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Datasheet

Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (zebra chip)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 23 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • zebra chip
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Rhizobiales
  •         Family: Phyllobacteriaceae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso) is a phloem-limited, Gram-negative, unculturable bacterium that is primarily spread by psyllid insect vectors. It is considered very invasive due to its ability to be...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Potato (var. Atlantic) plant exhibiting early symptoms of CLso infection, including leaf curling and purpling. A major vector of CLso is the insect Bactericera cockerelli (the tomato or potato psyllid).
TitleEarly symptoms
CaptionPotato (var. Atlantic) plant exhibiting early symptoms of CLso infection, including leaf curling and purpling. A major vector of CLso is the insect Bactericera cockerelli (the tomato or potato psyllid).
Copyright©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Potato (var. Atlantic) plant exhibiting early symptoms of CLso infection, including leaf curling and purpling. A major vector of CLso is the insect Bactericera cockerelli (the tomato or potato psyllid).
Early symptomsPotato (var. Atlantic) plant exhibiting early symptoms of CLso infection, including leaf curling and purpling. A major vector of CLso is the insect Bactericera cockerelli (the tomato or potato psyllid).©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
CLso-infected potato plant with severe leaf curling and purpling symptoms.
TitleSevere leaf curling and purpling symptoms
CaptionCLso-infected potato plant with severe leaf curling and purpling symptoms.
Copyright©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
CLso-infected potato plant with severe leaf curling and purpling symptoms.
Severe leaf curling and purpling symptomsCLso-infected potato plant with severe leaf curling and purpling symptoms.©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Fresh potato (var. Shepody) tubers exhibiting CLso infection (zebra chip) symptoms
TitleInfected pototo tubers
CaptionFresh potato (var. Shepody) tubers exhibiting CLso infection (zebra chip) symptoms
Copyright©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Fresh potato (var. Shepody) tubers exhibiting CLso infection (zebra chip) symptoms
Infected pototo tubersFresh potato (var. Shepody) tubers exhibiting CLso infection (zebra chip) symptoms©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Zebra chip symptoms (due to CLso infection) in fried potato chips.
TitleSymptoms in fried potato chips
CaptionZebra chip symptoms (due to CLso infection) in fried potato chips.
Copyright©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Zebra chip symptoms (due to CLso infection) in fried potato chips.
Symptoms in fried potato chipsZebra chip symptoms (due to CLso infection) in fried potato chips.©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
CLso-infected tobacco plant with symptoms of stunting and chlorosis.
TitleSymptoms of stunting and chlorosis
CaptionCLso-infected tobacco plant with symptoms of stunting and chlorosis.
Copyright©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
CLso-infected tobacco plant with symptoms of stunting and chlorosis.
Symptoms of stunting and chlorosisCLso-infected tobacco plant with symptoms of stunting and chlorosis.©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Carrots with symptoms of CLso infection: leaf curling and purpling (a), leaf curling only (b), and asymptomatic carrots (c). Note the small size of the roots in the carrots with symptoms compared with to asymptomatic ones.
TitleCarrots with symptoms
CaptionCarrots with symptoms of CLso infection: leaf curling and purpling (a), leaf curling only (b), and asymptomatic carrots (c). Note the small size of the roots in the carrots with symptoms compared with to asymptomatic ones.
Copyright©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS
Carrots with symptoms of CLso infection: leaf curling and purpling (a), leaf curling only (b), and asymptomatic carrots (c). Note the small size of the roots in the carrots with symptoms compared with to asymptomatic ones.
Carrots with symptomsCarrots with symptoms of CLso infection: leaf curling and purpling (a), leaf curling only (b), and asymptomatic carrots (c). Note the small size of the roots in the carrots with symptoms compared with to asymptomatic ones.©Joseph E. Munyaneza/USDA-ARS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum Liefting et al., 2009

Preferred Common Name

  • zebra chip

Other Scientific Names

  • Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous Hansen et al., 2008
  • Liberibacter psyllaurous
  • Liberibacter solanacearum

International Common Names

  • English: psyllid yellows; zebra complex
  • Spanish: papa manchada; papa rayada; punta morada

Summary of Invasiveness

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Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso) is a phloem-limited, Gram-negative, unculturable bacterium that is primarily spread by psyllid insect vectors. It is considered very invasive due to its ability to be transported primarily in infective psyllids (Munyaneza et al., 2007a; 2010a,b; 2012a,b; Munyaneza, 2012; Alfaro-Fernandez et al., 2012a,b). It has been shown that Lso distribution in the Americas, New Zealand and Europe follows the distribution of its known psyllid vectors (Munyaneza, 2010; 2012).

