Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Digitaria eriantha
(pangola grass)

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Datasheet

Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Digitaria eriantha
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pangola grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. eriantha is a perennial grass not considered as a serious weed in some countries, but a competitive and aggressive weed in others (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass); habit, showing seedheads. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass); habit, showing seedheads. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass); habit, showing seedheads. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
HabitDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass); habit, showing seedheads. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass); habit, showing seedheads. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass); habit, showing seedheads. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass); habit, showing seedheads. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
HabitDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass); habit, showing seedheads. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass); habit. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass); habit. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2018 - CC BY 4.0
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass); habit. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018.
HabitDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass); habit. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018.©Forest & Kim Starr-2018 - CC BY 4.0
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass); seedhead. Mealani Ag Station Waimea, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass); seedhead. Mealani Ag Station Waimea, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass); seedhead. Mealani Ag Station Waimea, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
SeedheadDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass); seedhead. Mealani Ag Station Waimea, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass); ripe seedhead. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass); ripe seedhead. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2018 - CC BY 4.0
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass); ripe seedhead. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018.
SeedheadDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass); ripe seedhead. Honolua Lipoa Point, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2018.©Forest & Kim Starr-2018 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Digitaria eriantha Steud.

Preferred Common Name

  • pangola grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Digitaria bechuanica (Stent) Henrard
  • Digitaria dinteri Henrard
  • Digitaria geniculata Stent
  • Digitaria glauca Stent
  • Digitaria hiascens Mez
  • Digitaria livida Henrard
  • Digitaria nemoralis Henrard
  • Digitaria smutsii Stent
  • Digitaria stentiana Henrard
  • Digitaria umfolozi D.W.Hall
  • Syntherisma erianthum (Steud,) Newbold

International Common Names

  • English: common finger grass; digit grass; giant pangola grass; pongola grass; smuts finger grass; woolly finger grass
  • Spanish: pangola; pangola gigante; pasto pangola
  • French: digitaire; digitaria; pangola
  • German: Pangolagras

Local Common Names

  • Australia: woolly finger grass
  • Botswana: moseka; namele
  • Brazil: capim-pangola
  • Cuba: pangola
  • Dominican Republic: pangola
  • Mexico: jaraguagrass; pangola
  • Namibia: Bloukruisgras; dzhausinai-x'uisi; fingergras; isikhonko; khoekhoegowab; Kleinvingergras; mangole maseka; mmoyana; ndewuru-kyaoku-doa; Wolliges ; Wolliges fingergras; Wolvingergras
  • Puerto Rico: pangola
  • South Africa: common finger grass; Gewone vingergras; vingergras; yerba pangola

Summary of Invasiveness

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D. eriantha is a perennial grass not considered as a serious weed in some countries, but a competitive and aggressive weed in others (PROTA, 2016; Tropical Forages, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016). The species is listed as invasive in Central America (Costa Rica), the Caribbean (Cuba), South America (Colombia, Ecuador) and Oceania (Australia, USA-Hawaii) (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2016). Catasús Guerra (2015), however, argues that the species should not be on the list of the invasive species for Cuba, due to lack of spread as it is being over-grazed and not producing viable seeds.

It is on the list of the top 200 most invasive species in Queensland, Australia, forming dense populations in riparian areas, open woodlands and on some beaches (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Digitaria
  •                                 Species: Digitaria eriantha

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Digitaria is a genus in the Poaceae with about 220 species that are distributed in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world (Vega and Rugólo de Agrasar, 2007). The common name crabgrass is applied to many species in the genus. Digitaria comes from Digitus, the Latin word for "finger", referring to the long, finger-like inflorescences produced by the grasses. The species epithet 'eriantha' comes from the Greek 'erio' meaning woolly and 'anthos' meaning flower, and refers to the hairs on the spikelets.

The common name for D. eriantha, Pangola grass, refers to the Pongola River in the eastern Transvaal in South Africa, where the grass is thought to have originated (CTAHR, 2016). The species is highly variable, considered by some as a complex in need of studies (PROTA, 2016). It comprises a number of morphologically different former species (Tropical Forages, 2016).

