in Brazil and in Paraquay (Cerdeira et al., 2011). Resistance factors of 2.3 and 3.9 have been identified in Brazil apparently associated with shikimic acid metabolism, where the susceptible biotype accumulated 3.3 to 5.7 times more shikimic acid than the resistant biotypes (Carvalho et al., 2011). Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), glyoxylate and sarcosine by over 90% in resistant biotypes, whereas only 11% was degraded in the susceptible biotype. Two amino acid changes were found at positions 182 and 310 in EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase), consisting of a proline to threonine and a tyrosine to cysteine substitution, respectively, in resistant biotypes. Therefore, absorption, translocation, metabolism and gene mutation play an important role in the D. insularis glyphosate resistance (Carvalho et al., 2012).

Irrespective of the development of resistance, glyphosate may give poor results on well-established plants with rhizomes. Activity of glyphosate may be enhanced by the addition of urea and/or ammonium sulfate (Carvalho et al., 2010). Improved results have also been obtained by combinations with sethoxydim (Parreira et al., 2010), with chlorimuron-ethyl (Carvalho et al., 2009), with quizalofop (Correia and Durigan, 2009); also with fluazifop, or its application in sequence with diuron plus paraquat (Procopio et al., 2006; Correira et al., 2010).

To minimize the development of glyphosate resistance the following are suggested: (a) rotation of glyphosate-resistant soyabeans with conventional soyabeans; b) avoidance of lower than recommended glyphosate rates; (c) keeping soil covered with a crop or legume at intercrop intervals; (d) keeping machinery free of weed seeds; and (d) use of a pre-plant non-selective herbicide plus residuals to eliminate early weed interference with the crop and to minimize escapes from later applications of glyphosate due to natural resistance of older weeds and/or incomplete glyphosate coverage (Cerdeira et al., 2011).

Other herbicides to have proved effective include fluazifop-P-butyl in lucerne (Silva et al., 2003); sethoxydim plus oil, or fluazifop plus surfactant in rubber (Azevedo et al., 1999); and nicosulfuron in maize (Timossi, 2009). In pastures it has been controlled by spot spraying with dalapon (Chadhokar, 1976).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is a lack of basic biological information on D. insularis, including the longevity of seeds in the soil, longevity of established plants; also means of non-chemical control.


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Almeida MÂO de; Botura MB; Santos MM dos; Almeida GN; Domingues LF; Costa SL; Batatinha MJM, 2003. Effects of aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Digitaria insularis leaves on larval cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. (Efeitos dos extratos aquosos de folhas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Capim-santo) e de Digitaria insularis (L.) Fedde (Capim-açu) sobre cultivos de larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos.) Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 12(3):125-129.

Arévalo RA; Bertoncini EI, 2005. Sustainable weed management in Saccharum spp. (Manejo sostenible de especies de malezas en Saccharum spp.) In: XVII Congreso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM) I Congreso Iberoamericano de Ciencia de las Malezas, IV Congreso Nacional de Ciencia de Malezas, Matanzas, Cuba, 8 al 11 de noviembre del 2005. Matanzas, Cuba: Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM), 91-106.

Austin DF, 2010. Baboquivari Mountain Plants: Identification, Ecology and Ethnobotany. Tucson, Arizona, USA: University of Arizona Press, 337 pp.

Azevedo DMP de; Roman ES; Lisboa S de M, 1999. Control of weed grass species in rubber plantations. (Controle de gramíneas em cultivo de seringueira.) Revista de Ciências Agrárias, No. 31:21-28.

Carvalho LB de; Alves PL da CA; González-Torralva F; Cruz-Hipolito HE; Rojano-Delgado AM; Prado R de; Gil-Humanes J; Barro F; Luque de Castro MD, 2012. Pool of resistance mechanisms to glyphosate in Digitaria insularis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(2):615-622.

Carvalho LB de; Cruz-Hipolito H; González-Torralva F; Alves PL da CA; Christoffoleti PJ; Prado R de, 2011. Detection of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis) biotypes resistant to glyphosate in Brazil. Weed Science, 59(2):171-176.

Carvalho LB; Scherer LC; Lucio FR; Alves PLCA, 2009. Effects of desiccation with glyphosate and chlorimuron-ethyl on weed community and soybean yield. (Efeitos da dessecação com glyphosate e chlorimuron-ethyl na comunidade infestante e na produtividade da soja.) Planta Daninha, 27(Especial):1025-1034.

