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Tropilaelaps infestation of honey bees

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Tropilaelaps infestation of honey bees

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 September 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tropilaelaps infestation of honey bees
  • Overview
  • This datasheet is about Tropilaelaps infestation of honey bees as defined by the OIE, i.e. an infestation of honey bees of the genus Apis caused by mites of the genus Tropilaelaps, including...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tropilaelaps sp. (Asian bee mites); mites on European honey bee larvae and pupa (Apis mellifera), and a deformed bee (arrowed). Tropilaelaps is a genus of mites that parasitise the brood of Asian honey bees; they spread to the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) after it was introduced to Asia.
TitleMites on European honey bee larvae and pupa
CaptionTropilaelaps sp. (Asian bee mites); mites on European honey bee larvae and pupa (Apis mellifera), and a deformed bee (arrowed). Tropilaelaps is a genus of mites that parasitise the brood of Asian honey bees; they spread to the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) after it was introduced to Asia.
Copyright©Dr Denis Anderson/CSIRO-scienceimage - CC BY 3.0
Tropilaelaps sp. (Asian bee mites); mites on European honey bee larvae and pupa (Apis mellifera), and a deformed bee (arrowed). Tropilaelaps is a genus of mites that parasitise the brood of Asian honey bees; they spread to the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) after it was introduced to Asia.
Mites on European honey bee larvae and pupaTropilaelaps sp. (Asian bee mites); mites on European honey bee larvae and pupa (Apis mellifera), and a deformed bee (arrowed). Tropilaelaps is a genus of mites that parasitise the brood of Asian honey bees; they spread to the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) after it was introduced to Asia.©Dr Denis Anderson/CSIRO-scienceimage - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tropilaelaps infestation of honey bees

Overview

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This datasheet is about Tropilaelaps infestation of honey bees as defined by the OIE, i.e. an infestation of honey bees of the genus Apis caused by mites of the genus Tropilaelaps, including T. clareae, T. koenigerum, T. thaii and T. mercedesae (OIE, 2013b). The mites are ectoparasites of honey bee brood, and cannot survive for periods of more than a few days away from such brood (Anderson and Roberts, 2013). They kill bee larvae or impede their development by depriving them of nutrition (Defra, 2005; FERA, 2013), and can also spread pathogenic viruses (OIE, 2013b).

T. clareae was previously thought to be ubiquitous in Asia, but has now been found to be two species: following a genetic and morphological study, Anderson and Morgan (2007) redefined T. clareae as containing haplotypes that parasitise native Apis dorsata breviligula and introduced A. mellifera in the Philippines, and native A.dorsata binghami on Sulawesi Island in Indonesia. The new species T. mercedesae (previously mistaken for T. clareae) was defined as including haplotypes that parasitise native A. dorsata dorsata and introduced A. mellifera in mainland Asia and Indonesia (except Sulawesi), as does the already known species T. koenigerum. T. mercedesae and another new species, T. thaii, were also recorded as attacking A. laboriosa [A. dorsata laboriosa] in mountainous Himalayan regions.

Tropilaelaps infestation causes serious damage to apiculture throughout Asia, and although it has so far not spread much beyond Asia, it is considered serious enough, and likely enough to spread, to be a significant emerging threat to world apiculture (Anderson and Roberts, 2013).

Hosts/Species Affected

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T. clareae was first discovered on Apis mellifera in the Philippines (Delfinado and Baker, 1961), but the primary hosts of Tropilaelaps mites are presumed to be the ‘giant’ honeybees of Asia: Apis dorsata and A. laboriosa [A. dorsata laboriosa] (Anderson and Morgan, 2007).

T. clareae and T. mercedesaebetween them (formerly believed to be the single species T. clareae) are economically important pests of the introduced Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, throughout Asia (Anderson and Morgan (2007). Other host species include A. cerana and A. florea (Bailey and Ball, 1991; Schmid-Hempel, 1998), although according to Anderson and Roberts (2013), Tropilaelaps mites are only very occasionally found in colonies of these species and have only ever once been recorded as producing offspring there.

