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Xenohaliotis californiensis infection

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Xenohaliotis californiensis infection

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Xenohaliotis californiensis infection
  • Overview
  • Xenohaliotis californiensis (also called WS-RLO) is a bacterium that causes a fatal disease of marine gastropod molluscs of the genus Haliotis (abalones), called withering syndrome (WS).  Disease occurs in abalones along the east...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Xenohaliotis californiensis infection

International Common Names

  • English: abalone rickettsiosis; abalone wasting disease; foot withering syndrome; infection with Xenohaliotis californiensis; withering disease; withering syndrome; withering syndrome of abalone

English acronym

  • WS

Overview

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Xenohaliotis californiensis (also called WS-RLO) is a bacterium that causes a fatal disease of marine gastropod molluscs of the genus Haliotis (abalones), called withering syndrome (WS).  Disease occurs in abalones along the eastern Pacific margin of North America in California, USA and Baja California, Mexico; it was first reported in California in 1985 and has been spreading both northwards and southwards.  As infected abalones have been transported to many countries around the world, the geographic range is likely to be broader than originally suspected.  WS is characterized by degeneration of the digestive gland of the host and depletion of glycogen reserves.  Animals cease feeding and catabolize foot muscle protein as an energy source, resulting in atrophy of the pedal muscle, and ultimately death. Some abalone species are endangered or of concern regarding their status, and some are important for fisheries or aquaculture, so the disease can have a significant impact on biodiversity and a significant economic impact. It is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).

Hosts/Species Affected

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The WS-RLO agent infects members of the genus Haliotis. Natural infections have been found in black abalones (H. cracherodii), white abalones (H. sorenseni), red abalones (H. rufescens), pink abalones (H. corrugata), green abalones (H. fulgens), the small abalone (H. diversicolor supertexta) (Wetchateng et al., 2010), and the European abalone (H. tuberculata) (Balseiro et al., 2006); flat (H. wallalensis) and Japanese abalones (H. discus hannai) have been infected in the laboratory (OIE, 2012).  Other abalone species have not been tested (OIE, 2012), but are probably susceptible to infection as well.  Susceptibility and mortality vary with species.  For example, H. sorenseni and H. cracherodii are highly susceptible to WS-RLO infection and it is known to cause disease with nearly 100% mortality in these species (Moore et al., 2009; OIE, 2012), while in H. rufescens, only up to 35 % mortality has been observed (Moore et al., 2000).  The magnitude of mortality is not well documented in H. corrugata and H. fulgens.  Clearly, host factors are involved in this differential susceptibility to disease, but the exact nature of these factors remain unknown.

Distribution

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X. californiensis and the disease that it causes are distributed along the west coast of North America from Baja California, Mexico, to southern Sonoma County, California, and continue to spread along this coast. Infected abalones have been transported to a number of countries around the world, and the species is suspected to have a broad range, particularly where California red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are cultured or where native species have been exposed to them (OIE, 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 07 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GhanaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
MauritiusAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
ChinaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced2006Introduced by transport of infected abalones
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedIntroduced by transport of infected abalones
JapanPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced2010Introduced by transport of infected abalones
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TaiwanPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced2006Introduced by transport of infected abalones
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced2006Introduced by transport of infected abalones
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedIntroduced by transport of infected abalones
IrelandPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedIntroduced by transport of infected abalones
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SpainPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedIn Galicia, NW Spain; introduced by transport of infected abalones
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MexicoPresent, Widespread2010Baja California
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadInvasiveFirst reported in 1985. Present as far north as Sonoma County, including Channel and Farallon Islands

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Papua New GuineaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SamoaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
TongaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

Sea Areas

Atlantic - NortheastPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedIntroduced by transport of infected abalones
Pacific - Eastern CentralPresent
Pacific - NorthwestPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedIntroduced by transport of infected abalones
Pacific - SoutheastPresent
Pacific - Western CentralPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedIntroduced by transport of infected abalones

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChilePresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedIntroduced by transport of infected abalones
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
UruguayAbsentJul-Dec-2020
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

Pathology

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See Disease Course section.

