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Mytilicola orientalis infestation
(oyster redworm)

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Datasheet

Mytilicola orientalis infestation (oyster redworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mytilicola orientalis infestation
  • Preferred Common Name
  • oyster redworm
  • Overview
  • Mytilicola orientalis was first described by Mori (1935) from the gut of bivalves in Japan. It was subsequently erro...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Histological sections through Mytilicola orientalis in the intestinal lumen of Nuttallia obscurata. The damage to the intestinal wall (indicated by the arrow) appears to be a sectioning artifact. Haematoxylin and eosin stain.
TitleHistology
CaptionHistological sections through Mytilicola orientalis in the intestinal lumen of Nuttallia obscurata. The damage to the intestinal wall (indicated by the arrow) appears to be a sectioning artifact. Haematoxylin and eosin stain.
CopyrightSusan M. Bower
Histological sections through Mytilicola orientalis in the intestinal lumen of Nuttallia obscurata. The damage to the intestinal wall (indicated by the arrow) appears to be a sectioning artifact. Haematoxylin and eosin stain.
HistologyHistological sections through Mytilicola orientalis in the intestinal lumen of Nuttallia obscurata. The damage to the intestinal wall (indicated by the arrow) appears to be a sectioning artifact. Haematoxylin and eosin stain.Susan M. Bower
Histological section through a Mytilicola orientalis within the lumen of the intestinal tract of Protothaca staminea. Tissues between the arrows show damage to the intestinal wall and focal haemocyte infiltration in association with the appendages of the copepod. Haematoxylin and eosin stain.
TitleHistology
CaptionHistological section through a Mytilicola orientalis within the lumen of the intestinal tract of Protothaca staminea. Tissues between the arrows show damage to the intestinal wall and focal haemocyte infiltration in association with the appendages of the copepod. Haematoxylin and eosin stain.
CopyrightSusan M. Bower
Histological section through a Mytilicola orientalis within the lumen of the intestinal tract of Protothaca staminea. Tissues between the arrows show damage to the intestinal wall and focal haemocyte infiltration in association with the appendages of the copepod. Haematoxylin and eosin stain.
HistologyHistological section through a Mytilicola orientalis within the lumen of the intestinal tract of Protothaca staminea. Tissues between the arrows show damage to the intestinal wall and focal haemocyte infiltration in association with the appendages of the copepod. Haematoxylin and eosin stain.Susan M. Bower

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mytilicola orientalis infestation

Preferred Common Name

  • oyster redworm

International Common Names

  • English: oyster red worm

Overview

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Mytilicola orientalis was first described by Mori (1935) from the gut of bivalves in Japan. It was subsequently erroneously redescribed as Mytilicola ostreae by C. B. Wilson in 1938 from oysters imported into Puget Sound, Washington, USA, from Japan. Thus, M. ostreae is a synonym of M. orientalis (Odlaug, 1946; Cheng, 1967; Lauckner, 1983). Mori (1935) initially assigned this copepod to the family Dichelestiidae in accordance with Steuer (1902). Cheng (1967) supported placement in the family Clausiidae but M. orientalis is now included in the family Mytilicolidae (Lauckner, 1983). The red colour of M. orientalis makes it easy to see within the intestinal tract of dissected bivalves. Because of the relatively elongate morphology and small limbs of this parasitic copepod, it looks like a worm to the unaided eye, hence the common name of red worm. Although the pathological significance of M. orientalis for its bivalve hosts is controversial, there is no associated human health risk. However, from the perspective of consumers, the aesthetic value of infected oysters might be impaired (Sparks, 1962).