In New Zealand, where Lso was introduced along with Bactericera cockerelli, supposedly from Western USA in early 2000s, the bacterium had already spread to both North and South Island by the time it was first documented in 2006 (Gill, 2006). It is clear that introduction of the psyllid vectors of Lso into new regions is likely to result in the rapid spread of this bacterium. Lso and several of its vectors are already on several alert lists, including the EPPO A1 Regulated Quarantine Plant Pests.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Rhizobiales
  •                 Family: Phyllobacteriaceae
  •                     Genus: Candidatus Liberibacter
  •                         Species: Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This liberibacter species was first identified in 2008, simultaneously by two research groups in the United States and New Zealand. The New Zealand research group, led by Liefting et al. (2008a; 2009c), first detected the bacterium in tomato and pepper and then in potato, as well as several other solanaceous species, tentatively naming the new liberibacter species ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’, the epithet referring to the family of plant hosts from which the bacterium was isolated.

The group in the United States, led by Hansen et al. (2008), detected this pathogen in tomato plants and the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli and tentatively designated the bacterium as ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’, so-named for its association with psyllid yellows. Details of the discovery and nomenclature of this bacterium are further discussed by Crosslin et al. (2010) and Butler and Trumble (2012).

Description

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Lso is a phloem-limited, Gram-negative, unculturable bacterium that is primarily spread by psyllid insect vectors (Hansen et al., 2008; Munyaneza et al., 2008; Secor et al., 2009; Munyaneza et al., 2010b). This bacterium can also be transmitted from infected to healthy plants through grafting (Crosslin and Munyaneza, 2009; Secor et al., 2009). Lso has also been shown to be transmitted both vertically (transovarially) and horizontially (from feeding on infected plant hosts) in Bactericera cockerelli (Hansen et al., 2008). Lso is closely related to the liberibacters associated with Huanglongbing, or citrus greening, the most destructive disease of citrus in the world (Bové, 2006).

Transmission electron microscopy images of Lso in sieve tube elements of infected plants revealed the bacterium to be 0.2 μm wide and 4 μm long (Liefting et al., 2009a). Scanning electron microscopy of other Liberibacters show a rod-shaped morphology (Secor et al., 2009).

Five haplotypes of Lso have so far been described (Nelson et al., 2011; 2012; Teresani et al., 2014). Two haplotypes (A and B) are associated with Bactericera cockerelli and diseases caused by this bacterium in potatoes and other solanaceous plants, whereas the other three (C, D and E) are associated with diseased carrots and celery and Trioza apicalis and Bactericera trigonica, respectively.

Haplotype ‘A’ has been found primarily from Honduras and Guatemala through western Mexico to Arizona, California and the Pacific Northwest, as well as in New Zealand. Haplotype ‘B’ is currently known from eastern Mexico and northwards through central USA through Texas. These two haplotypes show some range overlap in Texas, Kansas and Nebraska. Haplotype ‘C’ has been found in Finland (Nelson et al., 2011) and recently in Sweden and Norway (Nelson et al., 2012). Haplotypes ‘D’ and 'E' are found in the Mediterranean region (Nelson et al., 2012; Tahzima et al., 2014; Teresani et al., 2014). The five haplotypes are not yet known to elicit biological differences in the plant or insect hosts. These apparently stable haplotypes suggest separate long-lasting populations of the bacterium. The presence of Lso in both North and Central America and Europe cannot be explained by an incursion event, largely because of the difference in both psyllid species and psyllid plant hosts on either side of the Atlantic; this is in contrast to the obvious recent incursion event in New Zealand, possibly from western United States (Thomas et al., 2011). An overview of the origin of “Candidatus Liberibacter” species was presented by Nelson et al. (2013).