Diagnosis

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While the WS-RLO agent cannot as yet be cultured in the laboratory, a wide range of diagnostic methods are available to diagnose withering syndrome (OIE, 2012).  Gross signs of the disease, when present, include anorexia, pedal atrophy, and mottled digestive gland.  Behaviorally, affected abalones will often cling to horizontal (as opposed to vertical or inverted) substrates and appear weak and emaciated (i.e., withering).  Wet mounts or stained smears of digestive epithelia may be used to observe bacterial inclusions.  Additionally, transmission electron microscopy can be used to observe WS-RLO directly; however, none of these methods are confirmatory.  Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be specific for WS-RLO; however, these methods only detect DNA and not necessarily a viable pathogen.  Thus, other techniques such as histology or in situ hybridization (ISH) should be used in conjunction with PCR to be considered confirmatory (OIE, 2012).  Likewise, the recommended method for targeted surveillance to declare freedom from WS-RLO is histology in combination with PCR and sequence analysis or ISH (OIE, 2012).  Recently, a sensitive PCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of WS-RLO (Friedman, et al., 2014b).  This qPCR assay could detect as few as 3 gene copies per reaction and could detect WS-RLO DNA in abalone tissue, faecal, and seawater samples (Friedman et al., 2014b).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Molluscs / Cessation of feeding - Behavioural Signs Aquatic|All Stages Sign
Molluscs / Lethargy / decreased movement - Behavioural Signs Aquatic|All Stages Sign

Disease Course

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WS-RLO infects the gastrointestinal epithelial cells of the posterior oesophagus, digestive gland and intestine (Friedman et al., 2000).  The incubation period is prolonged and can range from 3 to 7 months (Balseiro et al., 2006; Braid et al., 2005; Friedman et al., 2002; Moore et al., 2000).  It has been shown that infections may persist for long periods without the development of clinical disease when the host is maintained at a low water temperature (e.g. 15°C), and that exposure to elevated seawater temperatures (e.g. >17°C) results in clinical disease (Friedman and Finley, 2003; Moore et al., 2011; Moore et al., 2000).  Clinical disease is characterized by morphological changes in the digestive gland, which can vary depending on the species and may include degeneration and/or metaplasia (i.e., the replacement of one mature cell type by another) of the digestive tubules.  Metaplastic changes in the digestive gland include the transformation of the terminal secretory acini into absorptive/transport epithelia.  Morphological changes are accompanied by anorexia and depletion of glycogen reserves followed by catabolism of the foot muscle and use of this protein as an energy source, resulting in atrophy of the pedal muscle, and ultimately death (Balseiro et al., 2006; Braid et al., 2005; Kismohandaka et al., 1993; Moore et al., 2000).  Histologically, the foot of affected abalones contains fewer and less organized muscle bundles, abundant connective tissue, and in some cases more cerous cells than in unaffected individuals (Crosson et al., 2014; Friedman et al., 2007; Moore et al., 2000).  Microscopically, basophilic, oval intracytoplasmic bacterial inclusions can be observed in digestive epithelia (OIE, 2012).  Abalones that survive the disease can remain infected, even at low water temperature (Friedman and Finley, 2003).

Epidemiology

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Temperature appears to have a significant influence on the ecology, epidemiology and transmission of withering syndrome (WS).  The initial observation of WS occurred after the strong 1982-1983 El Niño event, which warmed the waters of the equatorial Eastern and Central Pacific Ocean by more than 3.5°C (an El Niño event is declared if the sea surface temperatures exceed 0.5°C above average for three months continuously).  Since then, WS has been repeatedly associated with seasonal or decadal thermal events and has also been observed in areas of thermal discharge from power plants, where water temperature can be more than 10°C above ambient (Crosson et al., 2014).  Likewise, during the severe El Niño of 1997-1998, when markedly elevated seawater temperature occurred throughout the southern and central Californian coast, up to 70% of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) examined showed clinical signs of WS (Raimondi et al., 2002). In the laboratory, a similar effect of temperature is observed; temperatures below 13°C have been demonstrated to limit transmission of the bacterium (only 1% transmission and no clinical signs of disease), while up to 94% transmission and extreme clinical signs were observed at 18.7°C (Braid et al., 2005).

Transmission of WS-RLO is postulated to be via a faecal-oral route.  Exposure of abalones to seawater containing infectious material is sufficient for transmission of the bacterium, and no direct animal contact is required (Balseiro et al., 2006; Braid et al., 2005; Friedman et al., 2002).