Hosts/Species Affected

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Mytilicola orientalis infests the intestinal tract of a wide range of mollusc hosts (mostly bivalves) including Crassostrea gigas, Ostrea lurida [Ostrea conchaphila], Ostrea edulis, Mytilus crassitesta [Mytilus coruscus], Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus californianus, Mytilus trossulus, Protothaca (=Venerupis) staminea, Venerupis (=Tapes) philippinarum [Ruditapes philippinarum], Saxidomus giganteus, Nuttallia obscurata and Crepidula fornicata. In British Columbia, Canada, M. orientalis tends to prefer the mussel as a host and there is a high correlation between areas where this parasite occurs and where oyster seed from Japan was planted (Quayle 1988). Also in British Columbia, Marshall et al. (2003) reported a considerably higher prevalence in the varnish clam (N. obscurata, 60% to 64% infested) than in native littleneck clams (P. staminea, 8% to 4%) and Manila clams (V. philippinarum, 0% to 4%) obtained from the same beaches. In various locations in San Francisco and Humboldt bays, California, and in Puget Sound, Washington, USA, the prevalence of infestation in mussels (36.9% to 73.6% infested) was considerably greater than in O. lurida (0% to 9.6% infested) (Odlaug, 1946; Bradley and Siebert, 1978). The prevalence of infection was also high (65%) in the California mussel Mytilus californianus (Chew et. al, 1964). No associated bivalve mortality was reported in any of these cases.

The relatively recent inadvertent introduction of M. orientalis into European waters is a concern because it infests native oysters and mussels that are important fisheries resources in Europe (Torchin et al. 2002). This introduction warrants cautious observation for potential synergy with Mytilicola intestinalis resulting in disease consequences for bivalve hosts (Stock 1993).

Distribution

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The current wide distribution of Mytilicola orientalis in the northern hemisphere is clearly a result of oyster aquaculture. Specifically, the extensive transplanting of Crassostrea gigas has carried this intestinal parasitic copepod with it. Local (regional) distribution at least throughout the Northeastern Pacific, and probably elsewhere, seems restricted to sheltered muddy estuaries, where bivalves near the low tide mark seem to be most heavily infested. Goater and Weber (1996) attributed this distribution to factors that restrict colonization by the free-swimming larvae, suggesting that wave action, tidal currents, salinity and/or substratum conditions may play a role.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, NortheastPresentIntroduced1992Streftaris et al., 2005North Sea
Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentIntroduced1979Streftaris et al., 2005Mediterranean Sea, area not specified
Pacific, NortheastWidespreadIntroducedLauckner, 1983
Pacific, NorthwestPresentNativeMori, 1935Inland Sea of Japan.

Asia

JapanPresentNativeMori, 1935Inland Sea of Japan (Japanese Seto-Naikai)

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedBernard, 1969; Bower et al., 1992; Goater and Weber, 1996; Marshall et al., 2003
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedChew et al., 1964; Chew et al., 1965; Katkansky et al., 1967; Bradley and Siebert, 1978
-OregonPresentIntroducedChew et al., 1965; Katkansky et al., 1967Yaquina Bay
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedOdlaug, 1946; Sparks, 1962; Chew et al., 1965; Katkansky et al., 1967

Europe

FrancePresentIntroducedDeslou-Paoli, 1981; Lauckner, 1983; Grizel, 1985; Holmes and Minchin, 1995
IrelandPresentIntroducedMinchin et al., 1993; Grave et al., 1995; Holmes and Minchin, 1995; Steele and Mulcahy, 2001
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced1993Stock, 1993Schelphoek (East Scheldt) 51° 33'N, 3° 36'E