Although little is known on the effects of environmental conditions on Lso, temperature has been shown to have a significant effect on development of this bacterium. Compared to Huanglongbing liberibacter species, Lso appears to be heat sensitive, as it does not tolerate temperatures above 32 °C (Munyaneza et al., 2012a). Bactericera cockerelli, the insect vector of this bacterium in the Americas and New Zealand, appears to behave in similar way.

Distribution

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Lso has been reported from the western and central states of the United States (Texas, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, Wyoming, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California, Idaho, Oregon and Washington) (Hansen et al., 2008; Abad et al., 2009; Crosslin and Bester, 2009; Crosslin and Munyaneza, 2009; Lin et al., 2009; Secor et al., 2009; Brown et al., 2010; Crosslin et al., 2010; Munyaneza, 2010; 2012; Crosslin et al., 2012a,b), Mexico (Munyaneza et al., 2009a,b,c), Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador) (Rehman et al., 2010; Munyaneza, 2012; Aguilar et al., 2013a,b; Bextine et al., 2012; 2013a,b ; Munyaneza et al., 2013a,b; 2014) and New Zealand (Liefting et al., 2008a; 2009a,c).

This species of liberibacter has also been documented on carrot (Daucus carota L.) in Northern Europe (Finland, Norway, and Sweden) (Munyaneza et al., 2010c,d; 2011c; 2012a,b; 2014b) and the Mediterranean Region (Spain, the Canary Islands and Morocco) (Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2012a,b; Tahzima et al., 2014). Furthermore, Lso has recently been reported on celery (Apium graveolens) crops in Spain (EPPO, 2012a; Teresani et al., 2014). In August 2012, Lso was identified in two commercial carrot fields infested with the psyllid Trioza apicalis in France (EPPO, 2012b; Loiseau et al., 2014). It is not clear how both Lso and this insect vector were introduced in the region and they are currently under eradication.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Africa

MoroccoPresent Invasive Tahzima et al., 2014; Tahzima et al., 2014; Tahzima et al., 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsRestricted distributionAlfaro-Fernández et al., 2012b; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
MexicoPresentNative Invasive Munyaneza et al., 2009a; Munyaneza et al., 2009b; Munyaneza et al., 2009c; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresentBrown et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaWidespreadNative Invasive Hansen et al., 2008; Crosslin and Bester, 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoWidespreadNative Invasive Munyaneza, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentCrosslin et al., 2012a; Crosslin et al., 2012b; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-KansasWidespreadNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2011; Munyaneza, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-MontanaAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaWidespreadNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2011; Munyaneza, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-NevadaPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2011; Munyaneza, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-New MexicoWidespreadNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2011; Munyaneza, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentIntroduced Invasive Crosslin et al., 2012a; EPPO, 2014; Murphy et al., 2014
-TexasWidespreadNative Invasive French-Monar et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2011; Munyaneza, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-UtahAbsent, unreliable recordCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced Invasive Crosslin et al., 2012a; Crosslin et al., 2012b; EPPO, 2014
-WyomingPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2011; Munyaneza, 2012; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

El SalvadorPresent Invasive Bextine et al., 2013a; Bextine et al., 2013b; EPPO, 2014
GuatemalaWidespreadNative Invasive Secor et al., 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2011; Munyaneza, 2012; EPPO, 2014
HondurasWidespreadNative Invasive Aguilar et al., 2013a; Aguilar et al., 2013b; Munyaneza et al., 2013b; Abad et al., 2009; Rehman et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014; Munyaneza et al., 2014
NicaraguaWidespread Invasive Bextine et al., 2012a; Bextine et al., 2013a; Munyaneza et al., 2013b; EPPO, 2014

Europe

FinlandWidespreadNative Invasive Munyaneza et al., 2010a; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentIntroduced2012EPPO, 2012b; EPPO, 2014; Loiseau et al., 2014Found in 2 carrot fields in Central region in August 2012 and is currently being eradicated
NetherlandsAbsent, confirmed by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentMunyaneza et al., 2012b; EPPO, 2014; Munyaneza et al., 2014
SpainWidespreadNative Invasive Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2012a; Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2012b; EPPO, 2014
SwedenWidespreadNative Invasive Munyaneza et al., 2012b; EPPO, 2014
UKPresentMonger and Jeffries, 2016