While no definitive vector or intermediate host for WS-RLO has been identified, it has been suggested that some colonial ascidians (commonly called “sea squirts”) may concentrate the bacterium (based on polymerase chain reaction evidence).  Thus, the possibility exists of such species acting as vectors for the bacterium, but further investigation of possible vectors is warranted (OIE, 2012).

Impact

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Economic Impact

The meat (foot muscle) of abalone is used for food, and the shells are used as decorative items and as a source of ‘mother of pearl’ for jewelry, buttons, buckles, and inlay.  Abalone is one of the most highly prized seafood delicacies in many parts of the world, particularly in some parts of Latin America and Asia.  In 2013, the total global production of abalone from legal fisheries and farms was 110,950 metric tonnes (Cook, 2014).  Given that certain species of abalone can sell for about US$30/Kg or more (Cook, 2014), the economic impact from losses due to diseases such as WS can be significant.

Environmental Impact

Impact on habitats

Abalones of the genus Haliotis inhabit the nearshore intertidal and shallow subtidal zones.  They are ecologically important in engineering habitat by grazing on micro- and macroalgae, thereby maintaining open areas for the recruitment of conspecifics and other benthic organisms (Crosson et al., 2014). A reduction in their population caused by withering syndrome could therefore have significant ecological effects.

Impact on biodiversity

Withering syndrome is an important reason for the Critically Endangered status of Haliotis cracherodii (IUCN, 2014), and one of a number of causes of the decline in the populations of H. fulgens and H. corrugata which have led to their being classed as a species of concern in the USA (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2009). It is considered to be a potential threat to the Endangered H. sorenseni, but not so far to have been a major factor in the decline of this species in the wild (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2008).

Zoonoses and Food Safety

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There is no evidence that WS-RLO can infect humans; thus there is no concern regarding zoonotic disease or food safety.

Disease Treatment

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Oxytetracycline (OTC) is approved for use in aquaculture and has been demonstrated to be effective against rickettsiae.  Oral administration of OTC in a medicated diet for 10 or 20 days provides protection against bacterial re-infection for several months.  Data suggest that a single-day oral administration of OTC can reduce bacterial infections from 80% to 10% prevalence and also reduce mean infection intensities (Friedman et al., 2007; Rosenblum et al., 2008).  The use of OTC water bath treatment (400 mg/l for one hour daily over 7 days) has also shown promising results (García- Esquivel et al., 2011). As the appearance of a bacteriophage virus infecting WS-RLO appears to attenuate WS disease, the prospects for phage therapy are intriguing (Friedman et al., 2014a).  No vaccines or other chemotherapeutic treatments are currently available for this disease (OIE, 2012).

Prevention and Control

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Avoidance of the pathogen is the most effective prevention measure.  Good husbandry practices are essential for control of any infectious disease and should include reducing stocking densities, avoiding mixing of disparate groups, and rinsing hands and equipment in fresh or iodinated water between groups and/or tanks (Crosson et al., 2014).  Infected groups should be isolated and culled or administered oral or bath treatments with oxytetracycline as mentioned in the Disease Treatment section.  Holding abalones at cooler temperatures <15°C) may also reduce WS-RLO transmission (Braid et al., 2005).  Some evidence suggests that some individual abalones may be more resistant to WS-RLO infection, raising the possibility of selective breeding programs to select for resistance (OIE, 2012).  Clearly, this is an area that warrants more research.

References

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Balseiro P; Aranguren R; Gestal C; Novoa B; Figueras A, 2006. Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis and Haplosporidium montforti associated with mortalities of abalone Haliotis tuberculata cultured in Europe. Aquaculture, 258(1/4):63-72. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00448486

Braid BA; Moore JD; Robbins TT; Hedrick RP; Tjeerdema RS; Friedman CS, 2005. Health and survival of red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, under varying temperature, food supply, and exposure to the agent of withering syndrome. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 89(3):219-231.

Caceres-Martinez J; Tinoco-Orta GD, 2001. Symbionts of cultured red abalone Haliotis rufescens from Baja California, Mexico. Journal of Shellfish Research [4th International Symposium on Abalone Biology, Fisheries, and Culture, University of Capetown, Capetown, South Africa, 6-11 February, 2000.], 20(2):875-881.

