Tubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Impact Summary
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Principal Source
- Distribution Maps
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829
Preferred Common Name
- orange-cup coral
Other Scientific Names
- Astropsammia pedersenii
- Caryophyllia aurantiaca
- Coenopsammia affinis
- Coenopsammia aurea
- Coenopsammia coccinea
- Coenopsammia ehrenbergiana
- Coenopsammia manni
- Coenopsammia radiata
- Coenopsammia tenuilamellosa
- Coenopsammia urvillii
- Coenopsammia willeyi
- Dendrophyllia affinis
- Dendrophyllia aurantiaca
- Dendrophyllia danae
- Dendrophyllia ehrenbergiana
- Dendrophyllia manni
- Dendrophyllia surcularis
- Dendrophyllia turbinata
- Dendrophyllia willeyi
- Lobophyllia aurea
- Placopsammia darwini
- Tubastraea aurea
- Tubastraea pedersenii
- Tubastraea tenuilamellosa
- Tubastraea willeyi
International Common Names
- English: colonial-cup coral; orange-tube coral
- French: tubastrée orange
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Tubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral) has been introduced to all continents except Antarctica and is thought to compete with native benthic invertebrates for space and to compromise their communities. The reduction of native sponges and native corals could also have significant flow-on effects for entire ecosystems.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Cnidaria
- Class: Anthozoa
- Genus: Tubastraea
- Species: Tubastraea coccinea
DescriptionTop of page
Tubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral) are non-reef building coral species that extend beautiful translucent tentacles at night (Hawaii Coral Reef Network 2005). The orange cup coral is a heterotroph (consumer) that does not contain zooxanthellae (endosymbiotic dinoflagellates or algae) as most corals do (Blomquist et al. 2006).
DistributionTop of page
Native range: Tubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral) is native to the Indo-Pacific region (Fenner and Banks 2004).
Known introduced range: Caribbean (Fenner and Banks 2004), Asia, Africa, Australasia, Pacific, North America, Central America and South America.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
HabitatTop of page
T. coccinea (orange-cup coral) inhabit shaded vertical surfaces and caverns down to huge depths. Orange-cup-corals are also found in very cold water throughout the world (Hawaii Coral Reef Network, 2005). Orange-cup corals often dominate tropical habitats not occupied by other coral species, such as wrecks and cryptic reef habitats (Vermeij 2006). They also colonise artificial structures (Fenner and Banks, 2004; Sammarco et al., 2004) but experiments have demonstrated similar preferences for granite, cement, steel and tile (Creed and De Paula, 2007). In Brazil they are most abundant in the shallow sub-tidal zone at shallow depths between 0m and 3m (De Paula and Creed, 2004, 2005; Creed, 2006).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details|
|Marine||Present, no further details|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Cup-coral species rely upon capturing zooplankton as food (Hawaii Coral Reef Network 2005).
Tubastraea coccinea is hermaphroditic and produces planulae (flat, free-swimming, ciliated larva) asexually (ameiotically) (Ayre and Resing 1986). Gonads are unlikely to be involved in the asexual production of brooded larvae (Ayre and Resing 1986). It is able to form “runners” (a thin tissue outgrowth lacking polyps) which extend at a growth rate of up to 10.4cm per year until they encounter unoccupied patches of substratum. New polyps then form at the end of the runners (Vermeij 2005).
The reproductive age of the Tubastraea coccinea is around 1.5 years and growth averages at approximately 3cm² per year (Vermeij 2006). It increases in local abundance by reaching maturity at a small size and producing planula at an early age (Vaughan 1919; Van Moorsel 1989; Fenner and Banks 2004, in Vermeij 2006).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Introduction pathways to new locations
Ship/boat hull fouling: Many colonies of Tubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral) were found on the hulls of wrecked ships and sunken docks in shaded areas (Fenner and Banks, 2004), and on a ships hull in Brazil (Ferreira, 2003; Creed & Paula 2007).
Translocation of machinery/equipment: Mobile platforms could have contributed to dispersal of Tubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral) to the Gulf of Mexico oil and gas platforms (Fenner and Banks, 2004, Sammarco et al. 2004). In Brazil introduction was probably through oil and gas platforms (Ferreira, 2003; De Paula & Creed, 2005).
Local dispersal methods
Natural dispersal (local):Tubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral) larvae are competent for at least 14 days (Harrison & Wallace, 1990), although most settle within 1m of adults (Creed & Paula 2007).
Impact SummaryTop of page
ImpactTop of page
Although Tubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral) is listed on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species website and database (see Tubastraea coccinea in CITES species Database) it often competes with other benthic invertebrates for substratum space (Vermeij 2006). This may put native species at risk, particularly sponges and native corals. Local exclusion or extinction of such species may occur and the removal of the native corals may reduce the production of the entire ecosystem, compromising ecosystem functions (Creed 2006).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Impact outcomes
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Threat to/ loss of native species
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Cladopsammia eguchii is often confused with the well-known orange cup coral in Hawaii (Hawaii Coral Reef Network 2005).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Manual: In Brazil a control and eradication programme called “Projeto Coral-Sol” is removing Tubastraea coccinea from the environment (Joel Creed, pers.comm., 2007).