Oceania

New ZealandWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Liefting et al., 2008a; Liefting et al., 2009a; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014; Vereijssen et al., 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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Lso was first identified in 2008 (Hansen et al., 2008; Liefting et al., 2008a; 2009a) and shown to be associated with zebra chip, a potato disease that was linked to Bactericera cockerelli for the first time in 2006 by Munyaneza et al. (2007a,b). A comprehensive review of the history and association of this bacterium with zebra chip and other diseases of solanaceous crops was provided by Crosslin et al. (2010) and Munyaneza (2010; 2012). First reported in Mexico in the 1990s, zebra chip was documented causing serious economic damage in parts of southern Texas in 2004-2005. The disease is now widespread in the southwestern, central and northwestern United States, Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador and New Zealand (Munyaneza et al., 2007a,b; Liefting et al., 2009a; Munyaneza et al., 2009a; Secor et al., 2009; Crosslin et al., 2010; Munyaneza, 2010; Rehman et al., 2010; Bextine et al., 2012a,b; Crosslin et al., 2012a,b; Munyaneza, 2012). It may have reached New Zealand from the USA via the horticulture trade.

Lso also severely affects other important solanaceous crops, including tomato, pepper, eggplant, tobacco and tamarillo (Liefting et al., 2009a; Munyaneza et al., 2009b,c; Brown et al., 2010; Aguilar et al., 2013a,b; Bextine et al., 2013a; Munyaneza et al., 2013a,b; 2014). Lso is transmitted to solanaceous species by the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Munyaneza, 2012).

Munyaneza et al. (2010a,b) detected Lso in carrots affected by the psyllid T. apicalis in Finland, which constitutes the first report of liberibacter in Europe and the first report of Lso in a non-solanaceous species. The bacterium was subsequently detected in carrots and T. apicalis in Sweden and Norway (Munyaneza et al., 2012a,b; Munyaneza et al. 2014b). Lso has been detected in carrot and the psyllid Bactericera trigonica in the Canary Islands and mainland Spain (Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2012a,b); symptoms in diseased plants had previously been attributed to phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas in this Mediterranean region. Lso was for the first time reported on carrot on the African continent in Morocco (Tahzima et al., 2014).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
France   No EPPO, 2012b; Loiseau et al., 2014 Under eradication

Risk of Introduction

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Lso and its psyllid vector Bactericera cockerelli are serious and economically important pests of potatoes, tomatoes and other solanaceous crops in the Americas and New Zealand. In addition, this bacterium has been documented in carrots in Finland, Sweden and Norway, where it is associated with the psyllid Trioza apicalis and can cause up to 100% crop loss (Munyaneza et al., 2010a,b; 2012a,b).

 Lso and T. apicalis were reported in France, where they were apparently introduced inadvertently and are currently being eradicated (EPPO, 2012b).

This bacterium has also been reported in carrot and celery crops and in the psyllid Bactericera trigonica in Spain and the Canary Islands (Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2012a,b) and in Morocco (Tahzima et al., 2014). These observations suggest that the bacterium can easily be introduced in many parts of the world along with its insect vectors, with potentially catastrophic economic consequences.

The Mediterranean basin was thought by (Soliman, 2012) to be the suitable site in Europe for establishment of Lso, owing to the climate and the availability of hosts all year round, whereas northern and eastern parts of Europe may only see transient populations in the field.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Other
Host Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Host Present, no further details Natural
Host Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Vector Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Vector Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Natural
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Lso primarily infects solanaceous species, including potato, tomato, pepper, eggplant, tobacco, tomatillo, tamarillo and several weeds in the family Solanaceae (Hansen et al., 2008; Liefting et al., 2008a,b; 2009a,c; Abad et al., 2009; Crosslin and Munyaneza, 2009; Lin et al., 2009; Munyaneza et al., 2009a,b,c; Secor et al., 2009; Wen et al., 2009; Brown et al., 2010; Crosslin et al., 2010; Munyaneza, 2010; Sengoda et al., 2010; Munyaneza, 2012; Butler and Trumble, 2012; Aguilar et al., 2013a,b; Bextine et al., 2013a,b; Munyaneza et al. 2013a,b; 2014a). This liberibacter species is transmitted to solanaceous species by Bactericera cockerelli.