Cook PA, 2014. The worldwide abalone industry. Modern Economy, 5:1181-1186.

Crosson LM; Wight N; Vanblaricom GR; Kiryu I; Moore JD; Friedman CS, 2014. Abalone withering syndrome: distribution, impacts, current diagnostic methods and new findings. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 108(3):261-270. http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/dao/v108/n3/p261-270/

Dumler JS; Barbet AF; Bekker CP; Dasch GA; Palmer GH; Ray SC; Rikihisa Y; Rurangirwa FR, 2001. Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 51(6):2145-2165.

Friedman CS; Andree KB; Beauchamp KA; Moore JD; Robbins TT; Shields JD; Hedrick RP, 2000. 'Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis', a newly described pathogen of abalone, Haliotis spp., along the west coast of North America. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 50(2):847-855.

Friedman CS; Biggs W; Shields JD; Hedrick RP, 2002. Transmission of withering syndrome in black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii Leach. Journal of Shellfish Research, 21(2):817-824.

Friedman CS; Crosson LM, 2012. Putative phage hyperparasite in the rickettsial pathogen of abalone, "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis". Microbial Ecology, 64(4):1064-1072. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00248-012-0080-4/fulltext.html

Friedman CS; Finley CA, 2003. Evidence for an anthropogenic introduction of "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis", the etiological agent of withering syndrome, into northern California abalone populations via conservation efforts. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 60:1424-1431.

Friedman CS; Scott BB; Strenge RE; Vadopalas B; McCormick TB, 2007. Oxytetracycline as a tool to manage and prevent losses of the endangered white abalone, Haliotis sorenseni, caused by withering syndrome. Journal of Shellfish Research, 26(3):877-885. http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.2983%2F0730-8000%282007%2926%5B877%3AOAATTM%5D2.0.CO%3B2

Friedman CS; Wight N; Crosson LM; VanBlaricom GR; Lafferty KD, 2014. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: phage therapy and natural selection. Frontiers in Microbiology, 5(March):78. http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00078/full

Friedman CS; Wight N; Crosson LM; White SJ; Strenge RM, 2014. Validation of a quantitative PCR assay for detection and quantification of 'Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis'. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 108(3):251-259. http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/dao/v108/n3/p251-259/

García-Esquivel Z; Cáceres-Martínez J; Montes-Magallón S, 2011. Oxytetracycline water bath treatment of juvenile blue abalone Haliotis fulgens (Philippi 1845) affected by the withering syndrome. Ciencias Marinas, 37(2):191-200.

Gardner GR; Harshbarger JC; Lake JL; Sawyer TK; Price KL; Stephenson MD; Haaker PL; Togstad HA, 1995. Association of prokaryotes with symptomatic appearance of withering syndrome in black abalone Haliotis cracherodii. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 66(2):111-120.

González RC; Brokordt K; Lohrmann KB, 2012. Physiological performance of juvenile Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai abalone exposed to the withering syndrome agent. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 111(1):20-26. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201112001401

IUCN, 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org

Kiryu I; Kurita J; Yuasa K; Nishioka T; Shimahara Y; Kamaishi T; Ototake M; Oseko N; Tange N; Inoue M; Yatabe T; Friedman CS, 2013. First detection of Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, the causative agent of withering syndrome, in Japanese black abalone Haliotis discus discus in Japan. Gyobyo Kenkyu = Fish Pathology, 48(2):35-41. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jsfp/48/2/48_35/_article

Kismohandaka G; Friedman CS; Roberts W; Hedrick RP; Crosby MP, 1993. Investigation of physiological parameters of black abalone with withering syndrome. Journal of Shellfish Research, 12:131-132.

Moore JD; Juhasz CI; Robbins TT; Vilchis LI, 2009. Green abalone, Haliotis fulgens infected with the agent of withering syndrome do not express disease signs under a temperature regime permissive for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens. Marine Biology, 156(11):2325-2330. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/h14550h3531g4877/fulltext.html

Moore JD; Marshman BC; Chun CSY, 2011. Health and survival of red abalone Haliotis rufescens from San Miguel Island, California, USA, in a laboratory simulation of La Niña and El Niño conditions. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 23(2):78-84. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a937258246~frm=titlelink

Moore JD; Robbins TT; Friedman CS, 2000. Withering syndrome in farmed red abalone Haliotis rufescens: thermal induction and association with a gastrointestinal rickettsiales-like prokaryote. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 12(1):26-34.