A. dorsata has been described at the ‘primary host’ of T. clareae (Laigo and Morse, 1968), but Tropilaelaps mites were able to switch to the western honeybee, A. mellifera (Delfinado and Baker, 1961; Anderson and Morgan, 2007) where infestations rapidly lead to colony death (Forsgren et al., 2008). This has led to the consideration that Tropilaelaps is more dangerous to A. mellifera than Varroa destructor (Forsgren et al., 2008).

T. mercedesae may infest as much as 90% of the brood in A. mellifera colonies, but much lower levels (3-6%) are reported in A. dorsata colonies, and A. dorsata and A. cerana workers show greater resistance than those of A. mellifera (Anderson and Roberts, 2013).

Distribution

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T. clareae was first discovered on Apis mellifera in the Philippines (Delfinado and Baker, 1961), but Tropilaelaps are found throughout much of Asia (Anderson and Morgan, 2007) and infest a range of honeybee species (Bailey and Ball, 1991; Schmid-Hempel, 1998). Apart from a doubtful record from Kenya in the early 1990s, Tropilaelaps mites have not yet been found outside Asia and bordering areas (Anderson and Roberts, 2013). Glinski and Kostro (2001) mention T. clareae as being a problem in South Africa, but no other evidence of this is apparent.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentSchotman, 1989; OIE, 2009; Anderson and Roberts, 2013
ArmeniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
AzerbaijanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BangladeshNo information availableOIE, 2009
BhutanNo information availableOIE, 2009
CambodiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ChinaPresentSchotman, 1989; OIE, 2009; Anderson and Roberts, 2013
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE, 2009
IndiaPresentOIE, 2009; Padhi and Rath, 2012
IndonesiaPresentAnderson and Morgan, 2007; OIE, 2009
-Irian JayaPresentIntroduced Invasive Anderson and Roberts, 2013
IranNo information availableOIE, 2009
IraqDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IsraelDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
JapanNo information availableOIE, 2009
JordanNo information availableOIE, 2009
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Korea, Republic ofPresentWoo and Lee, 1997; OIE, 2009
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
KyrgyzstanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LaosNo information availableOIE, 2009
LebanonDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MalaysiaPresentKoeniger et al., 2002; OIE, 2009
MongoliaNo information availableOIE, 2009
MyanmarPresentMaung-Maung-Nyein and Zmarlicki, 1982; OIE, 2009
NepalPresentDelfinado-Baker et al., 1985; OIE, 2009
OmanNo information availableOIE, 2009
PakistanPresentSchotman, 1989; OIE, 2009; Raffique et al., 2012
PhilippinesPresentSchotman, 1989; Anderson and Morgan, 2007; OIE, 2009
QatarNo information availableOIE, 2009
Saudi ArabiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Sri LankaPresentDelfinado-Baker and Baker, 1982; Schotman, 1989; OIE, 2009
SyriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
TajikistanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
ThailandPresentVongpakorn and Neramitmansook, 2003; OIE, 2009
TurkeyNo information availableOIE, 2009
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
VietnamPresentLe-Minh-Hoang and Pham-Khac-Hieu, 2002; OIE, 2009
YemenNo information availableOIE, 2009

Africa

AlgeriaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
AngolaNo information availableOIE, 2009
BeninNo information availableOIE, 2009
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE, 2009
ChadNo information availableOIE, 2009
CongoNo information availableOIE, 2009
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
EgyptNo information availableOIE, 2009
EritreaNo information availableOIE, 2009
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
GabonNo information availableOIE, 2009
GambiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GhanaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuineaNo information availableOIE, 2009
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE, 2009
KenyaAbsent, unreliable recordOIE, 2009; Anderson and Roberts, 2013
LesothoDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MalawiNo information availableOIE, 2009
MaliNo information availableOIE, 2009
MauritiusDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MoroccoNo information availableOIE, 2009
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE, 2009
NamibiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
NigeriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
RwandaNo information availableOIE, 2009
SenegalNo information availableOIE, 2009
South AfricaNo information availableOIE, 2009
SudanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SwazilandNo information availableOIE, 2009
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
TogoNo information availableOIE, 2009
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UgandaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ZambiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ZimbabweNo information availableOIE, 2009