Carvalho SJP; Dias ACR; Shiomi GM; Christoffoleti PJ, 2010. Simultaneous addition of ammonium sulfate and urea to glyphosate spray solution. (Adição simultânea de sulfato de amônio e ureia à calda de pulverização do herbicida glyphosate.) Planta Daninha, 28(3):575-584.

Cerdeira AL; Gazziero DLP; Duke SO; Matallo MB, 2011. Agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in South America. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(11):5799-5807.

Chadhokar PA, 1976. Control of Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez in tropical pastures. PANS, 22(1):79-85.

Chadhokar PA, 1978. Weed problems of grazing lands and control of some problem weeds in the Markham Valley of Papua New Guinea. PANS, 24(1):63-66

Correia NM; Durigan JC, 2009. Chemical management of adult Digitaria insularis with glyphosate alone and mixture with chlorimuron-ethyl or quizalofop-p-tefuril in a no-tillage field. (Manejo químico de plantas adultas de Digitaria insularis com glyphosate isolado e em mistura com chlorimuronethyl ou quizalofop-p-tefuril em área de plantio direto.) Bragantia, 68(3):689-697.

Correia NM; Leite GJ; Garcia LD, 2010. Response of different Digitaria insularis populations to glyphosate. (Resposta de diferentes populações de Digitaria insularis ao herbicida glyphosate.) Planta Daninha, 28(4):769-776.

Daehler CC; Goergen EM, 2005. Experimental restoration of an indigenous Hawaiian grassland after invasion by Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Restoration Ecology, 13(2):380-389.

Delfeld M, 2012. Plants For Use. Plants For Use.

GBIF, 2012. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

Gould FW; Soderstrom TR, 1967. Chromosome Numbers of Tropical American Grasses. American Journal of Botany, 54(6):676-683.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Jiang XQ; Meinke LJ; Wright RJ; Wilkinson DR; Campbell JE, 1992. Maize chlorotic mottle virus in Hawaiian-grown maize: vector relations, host range and associated viruses. Crop Protection, 11(3):248-254.

Kuswata Kartawinata; Mueller-Dombois D, 1972. Phytosociology and ecology of the natural dry-grass communities on Oahu, Hawaii. Reinwardtia, 8(3):369-494.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas Daninhas do Brasil. Author's edition. Nova Odessa, San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 400 pp.

Machado AFL; Ferreira LR; Ferreira FA; Fialho CMT; Santos LDT; Machado MS, 2006. Growth analysis of Digitaria insularis. (Análise de crescimento de Digitaria insularis.) Planta Daninha, 24(4):641-647.

Machado AFL; Meira RMS; Ferreira LR; Ferreira FA; Santos LDT; Fialho CMT; Machado MS, 2008. Anatomical characterization of the leaf, stem and rhizome of Digitaria insularis. (Caracterização anatômica de folha, colmo e rizoma de Digitaria insularis.) Planta Daninha, 26(1):1-8.

Mondo VHV; Carvalho SJP de; Dias ACR; Marcos Filho J, 2010. Light and temperature effects on the seed germination of four Digitaria weed species. (Efeitos da luz e temperatura na germinação de sementes de quatro espécies de plantas daninhas do gênero Digitaria.) Revista Brasileira de Sementes, 32(1):131-137.

Motooka P; Castro L; Nelson D; Nagai G; Ching L, 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas; an identification and management guide. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Parreira MC; Espanhol M; Duarte DJ; Correia NM, 2010. Chemical management of Digitaria insularis in the no-tillage system area. (Manejo químico de Digitaria insularis em área de plantio direto.) Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias, 5(1):13-17.

Pereira ALG; Watanabe K; Zagato AG; Cianculli PL, 1976. Survival of Xanthomonas citri (Hasse) Dowson on Trichachne insularis (L.) Nees of uprooted orchards in Sao Paulo State. (Sobrevivencia de Xanthomonas citri (Hasse) Dowson em capim amargoso (Trichachne insularis (L.) Nees) de pomares erradicados, no Estado de Sao Paulo.) Biologico, 42(11/12):217-221.

Pérez JM; Hernández MRodríguez; Piepenbring M; Minter DW, 2002. Sporisorium panici-leucophaei. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, No. 153. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Sheet 1525.

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry .

Procópio SO; Pires FR; Menezes CCE; Barroso ALL; Moraes RV; Silva MVV; Queiroz RG; Carmo ML, 2006. Effects of burndown herbicides in weed control in soybean crop. (Efeitos de dessecantes no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja.) Planta Daninha, 24(1):193-197.

Pyon JY, 1976. Germination and growth of sourgrass and its competition with forage grasses. Journal of the Korean Society of Crop Science, 21(1):15-19.

Pyon JY; Whitney AS; Nishimoto RK, 1977. Biology of sourgrass and its competition with buffelgrass and guineagrass. Weed Science, 25(2):171-174.

Ramírez RG; González-Rodríguez H; Morales-Rodríguez R; Cerrillo-Soto A; Juárez-Reyes A; García-Dessommes GJ; Guerrero-Cervantes M, 2009. Chemical composition and dry matter digestion of some native and cultivated grasses in Mexico. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 54(4):150-162.

Rua GH, 2003. Growth forms, branching patterns, and inflorescence structure in Digitaria sect. Trichachne (Poaceae, Paniceae). Flora (Jena), 198(3):178-187.

Sánchez-Ken JG, 2012. A synopsis of Digitaria (Paniceae, Panicoideae, Poaceae) in Mexico, including the new species Digitaria michoacanensis. Acta Botanica Mexicana, No.101:127-149.

Silva JL; Neves PMOJ, 1984. Occurrence and control of Mocis latipes (Guem., 1952) in tropical pastures in the north of Parana. [Abstract]. Semina, 5(16 (Suppl.)):102.

Silva W da; Vilela D; Pereira AV; Ferreira R de P; Cobucci T, 2003. Herbicide in the initial growth stage of alfalfa. (Eficiência de herbicidas na cultura da alfafa em fase de estabelecimento.) Revista Ceres, 50(288):171-181.

Smith BN; Brown WV, 1973. The Kranz syndrome in the Gramineae as indicated by carbon isotopic ratios. American Journal of Botany, 60(6):505-513.

Smithsonian Institution, 2012. Digitaria insularis. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Insitution. insularis

Timossi PC, 2009. Management of Digitaria insularis sprouts under no-till corn cultivation. (Manejo de rebrotes de Digitaria insularis no plantio direto de milho.) Planta Daninha, 27(1):175-179.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-YEAR REVIEW Short Form Summary Species Reviewed: Schiedea kealiae (ma oli oli). 6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka) 5-Year Review Summary and Evaluation. 19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Sesbania tomentosa (ohai) 5-Year Review Summary and Evaluation. 24 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Silene lanceolata (no common name) 5-Year review summary and evaluation. Honolulu, HI, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, 15 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Panicum fauriei var. carteri (no common name) 5-Year Review Summary and Evaluation. 17 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.

Veldman JW; Putz FE, 2011. Grass-dominated vegetation, not species-diverse natural savanna, replaces degraded tropical forests on the southern edge of the Amazon Basin. Biological Conservation, 144(5):1419-1429.

White JF Jr; Morrow AC, 1990. Endophyte-host associations in forage grasses. XII. A fungal endophyte of Trichachne insularis belonging to Pseudocercosporella. Mycologia, 82(2):218-226.

Zem AC; Lordello LGE, 1983. Studies on hosts of Radopholus similis and Helicotylenchus multicinctus. Trabalhos apresentados a VII Reuniao Brasileira de Nematologia, Brasilia, DF, 21-25 de fevereiro de 1983. Publicacao No.7. Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia Piracicaba, SP Brazil, 175-187.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carvalho V C de, Andrade T C G R de, Silva M C de C, Santos R de S, Pereira D L, 2018. Phytosociological survey of weeds in cacao plantation. Amazonian Journal of Plant Research. 2 (2), 189-194. DOI:10.26545/ajpr.2018.b00023x

GBIF, 2012. Global Biodiversity Information Facility.

Gobatto D, Oliveira L A de, Franco D A de S, Velásquez N, Daròs J A, Eiras M, 2019. Surveys in the chrysanthemum production areas of Brazil and Colombia reveal that weeds are potential reservoirs of chrysanthemum stunt viroid. Viruses. 11 (4), 355. DOI:10.3390/v11040355

Lorenzi H, 1982. (Plantas Daninhas do Brasil)., Nova Odessa San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi. 400 pp.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry.

Smithsonian Institution, 2012. Digitaria insularis., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Insitution. insularis

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.


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03/12/12 Original text by:

Chris Parker, Consultant, UK

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