Description

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The following description is from PROTA (2016):

A tightly caespitose perennial, often provided with well-developed runners; base surrounded by hairy cataphylls and old leaf sheath remnants. Culms 40–120 cm., ascending to erect, glabrous, nodes dark and glabrous. Leaf sheaths scaberulous, glabrous or loosely hairy. Ligule 2–4 mm. long, subtriangular, shortly ciliate. Leaf laminae 5–20 × 0.2–0.4(0.7) mm., linear, flat to involute, minutely scaberulous on both surfaces, often with a few bulbous based bristles near the base, scabrous along the margins. Inflorescence composed of 3–10 racemes, 5–20 cm. long, erect, (2)3–6 together in an inferior whorl, sometimes a few solitary along a short common axis, and mostly 2–4 together in a second, superior whorl. Rachis triquetrous, narrowly winged, up to 0.5 mm. broad, smooth to scaberulous, with scabrous margins. Pedicels 2-nate, 0.5–2.5 mm. long, subterete to subtriangular. scabrous, broadened at the apex. Spikelets 2.2–3.5 mm. long, oblong. Inferior glume up to 0.5 mm. long, ovate to triangular, sometimes acuminate and ciliate. Superior glume 1/2–2/3 of the spikelet, oblong triangular, 3-nerved, appressed hairy, hairs fine, smooth, acute. Inferior lemma as long as the spikelet, oblong, 7-nerved, nerves smooth or slightly scaberulous, appressed hairy, with or without bristle-hairs. Superior lemma somewhat shorter than the spikelet, oblong, acute, yellowish green to pale brown.

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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D. eriantha is a perennial grass native to tropical and subtropical southern Africa (USDA-ARS, 2016). It is now found in Asia, Africa, North America, Central America and Queensland, Australia (see Distribution Table for details).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedCTAHR, 2016
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedCTAHR, 2016
PakistanPresentIntroducedCTAHR, 2016
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedCTAHR, 2016
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFAO, 2016

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
BotswanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
KenyaPresentIntroducedDarling, 1960In true grass plains.
LesothoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MozambiquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
NamibiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
South AfricaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
SwazilandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
ZambiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
ZimbabwePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016Also cultivated.

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Oaxaca, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Zacatecas.
USAIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016Also cultivated.
-ArizonaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Lavin and Johnsen, 1977 ; PIER, 2016Poorly adapted.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
-FloridaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Invasive on Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i. Maui, O’ahu islands. Also cultivated on Maui.
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
-TexasPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedSanderson et al., 1999Cultivated for hay and grazing.

Central America and Caribbean

British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Virgin Gorda
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; PIER, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016Limón
CubaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1950 Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo-Prieto, 2012; Catasús Guerra, 2015
DominicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Retalhuleu, San Marcos, Santa Rosa.
HondurasPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Francisco Morazán
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
PanamaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Colón
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; UPRRP, 2016Lowlands near the coast. Carolina, Dorado, Fajardo, Isabela, Manatí, Vega Baja.
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012St. Croix

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedEncyclopedia of Life, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016Buenos Aires, Chaco, Corrientes, La Pampa, Misiones, Santiago del Estero.
BrazilPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-ParanaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
ColombiaPresentIntroducedGiraldo-Cañas, 2011; PIER, 2016Antioquia, Atlántico, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Meta Santander, San Andrés, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Ecuador
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation, 2016 ; PIER, 2016Introduced in the Galapagos Islands (Isabela, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz) for domestic or farming purposes.
ParaguayPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
PeruPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; PIER, 2016
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Also cultivated
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Also cultivated
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

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D. eriantha was extensively planted from the 1960’s to the1980’s in the humid tropics and subtropics as a fodder/forage species. It was first in cultivation near Pretoria, South Africa, then introduced to the USA, the West Indies, Central America and South America (FAO, 2016). There are collections reported from Puerto Rico from the late 1940’s at the Agricultural Experimental Station of Río Piedras (New York Botanical Garden, 2016). It was introduced to Cuba in 1950 (Catasús-Guerra, 2015) and to Mexico in 1956 (Ortega-S et al., 2013).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Mexico 1956 Forage (pathway cause) Yes No Ortega-S et al. (2013) For studies by the Office of Special Studies of the Mexican Government.
Puerto Rico 1946 Forage (pathway cause) Yes No New York Botanical Garden (2016) At agricultural experimental stations.
Cuba 1950 Forage (pathway cause) Yes No Catasús Guerra (2015)

Risk of Introduction

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Although D. eriantha is reported as invasive in a few countries, it is not considered as a serious threat in others where it is naturalized, with few data on its effects on invaded habitats and native species (Catasús Guerra, 2015; CTAHR, 2016). The species has a medium to high likelihood of introduction into tropical and subtropical areas; to be cultivated as a fodder and forage species (Tropical Forages, 2016). The seeds of many forms of the species being reported as not viable, and the seedlings not establishing well with competition and with heavy grazing by livestock, could deter its spread outside of cultivation (O’Connor and Pickett, 1992; Catasús Guerra, 2016).