North America

CanadaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
GreenlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MexicoDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
USADisease never reportedOIE, 2009

Central America and Caribbean

BelizeDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CubaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Dominican RepublicNo information availableOIE, 2009
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
HondurasNo information availableOIE, 2009
JamaicaNo information availableOIE, 2009
MartiniqueNo information availableOIE, 2009
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE, 2009
PanamaNo information availableOIE, 2009

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BoliviaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BrazilDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
ChileDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
French GuianaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
PeruDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009

Europe

AlbaniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
AustriaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BelarusDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BelgiumDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BulgariaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CroatiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Czech RepublicDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
EstoniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
FranceDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
GermanyDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
HungaryDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IrelandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
ItalyNo information availableOIE, 2009
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LithuaniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MacedoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MaltaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MontenegroDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NetherlandsDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
PolandNo information availableOIE, 2009
PortugalDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
RomaniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Russian FederationNo information availableOIE, 2009
SerbiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SloveniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SpainDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SwitzerlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
UKDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UkraineDisease not reportedOIE, 2009

Oceania

AustraliaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive Lee, 1995; Owen, 2011; Anderson and Roberts, 2013

Diagnosis

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Early signs of infestation usually go unnoticed, but the growth in the mite population is rapid and leads to high hive mortality (OIE, 2013b).

Apis mellifera colonies show similar damage whether infested with Tropilaelaps or Varroa destructor. Brood mortality and a reduced adult life span of any bee that has survived the parasitized brood stage are indications of mite infestation. If a bee is infested during development, and survives to adulthood, it may be physically or physiologically damaged as an adult. Damage may include: shorter lifespan; lower body weight; and shrunken and deformed wings and legs. Deformed bees may be observed crawling at the hive entrance (Defra, 2005).

Other signs of infestation include irregular and poor brood patterns with patches of neglected brood and perforated cappings. When infestation is severe, losses of up to 50% of brood may be observed and there may be a smell of decaying pupal and larval remains (Defra, 2005).

Methods used in the detection of Varroa can be used to monitor for Tropilaelaps: regular collection and examination of floor debris and hive inserts; examination of bees and brood; and the use of a proprietary acaricide. It is relatively easy to distinguish Tropilaelaps from Varroa (especially with the aid of a magnifying glass): Tropilaelaps are smaller, elongated and fast-moving (Defra, 2005).

Anderson and Roberts (2013) provide information on how to identify mites by morphological examination (identification to the species level by this method can be difficult) and by molecular methods.

Disease Course

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The mites cause damage to the developing bee larvae by depriving them of the nourishment that they require for growth (Defra, 2005; FERA, 2013).

Epidemiology

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Life Cycle

Tropilaelaps mites have similar lifecycles and modes of parasitism to Varroa destructor, but with a shorter life cycle enabling populations to expand more quickly (Defra, 2005). The following description of the lifecycle is based on information provided in Defra's and FERA's’s factsheets on Tropilaelaps mites, which should be consulted for further information (Defra, 2005; FERA, 2013). The adults enter bee cells containing larvae, and reproduction takes place within sealed brood cells. Although the mites show a preference for reproducing in drone cells, they can also reproduce in worker cells. Females lay 3-4 eggs on mature bee larvae, 48 hours after capping, approximately 1 day apart.

After 12 hours, the eggs hatch and develop into protonymphs and deutonymphs before reaching adulthood. Hatched male and female mites feed on developing bee haemolymph and this deprives the bee of essential nourishment.

Egg laying to adulthood usually takes approximately 6 days (although different studies show considerable variation – Anderson and Roberts, 2013). Once emerged the adult mites and the original invading female mite exit the cell to search for new hosts. A single cell has been observed to hold 14 adult mites and 10 nymphal stages.

In contrast to Varroa, the mouthparts of Tropilaelaps cannot pierce the body wall of adult bees, so they depend on bee brood for food and cannot survive long in its absence.