Lso has also been found to infect carrots and celery in Europe, where it is transmitted to carrot by T. apicalis and Bactericera trigonica (Munyaneza et al., 2010a,b; 2011; Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2012a,b; EPPO, 2012a; Teresani et al., 2014). It is suspected that Lso is likely to have more insect vectors and host plants than currently known.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
ApiaceaeApiaceaeOther
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeMain
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeOther
Petroselinum crispum (parsley)ApiaceaeHabitat/association
SolanaceaeSolanaceaeMain
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum pseudocapsicum (Jerusalem-cherry)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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Characteristic above-ground plant symptoms of Lso infection in potato, tomato and other solanaceous species resemble those caused by phytoplasmas and include: stunting; erectness of new foliage; chlorosis and purpling of foliage, with basal cupping of leaves; upward rolling of leaves throughout the plant; shortened and thickened terminal internodes resulting in plant rosetting; enlarged nodes, axillary branches or aerial tubers; leaf scorching; disruption of fruit set, and the production of numerous, small, misshapen and poor quality fruits (Munyaneza et al., 2007a,b; Liefting et al., 2009a; Secor et al., 2009; Crosslin et al., 2010; Munyaneza, 2010; 2012).

In potato, the below-ground symptoms include collapsed stolons, browning of vascular tissue concomitant with necrotic flecking of internal tissues and streaking of the medullary ray tissues, all of which can affect the entire tuber. Upon frying, these symptoms become more pronounced and chips or fries processed from affected tubers show dark blotches, stripes or streaks, rendering them commercially unacceptable (Munyaneza et al., 2007a,b; 2008; Secor et al., 2009; Crosslin et al., 2010; Miles et al., 2010). The symptoms in potato tubers have led to the disease being named ‘zebra chip’ (Munyaneza et al., 2007a,b; Munyaneza, 2012).

Symptoms in carrots infected with Lso resemble those caused by leafhopper-transmitted phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas in carrots (Font et al., 1999; Lee et al., 2006; Cebrián et al., 2010; Munyaneza et al., 2011) and include: leaf curling; yellowish, bronze and purplish discoloration of leaves; stunting of the carrot shoots and roots, and proliferation of secondary roots (Munyaneza et al., 2010a,b; 2012a,b; Alfaro-Fernandez et al., 2012a,b).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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Fruit

  • abnormal shape
  • reduced size

Growing point

  • discoloration
  • dwarfing; stunting
  • wilt

Leaves

  • abnormal colours
  • abnormal forms
  • leaves rolled or folded
  • necrotic areas
  • wilting
  • yellowed or dead

Roots

  • hairy root

Stems

  • canker on woody stem
  • fasciation
  • internal discoloration
  • necrosis
  • stunting or rosetting
  • witches broom

Vegetative organs

  • internal rotting or discoloration
  • surface cracking
  • surface lesions or discoloration

Whole plant

  • discoloration
  • dwarfing
  • early senescence
  • plant dead; dieback
  • seedling blight
  • wilt

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 32

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Psyllids vectors of Lso are attacked by a number of beneficial arthropods, including chrysopid larvae, coccinellids, geocorids, anthocorids, mirids, nabids, syrphid larvae and the parasitoids Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Metaphycus psyllidis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), but little is known about their effects on psyllid populations (Butler and Trumble, 2012a; Liu et al., 2012). In addition, several entomopathogenic fungi, including Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosae, have been determined to be effective natural enemies of Bactericera cockerelli, causing psyllid mortality up to 99 and 78% under laboratory and field conditions, respectively (Lacey et al., 2009; 2011).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission

Lso is spread primarily by its psyllid vectors. However, infected plant material could carry the disease and possibly different life stages of infective insect vectors. A relatively small percentage of Lso-infected potato tubers may produce infected plants; however, these plants are generally weak and short-lived, significantly reducing the risk of disease spread (Henne et al., 2010; Pitman et al., 2011; Munyaneza, 2012). Although only limited experiments have been conducted on liberibacter transmission, it appears that Lso is not transmitted through true seed from infected plants, at least in Solanaceae species (Munyaneza, 2012). However, Lso has been reported to be transmitted via carrot seeds (Bertolini et al., 2014).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Host and vector organisms Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Yes
Fruits (inc. pods) adults; eggs; nymphs Yes
Leaves adults; eggs; nymphs Yes
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Yes
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; nymphs Yes