Pathology

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Although bivalve infestation has been referred to as the disease mytilicoliasis (Elston 1993), the pathological effects of M. orientalis are controversial. It has been reported to cause adverse effects in the condition index (condition factor) of Ostrea lurida [Ostrea conchaphila] and Crassostrea gigas at several locations along the west coast of the United States (Odlaug, 1946; Chew et al., 1965; Katkansky et al., 1967; Lauckner 1983). However, Odlaug (1946) noted that spawning in O. lurida caused a greater reduction in condition factor than that caused by M. orientalis infestation. Other reports indicated that the survival of infested oysters was not affected and there was little evidence of reduction in shell growth (Chew et al., 1965; Katkansky et al., 1967). More recent publications reported minimal impact of M. orientalis on the various species of hosts on the west coast of Canada and in Europe. Deslou-Paoli (1981) detected a difference in the condition index of C. gigas from Marennes-Oléron Basin, France, only during the spring and the autumn when the oysters were under stress from low food availability or spawning, and he suggested that oysters in good condition may reject the parasite. Bernard (1969) and De Grave et al. (1995) did not detect a decrease in the condition index of C. gigas infested with M. orientalis from coastal British Columbia, Canada and Dungarvan Bay, Ireland, respectively. Steele and Mulcahy (1999; 2001) detected no effect on condition, growth, sex or stage of glycogen content of C. gigas in Ireland, but did report a correlation with shell burrowing by the polychaete annelid Polydora sp.. Marshall et al. (2003) did not detect a significant impact on clams from the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. However, in all these recent publications, the prevalence and intensity of infestation tended to be low. De Grave et al. (1995) noted that although far higher intensities of M. orientalis were recorded in the earlier studies, none quantified the exact relationship between the condition of the oysters and intensity of M. orientalis infestation. De Grave et al. (1995) concluded that at low levels of infestation, M. orientalis does not cause a lowering of the condition index of infested C.gigas. Nevertheless, M. orientalis is considered as a serious pest by some scientists (Holmes and Minchin, 1995; Streftaris and Zenetos, 2006).

Like the related species M. intestinalis, M. orientalis can cause metaplastic changes in the gut of its host (Lauckner 1983). Specifically, tall columnar epithelium of the stomach near the site of attachment may become cuboidal or squamous and deciliated (Elston, 1993). Occasionally the mucosa is completely eroded and an appendage of the copepod may penetrate the underlying connective tissue with concurrent haemocyte infiltration. Beneath the areas of epithelial metaplasia, a fibrosis-like response may occur in the connective tissue, suggesting an attempt by the host to protect underlying tissue by encapsulation of the parasite (Sparks, 1962; Lauckner, 1983). When present in large numbers or when a single specimen is located in a small section of the intestinal tract, M. orientalis may cause distension of the gut wall. Katkansky and Warner (1968) reported that there was no host response by C. gigas to M. orientalis in the lumen of the intestine but when this copepod occurred in the digestive diverticula there was marked haemocyte infiltration into the connective tissues surrounding the parasite, possibly resulting in absorption of the parasite.
 
M. orientalis attaches to the gut wall with the distal segments of the second antennae, which have two spine-like setae and terminate in a curved claw (Elston, 1993). Bernard (1969) reported that C. gigas held out of water for 12 hr or more had a tendency to evacuate M. orientalis and speculated that the thoracic protuberances could then cause lesions of the gut wall.

Diagnosis

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Differential Diagnosis

Mytilicola orientalis can be differentiated from the other two species in the genus (Mytilicola intestinalis and Mytilicola porrecta) by external morphological details (Humes, 1954; Cheng, 1967). Specifically, the caudal ramus of M. orientalis is elongated (233 µm) and not widely divergent, the caudal ramus of M. intestinalis is also elongated (237 µm) but is widely divergent, and the caudal ramus of M. porrecta is short (96 µm) and not divergent. In adults of both sexes, the second antenna has two segments (podomeres) in M. orientalis, three segments in M. intestinalis and four segments in M. porrecta. The posterolateral thoracic protuberances are more prominent in M. orientalis, except for the first pair which is absent in male M. orientalis. The adult male of M. porrecta has reduced posterolateral thoracic protuberances that are almost undiscernible. The claw of the maxilliped of male M. porrecta is short, stout and strongly hooked in comparison to the elongated and not strongly hooked maxilliped claw of male M. orientalis and M. intestinalis. Also, female M. orientalis (10 to 12 mm in length) tend to be longer than female M. intestinalis (4.6 to 9.0 mm in length) and female M. porrecta (about 5 mm in length).
 