Dispersal

Tropilaelaps mites are mobile and can easily move between bees and within a hive; however, they require adult bees to move between colonies and are therefore spread over longer distances via the natural processes of drifting, robbing and swarming (bees abandoning a severely infested hive may help to spread the mites). They can also be spread on equipment or via the usual practices of beekeepers. The main and most rapid means of spread is the movement of infested Apis mellifera colonies to new areas by beekeepers (Defra, 2005; FERA, 2013).

Impact

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Economic Impact

Honeybee mites are major limiting factors in beekeeping, and Tropilaelaps can causes 50-100% loss of bee colonies (Hosamani et al., 2006). High infestations of A. mellifera brood often result in adult bees with deformed wings and reduced body weight; untreated infestations rapidly increase to high levels and invariably lead to the death of entire colonies (Anderson and Roberts, 2013). Honey bees are important to the agricultural and horticultural sectors as pollinators, so any disease causing decline in bee populations will have a significant impact on their role in these industries.

Dainat et al. (2009) investigated T. mercedesae as a vector of honeybee viruses. They sampled worker bees and T. mercedesae mites from three A. mellifera colonies exhibiting symptoms of deformed wing virus (DWV). They analysed samples for DWV, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), Sacbrood virus (SBV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV). Only DWV was found, but evidence indicated virus replication. The authors concluded that T. mercedesae may be a biological vector of DWV, indicating a route for virus spread in A. mellifera.

Bee decline caused by Tropilaelaps and other problems will have a significantly negative affect on pollination by bees. The value of pollination is estimated to exceed the value of products from beehives many-fold (Delaplane and Mayer, 2000).

Social Impact

The effect of Tropilaelaps infestations on honeybee health will also have a significant impact on the livelihood of beekeepers who rely on their industry for income.

Environmental Impact

Impact on habitats

Bee decline caused by Tropilaelaps and other problems will have a significant negative affect on pollination by bees in habitats where such pollination may be important.

Impact on biodiversity

Any decline in native bees due to infestation by Tropilaelaps would have a negative effect on bee biodiversity (Cuthbertson and Brown, 2009) (although so far the main negative impacts have been on A. mellifera in areas to which it has been introduced).

Disease Treatment

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Tropilaelaps mites can be killed by acaricides and the aim of control is to keep populations below economic threshold levels. These acaricides can be applied in feed, directly to adult bees, as fumigants, in contact strips or by evaporation (Defra, 2005). The efficacy of various acaricides, including formic acid, sulfur, fluvalinate and amitraz, has been investigated in a number of studies (e.g. Sharma et al., 2003; Arun et al., 2003; Rashid Mahmood et al., 2011; Yu et al., 2011; FERA, 2013).

Yu et al. (2011) investigated the effect of sublimed sulfur and acaricides on T. clareae and Varroa destructor. They reported that mites could be eliminated on combs or during the pupal stage, but not on adult bees.

The controlling effects of thymol and formic acid were investigated in a study at the Honeybee Research Institute in Islamabad, Pakistan (Rashid Mahmood et al., 2011). The results showed that formic acid killed a significantly higher number of mites compared to treatments with thymol. Further, the total honey production harvested from colonies treated with different acaricides remained the same.

Hosamani et al. (2007) studied various botanicals against T. clareae in Apis mellifera colonies. Garlic leaves, liquorice leaves and turmeric rhizomes were investigated. Garlic extract appeared to be most effective and caused 72% and 63% of dead mites in hive debris of brood frames, with and without bees, respectively.

Prevention and Control

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FERA (2013) recommends that beekeepers should monitor their hives for Tropilaelaps as part of their management routine, which is particularly important if hives are in high risk areas (i.e. around ports and container freight terminals).

In the UK, the National Bee Unit carries out surveillance for exotic bee pests including Tropilaelaps (Defra, 2005; Wilkins et al., 2007); presumably other countries do the same.

One of the main ways in which Tropilaelaps is spread is by beekeepers; therefore good husbandry practices will help to prevent further spread. Trapping mites in brood combs so that they can be removed and destroyed is effective (Defra, 2005; FERA, 2013).

Tropilaelaps cannot survive outside sealed brood for more than a few days, or feed on adults, so creating breaks in the brood, for example by caging the queen, is an effective means of exploiting this aspect of the mite lifecycle by causing a break in it (Defra, 2005; FERA, 2013).