Habitat

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D. eriantha grows in its native habitats in tree and shrub savannas and bushvelds (Weare and Yalala, 1971). It is also reported from pastures, natural rangelands, sparse woodlands, flood plains and saline marshes (Allsopp, 1998; PROTA, 2016). It grows from near sea level to 2250 m elevation (Tropical Forages, 2016). Knoop and Walker (1985) report the species as abundant beneath open canopies in South African savanna communities. In Australia it is also reported in disturbed sites and urban areas (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for D. eriantha is 2n= 18, 36, 40 (Tropical Forages, 2016). Various cultivars have been developed to adapt to different conditions (Tropical Forages, 2016). DNA barcode information for the species is available at the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS, 2016).

Reproductive Biology

D. eriantha reproduces mostly vegetatively by stolons and by seed (Tropical Forages, 2016). Seeds are usually not viable or have a low percentage viability (O’Connor and Pickett, 1992). When reproducing by seeds, avoidance of competition in the early stages is needed (PROTA, 2016).

Physiology and Phenology

D. eriantha is a fast-growing summer perennial grass (PROTA, 2016). It flowers throughout most of the growing season with a peak during the summer (Tropical Forages, 2016).

Associations

D. eriantha is usually planted with legumes, and generally not with other grasses (Tropical Forages, 2016). Allsopp (1998) reports associations with arbuscular mycorrhizas but without further details.

Environmental Requirements

D. eriantha grows best on sands and sandy loam soils, tolerating loams, clay loams and clays. Soil pH range from 4.4 to 9.1. The species has low to moderate salt and alkalinity tolerance, and moderate tolerance to aluminium. The species is frost sensitive and has a low shade tolerance. It is fire tolerant (Tropical Forages, 2016). Its optimal growth is between 16° and 29°C (Heuzé et al., 2015). It is tolerant to droughts and water logging (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
34 -37

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -8

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall4301500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The following pests are reported for Digitaria eriantha (Tropical Forages, 2016): the fungi Puccinia oahuensis, Ephelis sp., Mycosphaerella tassiana, Pyricularia grisea and Thanetephorus cucumeris; the viruses Pangola Stunt Virus, Digitaria Striate Cytorhabdovirus, Pangola Stunt Fijivirus, Sugarcane Mosaic Potyvirus, and Potato Virus Y; the nematodes Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Dolichodorum sp., Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, Meloidogyne incognita, Peltamigratus nigeriensis, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Rotylenchulus reniformis, and Scutellonema clathricaudatum; the insects Tomaspis flavopicta, T. humeralis, Prosapia bicincta, Antonina graminis, Blissus leucopterus, Sipha flava, Laphigma spp., Spodoptera spp., Mocis spp., mole crickets and leafhoppers. Overgrazing, when foraged by game animals or by livestock in cultivation, also deters the natural growth and reproduction of D. eriantha.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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D. eriantha has been introduced in tropical and subtropical regions as a fodder/forage species (PROTA, 2016).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionThe species is cultivated as forage/fodder for livestock. Yes Yes Tropical Forages, 2016
DisturbanceAt disturbed sites in Australia. Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
ForageForage/fodder for livestock. Yes Yes Tropical Forages, 2016
Habitat restoration and improvementRecommended for soil conservation and erosion control. Yes Yes Tropical Forages, 2016
Medicinal useSome ethnobotanical uses in Africa. Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Off-site preservation Germplasm collections at various institutions. Yes Yes PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
GermplasmGermplasm collections at various institutions. Yes Yes PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016

Environmental Impact

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The stoloniferous types of this grass are very competitive and can suppress companion legumes (Tropical Forages, 2016). In cultivation, the species gets established fast, suppressing other plants and weeds (PROTA, 2016). It is reported as suppressing native species in invaded areas in Australia (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

D. eriantha is mainly used for forage, hay or silage. It is one of the higher nutritional quality tropical grasses and very palatable for livestock. It is used as a fodder/forage for horses, sheep, cattle and lactating cows. It is also reported as an excellent species for beef and milk production (Tropical Forages, 2016).