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Bactericera cockerelliMunyaneza, 2012. Insect
Bactericera trigonicaAlfaro-Fernández et al., 2012b. InsectSpain
Trioza apicalisMunyaneza et al., 2010a. InsectFinland

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Economic Impact

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In its current range Lso causes severe damage to the yield and quality of its host crops (Soliman, 2012). The complex Lso/psyllid vectors has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato and tomato industries in the Americas and New Zealand (Munyaneza et al., 2007a,b; 2008; Liefting et al., 2009a; Secor et al., 2009; Crosslin et al., 2010; Munyaneza, 2012) and to the carrot industry in Europe and Africa (Munyaneza, 2010, Munyaneza et al., 2010a,b; 2012a,b; Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2012a,b; Nissinen et al., 2012; Tahzima et al., 2014).

In the case of potato, plant growth is negatively affected; chips or fries made from zebra chip-infected tubers show dark stripes that become markedly more visible upon frying, and hence are commercially unacceptable. As a consequence, whole crops might be rejected because of high levels of the disease, occasionally leading to abandonment of entire potato fields. Potatoes for fresh market are severely affected by zebra chip as well and no resistance to the disease has yet been identified. Infected tubers usually do not sprout and if they do they produce hair sprouts or weak plants (Henne et al., 2010, Pitman et al., 2011; Munyaneza, 2012).In Texas and New Zealand, annual potato yield losses due to Lso have been estimated at US $22 million and US $40 million, respectively (Soliman, 2012).

Soliman (2012) estimated that an infestation of Lso on potato and tomato in Europe would cost producers 222 million euros per year, and estimated the negative impact on social welfare to be 114 million euros.

Lso is also associated with economically damaging diseases of other important solanaceous crops, including tomato, pepper, eggplant, tobacco and tamarillo. In Europe, damage to carrots by Lso-infected carrot psyllids can cause up to 100% crop loss (Munyaneza et al., 2010a,b; 2012a,b; Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2012a,b).

Yield loss caused by Lso increases with temperature. Losses can be expected if mean August temperature is above 15°C (Soliman, 2012). The optimum temperature for Lso developement in potato was estimated by Munyaneza (2010) to be 28°C.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Diagnosis

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The genome of Lso, isolated from zebra chip-infected potatoes, has recently been sequenced (Lin et al., 2011). Detection methods for Lso have been developed and include conventional and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Hansen et al., 2008; Crosslin and Munyaneza, 2009; Li et al., 2009; Liefting et al., 2009a; Lin et al., 2009; Wen et al., 2009; Crosslin et al., 2011; Teresani et al., 2014). Uneven distribution and variation in the Lso titer in different parts of infected plants has been observed, making detection of this bacterium by PCR sometimes inconsistent (Crosslin and Munyaneza, 2009; Li et al., 2009).

Mixed infections of Lso and phytoplasmas have been reported in potato (Liefting et al., 2009b; Munyaneza, unpublished data) and carrot (Munyaneza et al., 2011). Furthermore, mixed infections of Lso, phytoplasmas, and Spiroplasma citri have been detected in carrots in the Mediterranean region (Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2012a).

Detection and Inspection

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The characteristic above-ground plant symptoms of Lso infection in both solanaceous species and carrot resemble those caused by phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas (see Symptoms). Therefore, the confirmation of Lso infection with biological molecular techniques following visual inspection is essential. However, zebra chip symptoms in potato tubers are generally characteristic and could reliably be used to inspect Lso infection in potatoes.

Prevention and Control

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At present, applications of insecticides targeted against the psyllid vectors are the only means to effectively manage diseases associated with Lso. Control of Bactericera cockerelli is extensively discussed by Munyaneza (2012), Munyaneza and Henne (2012) and Butler and Trumble (2012); also, see the ISC datasheet for Bactericera cockerelli for further details.

The use of antibiotics to control Lso is being explored (Henne et al., 2011).

Soliman (2012) recommends that the EU define Lso as a quarantine pest in order to prevent its establishment in Europe.

References

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Contributors

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04/10/2014 Updated by:

Joseph E Munyaneza, USDA-ARS, USA

17/12/2012 Original text by:

Joseph E Munyaneza, USDA-ARS, USA

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