OIE’s Terrestrial Animal Health Code (OIE, 2013b) provides information on how to avoid the spread of Tropilaelaps through trade in bees, beekeeping equipment or bee products.

References

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Anderson DL; Morgan MJ, 2007. Genetic and morphological variation of bee-parasitic Tropilaelaps mites (Acari: Laelapidae): new and re-defined species. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 43(1):1-24. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/q426136l7374g615/?p=b8a21b93466846ffaccced5cefeb1e17&pi=0

Anderson DL; Roberts JMK, 2013. Standard methods for Tropilaelaps mites research. Journal of Apicultural Research, 52(4):article 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.21

Arun K; Sharma SK, 2003. Evaluation of sulfur application methods against Tropilaelaps clareae Delfinado and Baker in Apis mellifera L. colonies. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology, 23(2):159-160.

Bailey L; Ball BV, 1991. Honey bee pathology, Ed. 2. Sidcup, Kent, UK: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, vii + 193 pp.

Cuthbertson AGS; Brown MA, 2009. Issues affecting British honey bee biodiversity and the need for conservation of this important ecological component. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6(4):695-699. http://www.ceers.org/ijest

Dainat B; Ken T; Berthoud H; Neumann P, 2009. The ectoparasitic mite Tropilaelaps mercedesae (Acari, Laelapidae) as a vector of honeybee viruses. Insectes Sociaux, 56(1):40-43. http://www.springerlink.com/content/1420-9098

Defra, 2005. Tropilaelaps: parasitic mites of honey bees. London, UK: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 14 pp. http://adlib.everysite.co.uk/adlib/defra/content.aspx?doc=139796&id=139797

Delaplane KS; Mayer DF, 2000. Crop pollination by bees. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, xv + 344 pp. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=26

Delfinado MD; Baker EW, 1961. Tropilaelaps, a new genus of mite from the Philippines (Laelapidae: Acarina). Fieldiana Zoology, 44(7):53-56.

Delfinado-Baker M; Baker EW, 1982. A new species of Tropilaelaps parasitic on honey bees. American Bee Journal, 122(6):416-417.

Delfinado-Baker M; Underwood BA; Baker EW, 1985. The occurrence of Tropilaelaps mites in brood nests of Apis dorsata and A. laboriosa in Nepal, with descriptions of the nymphal stages. American Bee Journal, 125(10):703-706.

Donovan BJ; Paul F, 2005. Pseudoscorpions: the forgotten beneficials inside beehives and their potential for management for control of varroa and other arthropod pests. Bee World, 86(4):83-87.

FERA (Food and Environment Research Agency), 2013. Tropilaelaps - parasitic mites of honey bees. Sand Hutton, UK: Food and Environment Research Agency, 24 pp. https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/beebase/downloadDocument.cfm?id=18

Forsgren E; Miranda JR de; Isaksson M; Wei S; Fries I, 2008. Deformed wing virus associated with Tropilaelaps mercedesae infesting European honey bees (Apis mellifera). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 47(2):87-97.

Glinski Z; Kostro K, 2001. New parasitic diseases affecting honeybees. (Nowe parazytozy pszczoy miodnej.) Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skodowska. Sectio DD, Medicina Veterinaria, 56:49-58.

Hosamani RK; Rachna Gulati; Sharma SK, 2006. Bioecology and management of honeybee mite, Tropilaelaps clareae Delfinado and Baker - a review. Agricultural Reviews, 27(3):191-199.

Hosamani RK; Rachna Gulati; Sharma SK; Rishi Kumar, 2007. Efficacy of some botanicals against ectoparasitic mite, Tropilaelaps clareae (Acari: Laelapidae) in Apis mellifera colonies. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 12(2):99-108. http://www.acarology.org

Koeniger G; Koeniger N; Anderson DL; Lekprayoon C; Tingek S, 2002. Mites from debris and sealed brood cells of Apis dorsata colonies in Sabah (Borneo) Malaysia, including a new haplotype of Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie, 33(1):15-24.