Social benefit

D. eriantha is used to induce labour and to treat external sores and wounds. The racemes are used as hair decorations. The fibres are used for baskets and in Bantu craftwork (Grossert, 1953; PROTA, 2016).

Environmental Services

D. eriantha is foraged by game animals in Africa (PROTA, 2016), being one of the preferred grasses of the African buffalo (Bastos et al., 2000). It is recommended as a ground cover for soil conservation and erosion control (Tropical Forages, 2016).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Materials

  • Baskets

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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D. eriantha is similar to D. nodosa, D. milanjiana and D. didactyla. The lower lemma in D. eriantha is smooth, while scaberulous in D. milanjiana. The culms of D. eriantha are more robust than D. didactyla, but not as bulbously thickened as in D. nodosa (PROTA, 2016; Tropical Forages, 2016). It also differs from other Digitaria species by its densely packed purple tinged racemes and its silky-haired basal leaf-sheaths (PROTA, 2016).

In Australia, it is described as being very similar to D. ciliaris and D. violascens. It is longer-lived than both species, and distinguished by often producing roots at its stem joints (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Prevention and Control

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D. eriantha growth and spread is controlled by animal grazing (Catasús Guerra, 2015). It is considered to be easy to control or eliminate in Hawaii, USA, without further details on control methods (CTAHR, 2016).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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More information on the biology of the species, and the various impacts of the species where reported as invasive, is needed. Also lacking are details on prevention and control methods.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Allsopp N, 1998. Effect of defoliation on the arbuscular mycorrhizas of three perennial pasture and rangeland grasses. Plant and Soil, 202(1), 117-124.

Bastos ADS, Boshoff CI, Keet DF, Bengis RG, Thomson GR, 2000. Natural transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus between African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and Impala (Aepyceros melampus) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Epidemiology and Infection, 124(3), 591-598.

BOLDS, 2016. Kingdoms of Life being barcoded. BOLD Systems. http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/TaxBrowser_Home

Catasús Guerra L, 2015. Consideraciones sobre las gramíneas invasoras en Cuba. Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 36, 115-150.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2016. Galapagos Species Checklist of the Charles Darwin Foundation. http://darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/#plants

CTAHR, 2016. Pangola grass. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR) Sustainable and Organic Agriculture Program. Hawaii, USA: The University of Hawaii. https://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/sustainag/cc-gm/pangola.html

Darling FF, 1960. An ecological reconnaissance of the Mara Plains in Kenya colony. Wildlife Monographs, 5, 5-41.

Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/

FAO, 2016. Grassland species profiles. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/Gbase/Default.htm

Flora do Brasil, 2016. Brazilian Flora 2020 in construction. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP

Giraldo-Cañas D, 2011. Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia. Darwiniana, 49(2), 139-247.

Grossert JW, 1953. Bantu art. Theoria: a journal of social and political theory, 5, 36-43.

Heuzé V, Tran G, Archiméde H, 2015. Pangola grass (Digitaria eriantha). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/461

Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2015. Millennium Seed Bank - Seed List. Richmond, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. http://apps.kew.org/seedlist/SeedlistServlet

Knoop WT, Walker BH, 1985. Interactions of woody and herbaceous vegetation in a southern African savanna. Journal of Ecology, 73(1), 235-253.

Lavin F, Johnsen TN, Jr., 1977. Species adapted for planting Arizona Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Journal of Range Management, 30(6), 410-415.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

New York Botanical Garden, 2016. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

O’Connor TG, Pickett GA, 1992. The influence of grazing on seed production and seed banks of some African savanna grasslands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 29(1), 247-260.

Ortega-S JA, Ibarra-Flores FA, Melgoza A, Gonzalez-Valenzuela EA, Martin-Rivera MH, Ávila-Curiel JM, Ayala-Alvares F, Pinedo C, Rivero O, 2013. Exotic grasses and wildlife in northern Mexico. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 37(3), 537-545.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Sanderson MA, Voigt P, Jones RM, 1999. Yield and quality of warm-season grasses in central Texas. Journal of Range Management, 52(2), 145-150.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

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08/01/2017 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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