Murray RG; Schleifer KH, 1994. Taxonomic notes: a proposal for recording the properties of putative taxa of procaryotes. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 44(1):174-176.

Murray RG; Stackebrandt E, 1995. Taxonomic note: implementation of the provisional status Candidatus for incompletely described procaryotes. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 45(1):186-187.

National Marine Fisheries Service, 2008. White Abalone Recovery Plan (Haliotis sorenseni). Long Beach, California, USA: National Marine Fisheries Service.

National Marine Fisheries Service, 2009. 2009 NMFS West Coast workshop on abalone species of concern, 1 September 2009. Seattle, Washington, USA and Long Beach, California, USA: National Marine Fisheries Service, 25 pp. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/species/abalone_workshop_soc2009.pdf

National Marine Fisheries Service, 2015. Endangered and Threatened Marine Species. Silver Spring, Maryland, USA: National Marine Fisheries Service. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/esa/

National Marine Fisheries Service, 2015. Proactive Conservation Program: Species of Concern. Silver Spring, Maryland, USA: National Marine Fisheries Service. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/concern/

OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2012. Infection with Xenohaliotis californiensis. In: Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), 511-523. [Chapter 2.4.7.] http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/aahm/current/2.4.07_X_CALIF.pdf

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Raimondi PT; Wilson CM; Ambrose RF; Engel JM; Minchinton TE, 2002. El Niño and the continued declines of black abalone along the coast of California. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 242:143-152.

Rosenblum ES; Juhasz CI; Friedman CS; Robbins TT; Craigmill A; Tjeerdema RS; Moore JD, 2008. Oxytetracycline as a treatment for abalone withering syndrome, Part II: Efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and long term resistance to re-infection at elevated sea water temperatures. Aquaculture, 277:138-148.

Vilchis LI; Tegner MJ; Moore JD; Friedman CS; Riser KL; Robbins TT; Dayton PK, 2005. Ocean warming effects on growth, reproduction, and survivorship of southern California abalone. Ecological Applications, 15:469-480.

Wetchateng T; Friedman CS; Wight NA; Lee PeiYu; Teng PingHua; Sriurairattana S; Wongprasert K; Withyachumnarnkul B, 2010. Withering syndrome in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 90(1):69-76.

Distribution References

Balseiro P, Aranguren R, Gestal C, Novoa B, Figueras A, 2006. Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis and Haplosporidium montforti associated with mortalities of abalone Haliotis tuberculata cultured in Europe. Aquaculture. 258 (1/4), 63-72. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00448486 DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.03.046

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Caceres-Martinez J, Tinoco-Orta G D, 2001. Symbionts of cultured red abalone Haliotis rufescens from Baja California, Mexico. Journal of Shellfish Research. 20 (2), 875-881.

Crosson L M, Wight N, Vanblaricom G R, Kiryu I, Moore J D, Friedman C S, 2014. Abalone withering syndrome: distribution, impacts, current diagnostic methods and new findings. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 108 (3), 261-270. http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/dao/v108/n3/p261-270/ DOI:10.3354/dao02713

Kiryu I, Kurita J, Yuasa K, Nishioka T, Shimahara Y, Kamaishi T, Ototake M, Oseko N, Tange N, Inoue M, Yatabe T, Friedman C S, 2013. First detection of Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, the causative agent of withering syndrome, in Japanese black abalone Haliotis discus discus in Japan. Gyobyo Kenkyu = Fish Pathology. 48 (2), 35-41. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jsfp/48/2/48_35/_article DOI:10.3147/jsfp.48.35

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Wetchateng T, Friedman C S, Wight N A, Lee PeiYu, Teng PingHua, Sriurairattana S, Wongprasert K, Withyachumnarnkul B, 2010. Withering syndrome in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 90 (1), 69-76. DOI:10.3354/dao02221

Organizations

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World: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 12, rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, France, http://www.oie.int/

USA: OIE Reference Laboratory for infection with "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis", University of Washington, School of Aquatic &amp; Fishery Sciences, Box 355020, Seattle, WA 98195-5020, http://fish.washington.edu/people/friedman/

Contributors

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27/03/2015 Original text by:

Chris A. Whitehouse, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702, USA

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