Laboratory Diagnosis (pathogen isolation)
 
Mytilicola orientalis can be found in the dissected intestinal tract of its host examined under a compound (dissecting) microscope. To aid detection, the dissected intestinal tract can be compressed between two glass plates prior to microscopic examination. Katkansky et al. (1967) claimed that immersion of oysters without the shells in a solution of nine parts 95% isopropyl alcohol and one part glacial acetic acid for one week facilitated dissection. The chemical disruption (digestion) of host tissues followed by passing the disintegrated tissues through sieves prior to examination, as described by Dare (1977; 1982) for the detection of M. intestinalis, should improve the detection of M. orientalis. This parasite is also obvious in histological sections of the intestinal tract of infected bivalves, but the species of Mytilicola cannot be identified in most such sections.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Molluscs / Condition: watery - Soft-tissue Surfaces Sign
Molluscs / Tissue erosion - Soft-tissue Surfaces Sign

Epidemiology

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The life cycle of Mytilicola orientalis is not known but is probably like that of M. intestinalis (Cheng, 1967; Goater and Weber, 1996). In California and Oregon, M. orientalis showed continuous reproductive activity (Katkansky et al., 1967; Bradley and Siebert, 1978) while in British Columbia, there was a single reproductive period from June to late August and larval stages were in the water column for a short period and did not travel far (Bernard, 1969). Sparks (1962) reported two reproductive peaks for M. orientalis in Washington State, one in the early spring and the other in late summer, and suggested that this parasite is incapable of maintaining itself in the gut of C. gigas for prolonged periods or that its life span is quite short. In France, Deslou-Paoli (1981) detected M. orientalis all year in the Marennes-Oléron Basin with greater infestation intensity (number of copepods per host) in the spring and a peak infestation in the autumn; the oysters first became infested when about six months old. The intensity of infestation tends to be relatively low with usually less than 10 M. orientalis per host, and larger hosts accommodating the most copepods (Deslou-Paoli, 1981; De Grave et al., 1995; Goater and Weber, 1996; Steele and Mulcahy, 2001).

Odlaug (1946) found that the greatest number of M. orientalis occurred in the anal portion of the intestinal canal (posterior 10-12 mm of the intestine) of Ostrea lurida [Ostrea conchaphila] and Goater and Weber (1996) found this parasite in the intestine and rectum but not the stomach of Mytilus trossulus. On the other hand, Marshall et al. (2003) reported it from the lumen of the stomach and distended intestine (with one in the digestive gland duct) of clams.

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant products Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Negative

Impact

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The speculations of negative economic impact on bivalve farming by Mytilicola orientalis suggested by some scientists have not yet materialized, but there is concern about possible negative synergy between the two species of Mytilicola (i.e. M. intestinalis and M. orientalis) affecting bivalve aquaculture in Europe.

Disease Treatment

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No treatment has been described. However, the treatment described by Blateau (1989) and Blateau et al. (1992) for Mytilicola intestinalis (immersion of infested bivalves in a 30 mg/l concentration of the organophosphorate Dichlorvos for 2 hr) may also be effective against Mytilicola orientalis.

Prevention and Control

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Husbandry Methods and Good Practice

There is little information available on the prevention and management of infestation of bivalves by Mytilicola orientalis (Elston 1993). However, Sindermann (1986) clearly outlined a strategy known as the ICES Code of Practice (see below) that would reduce the risk of transferring M. orientalis when introducing marine molluscs from a remote location.
 
National and International Control Policy (vaccination programmes, quarantine regulation).
 
The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) member countries approved and adopted a "Code of Practice to Reduce the Risks of Adverse Effects Arising from Introduction of Non-indigenous Marine Species" in 1979. Briefly, this “ICES Code of Practice” entails the introduction of broodstock of the desired mollusc into quarantine and the release of subsequent generations from quarantine only after they have been proven to be free of pathogens of concern. For details of the “ICES Code of Practice” see Sindermann (1986) and ICES (2004).

References

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Bernard FR, 1969. The parasitic copepod Mytilicola orientalis in British Columbia. Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 26(1):190-191.