Laigo FM; Morse RA, 1968. The mite Tropilaelaps clareae in Apis dorsata colonies in the Philippines. Bee World, 3:116-118 pp.

Le Minh Hoang; Pham Khac Hieu, 2002. Study on the invasion and reproduction of Varroa jacobsoni and Tropilaelaps clareae in honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Daklak province. Khoa Hoc Ky Thuat Thu Y (Veterinary Sciences and Techniques), 9(1):42-45.

Lee B, 1995. Mites, bees, and plagues that are and might be. Partners in Research for Development, No. 8:2-9.

Luo QiHua; Zhou Ting; Wang Qiang; Dai PingLi; Wu YanYan; Song HuaiLei, 2011. Identification of Tropilaelaps mites (Acari, Laelapidae) infesting Apis mellifera in China. Apidologie, 42(4):485-498. http://www.springerlink.com/content/xp8511w151449300/

Maung Maung Nyein; Zmarlicki C, 1982. Control of mites in European bees in Burma. American Bee Journal, 122(9):638-639.

OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2013. Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-manual/access-online/

OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2013. Terrestrial Animal Health Code, edition 22. Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties. http://www.oie.int/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Owen IL, 2011. Parasites of animals in Papua New Guinea recorded at the National Veterinary Laboratory: a catalogue, historical review and zoogeographical affiliations. Zootaxa, 3143:1-163. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2011/f/z03143p163f.pdf

Padhi J; Rath LK, 2012. Seasonal incidence of ectoparasitic mite Tropilaelaps clareae Delfiando and Baker and effect of their varied infestation levels on brood and adult bees of Apis mellifera L. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 9(2):32-35.

Raffique MK; Rashid Mahmood; Muhammad Aslam; Ghulam Sarwar, 2012. Control of Tropilaelaps clareae mite by using formic acid and thymol in honey bee Apis mellifera L. colonies. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 44(4):1129-1135. http://zsp.com.pk/pdf44/1129-1135%20_33_%20PJZ-914-12%20Control%20of%20Tropilaelaps%20clareae%20Mite%20by%20Using%20Formic%20Acid%20and%20Thymol%20in%20Honey%20Bee%20Apis%20mellifera%20L.pdf

Rashid Mahmood; Wagchoure ES; Shazia Raja; Ghulam Sarwar; Muhammad Aslam, 2011. Effect of thymol and formic acid against ectoparasitic brood mite Tropilaelaps clareae in Apis mellifera colonies. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 43(1):91-95.

Schmid-Hempel P, 1998. Parasites in social insects. Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press, xi + 409 pp.

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Sharma SD; Kashyap NP; Desh Raj, 2003. Efficacy of some acaricides against ectoparasitic mite Tropilaelaps clareae infesting European honey bee Apis mellifera. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 37(1):60-63.

Vongpakorn M; Neramitmansook W, 2003. A survey of parasitic diseases in honey bee in Thailand. Journal of the Thai Veterinary Medical Association, 54(3):19-27.

Wilkins S; Brown MA; Cuthbertson AGS, 2007. The incidence of honey bee pests and diseases in England and Wales. Pest Management Science, 63:1062-1068.

Woo KS; Lee JH, 1997. Current status of honey bee mites in Korea. Honeybee Science, 18(4):175-177.

Yu YuSheng; Zhang ZuYun; Lu HuanXian; Zhao HongMu; Zhang XueWen, 2011. Control effect of sublimed sulfur paired with acaricide on bee mites. Agricultural Science & Technology - Hunan, 12(2):241-243. http://www.hnagri.com

Organizations

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World: IBRA, International Bee Research Association, Unit 6, Centre Court, Main Avenue, Treforest, RCT, CF37 5YR, UK, www.ibra.org.uk

World: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 12, rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, France, http://www.oie.int/

UK: British Beekeepers’ Association, National Beekeeping Centre, Stoneleigh Park, Stoneleigh, Warwickshire, CV8 2LG, UK, www.britishbeekeepers.com

Contributors

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23/03/2012: Original text by:

Dr Claire Beverley, CABI, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, OX10 8DE.

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