Blateau D, 1989. [English title not available]. (Expériences de traitement des moules (M. edulis) de bouchots de la Baie du Mont Saint-Michel parasitées par Mytilicola intestinalis - Septembre 1987 et 1988.) Expériences de traitement des moules (M. edulis) de bouchots de la Baie du Mont Saint-Michel parasitées par Mytilicola intestinalis - Septembre 1987 et 1988., France: Ifremer, 17 pp. http://www.ifremer.fr/docelec/doc/1989/rapport-1943.pdf

Blateau D; Coguic Y le; Mialhe E; Grizel H, 1992. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) treatment against the red copepod Mytilicola intestinalis. Aquaculture, 107(2/3):165-169.

Bower SM; Blackbourn J; Meyer GR, 1992. Parasite and symbiont fauna of Japanese littlenecks, Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve, 1850), in British Columbia. Journal of Shellfish Research, 11(1):13-19.

Bradley W; Siebert AE, 1978. Infection of Ostrea lurida and Mytilus edulis by the parasitic copepod Mytilicola orientalis in San Francisco Bay, California. The Veliger, 21(1):131-134.

CHENG TC, 1967. Marine molluscs as hosts for symbioses, with a review of known parasites of commercially important species. Advances in Marine Biology, 5:xiii + 424 pp.

Chew KK; Sparks AK; Katkansky SC, 1964. First record of Mytilicola orientalis Mori in the California mussel. Mytilus californianus Conrad. Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 21(1):205-207.

Chew KK; Sparks AK; Katkansky SC, 1965. Preliminary results on the seasonal distribution of Mytilicola orientalis and the effect of this parasite on the condition of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 22(4):1099-1101.

Dare PJ, 1977. Enzyme extraction of the parasitic copepod Mytilicola intestinalis Steuer from mussels, Mytilus edulis L. Journal du Conseil International pour l' Exploration de la Mer, 37(2):170-172.

Dare PJ, 1982. The susceptibility of seed oysters of Ostrea edulis L. and Crassostrea gigas Thunberg to natural infestation by the copepod Mytilicola intestinalis Steuer. Aquaculture, 26(3-4):201-211.

Deslou-Paoli JM, 1981. Mytilicola orientalis Mori, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg's parasite, in the basin of Marennes-Oleron: impact on the condition and the biochemical composition of oysters during rearing. Mytilicola orientalis Mori, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg's parasite, in the basin of Marennes-Oleron: impact on the condition and the biochemical composition of oysters during rearing. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Shellfish and Benthos Committee, 16 pp. http://www.ifremer.fr/docelec/doc/1981/acte-2938.pdf

Elston RA, 1993. Infectious diseases of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Annual Review of Fish Diseases, 3:259-276.

Goater CP; Weber AE, 1996. Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of Mytilicola orientalis (Copepoda) in the mussel, Mytilus trossulus, in Barkley Sound, B.C. Journal of Shellfish Research, 15(3):681-684.

Grave S de; Xie Q; Casey D, 1995. The intensity of infestation by the intestinal copepod, Mytilicola orientalis, does not affect the condition of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 15(4):129-131.

Grizel H, 1985. Mytilicola orientalis Mori, parasitism. (Parasitose à Mytilicola orientalis Mori.) Identification Leaflets for Diseases and Parasites of Fish and Shellfish, 20:4 pp. http://www.ices.dk/products/fiche/Disease/2006/Sheet%20no%2020.pdf

Holmes JMC; Minchin D, 1995. Two exotic copepods imported into Ireland with the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg). Irish Naturalists' Journal, 25(1):17-20.

Humes AG, 1954. Mytilicola porrecta n. sp. (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from the intestine of marine pelecypods. Journal of Parasitology, 40(2):186-194.

ICES, 2004. ICES Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms 2004. ICES Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms 2004. Copenhagen, Denmark: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 29 pp. http://www.ices.dk/reports/general/2004/ICESCOP2004.pdf

Katkansky SC; Sparks AK; Chew KK, 1967. Distribution and effects of the endoparasitic copepod, Mytilicola orientalis, on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas on the Pacific coast. Proceedings of the National Shellfisheries Association, 57:50-58.

Katkansky SC; Warner RW, 1968. On the unusual occurrence of the Copepod Mytilicola orientalis in the digestive diverticulae of the Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 12(3):475-476.

Lauckner G, 1983. Diseases of Mollusca: Bivalvia. In: Diseases of Marine Animals. Vol II: Introduction, Bivalvia to Scaphoda [ed. by Kinne O]. Hamburg, Germany: Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, 477-961.

Marshall WL; Bower SM; Meyer GR, 2003. A comparison of the parasite and symbiont fauna of cohabiting native (Protothaca staminea) and introduced (Venerupis philippinarum and Nuttalia obscurata) clams in British Columbia. Journal of Shellfish Research, 22(1):185-192.

Minchin D, 1996. Management of the introduction and transfer of marine molluscs. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 6(4):229-244.

Minchin D; Duggan CB; Holmes JMC; Neiland S, 1993. Introductions of exotic species associated with Pacific oyster transfers from France to Ireland. Copenhagen, Denmark: International Council for Exploration of the Sea, 11 pp. [ICES Committee Meetings Documents, CM 1993(F:27).]

Mori T, 1935. Mytilicola orientalis, a new species of parasitic Copepoda. Zoological Magazine, Tokyo, 47:687-690.

Odlaug TO, 1946. The effect of the copepod, Mytilicola orientalis upon the Olympia Oyster, Ostrea lurida. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 65(4):311-317.

Quayle DB, 1988. Pacific oyster culture in British Columbia. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 218. 241 pp.

Sindermann CJ, 1986. Strategies for reducing risks from introductions of aquatic organisms: a marine perspective. Fisheries, 11(2):10-15.

Sparks AK, 1962. Some preliminary observations on the incidence of infection and pathological effect of the parasitic copepod, Mytilicola orientalis Mori, in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg)) on the west coast of the United States. Some preliminary observations on the incidence of infection and pathological effect of the parasitic copepod, Mytilicola orientalis Mori, in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg)) on the west coast of the United States, 139. International Council for Exploration of the Sea, Shellfish Committee, 1-9.

Steele S; Mulcahy MF, 1999. Gametogenesis of the oyster Crassostrea gigas in southern Ireland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 79(4):673-686.

Steele S; Mulcahy MF, 2001. Impact of the copepod Mytilicola orientalis on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Ireland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 47(2):145-149.

Steuer A, 1902. Mytilicola intestinalis n. gen. n. sp. from the intestine of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. (Mytilicola intestinalis n. gen. n. sp. aus dem Darme von Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.) Zoologischer Anzeiger, 25:635-637.

Stock JH, 1993. Copepoda (Crustacea) associated with commercial and non-commercial Bivalvia in the East Scheldt, The Netherlands. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 63(1):61-64.

Streftaris N; Zenetos A, 2006. Alien Marine Species in the Mediterranean -the 100 'Worst Invasives' and their Impact. Mediterranean Marine Science, 7(1):87-118.

Streftaris N; Zenetos A; Papathanassiou E, 2005. Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 43:419-453.

Torchin ME; Lafferty KD; Kuris AM, 2002. Parasites and marine invasions. Parasitology, 124(Supplement):S137-S151.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Lifehttp://www.catalogueoflife.org
DAISIE Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europehttp://www.europe-aliens.org/index.jsp
GenBank/NCBI Taxonomy Browserhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id298439
WoRMShttp://www.marinespecies.org/index.php

Organizations

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World: International Council for the Exploration of the Seas - Working Group on Introduction and Transfers of Marine Organisms (ICES - WGITMO), H. C. Andersens Boulevard 44-46, DK-1553, Copenhagen V, Denmark, http://www.ices.dk/workinggroups/ViewWorkingGroup.aspx?ID=33

World: International Council for the Exploration of the Seas - Working Group on Pathology and Diseases of Marine Organisms (ICES - WGPDMO), H. C. Andersens Boulevard 44-46, DK-1553, Copenhagen V, Denmark, http://www.ices.dk/workinggroups/ViewWorkingGroup.aspx?ID=169

Contributors

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09/10/09 Original text by:

Susan Bower, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Biological Sciences Branch, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, British Colombia V9R 5K6, Canada

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