BibliographyTop of page
Alvarado, J.J., Cortés, J., Fernández, C. and Nivia, J. 2005. Coral communities and reefs of Ballena Marine National Park, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Cinecias Marinas 31(4): 641-651. http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/pdf/480/48031404.pdf
Ayre, D.J. and Resing, J.M. 1986. Sexual and asexual production of planulae in reef corals, Marine Biology 90: 187-190.
Blomquist, C.H., Lima, P.H., Tarrant,A.M., Atkinson,M.J. and Atkinson, S. 2006. 17ß-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17ß-HSD) in scleractinian corals and zooxanthellae, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part B 143: 397-403.
Brook, F.J. 1999. The coastal scleractinian coral fauna of the Kermadec Islands, southwestern Pacific Ocean, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 29 (4): 435-460. http://www.rsnz.org/publish/jrsnz/1999/27.pdf
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians. http://www.cefas.co.uk/projects/risks-and-impacts-of-non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx
Cortés, 1990. The coral reefs of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica: distribution and community structure. Smithsonian Institution: Washington. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/arb/339-346/344.pdf
Cortés, H.J., Glynn, P.W. and Richmond, R.H. 1990. Coral mortality associated with dinoflagellate blooms in the eastern Pacific (Costa Rica and Panama), Marine Ecology Progress Series 60(3): 299-304
Creed, J.C. 2006. Two invasive alien azooxanthellate corals, Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis, dominate the native zooxanthellate Mussismilia hispida in Brazil, Coral Reefs 25: 350.
Creed, J.C., Paula, A.F. De, 2007. Substratum preference during recruitment of two invasive alien corals onto shallow-subtidal tropical rocky shores. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 330: 101-111
De Paula A F, Creed J C, 2004. Two species of the coral Tubastraea (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) in Brazil: a case of accidental introduction. Bull Mar Sci 74:175–183
De Paula A F, Creed J C, 2005. Spatial distribution and abundance of nonindigenous coral genus Tubastraea (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) around Ilha Grande, Brazil. Bras J Biol 65: 661–673
Fenner, D. and Banks, K. 2004. Orange Cup Coral Tubastraea coccinea invades Florida and the Flower Garden Banks, Northwestern Gulf of Mexico, Coral Reefs 23: 505-507.
Fenner, D., Clark, T.H., Turner, J.R. and Chapman, B. 2004. A checklist of the corals of the island state of Rodrigues, Mauritius, Journal of Natural History 38: 3091-3102.
Ferreira, C.E.L. 2003. Non-indigenous corals at marginal sites, Coral Reefs 22: 498.
Guzman, H.M., Guevara, C.A. and Breedy, A.O. 2004. Distribution, diversity, and conservation of coral reefs and coral communities in the largest marine protected area of Pacific Panama (Coiba Island), Environmental Conservation 31(2): 111–121.
Harrison P.L. & Wallace, C.C. 1990. Reproduction, dispersal and recruitment of scleractinian corals. In: Dubinsky Z (ed) Ecosystems of the World: Coral Reefs. Elsevier Science, New York p 133-207.
Hawaii Coral Reef Network. 2005. Family Dendrophyllidae: Cup Corals. http://www.coralreefnetwork.com/stender/corals/orange/orange.htm
Ridgl, B. and Velimirov, B. 1994. The structure of coral communities at Hurghada in the nothern Red Sea, PSZNI: Marine Ecology 15(3/4): 213-231.
Sammarco P W, Atchison A D, Boland G S, 2004. Expansion of coral communities within the Northern Gulf of Mexico via offshore oil and gas platforms. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 280: 129–143
UNEP-WCMC, 2008. UNEP-WCMC Species Database: CITES-Listed Species Tubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral) http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/isdb/CITES/Taxonomy/tax-species-result.cfm?Genus=Tubastraea&Species=coccinea&source=animals
USGS (United States Geological Survey). 2006. Tubastrea cocinea. Retrieved 9 January 2007, from Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/CollectionInfo.asp?SpeciesID=2586&
Vermeij, M.J.A. 2005. A novel growth strategy allows Tubastrea coccinea to escape small-scale adverse conditions and start over again, Coral Reefs 24: 442.
Vermeij, M.J.A. 2006. Early life-history dynamics of Caribbean coral species on artificial substratum: the importance of competition, growth and variation in life-history strategy, Coral Reefs 25: 59-71.
ReferencesTop of page
ContributorsTop of page
- Reviewed by: Prof. Dr. Joel Christopher Creed, Laboratorio de Ecologia Marinha Bentica Departamento de Ecologia - IBRAG Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - Uerj, Brazil
- Last Modified: Tuesday, May 29, 2007
Distribution MapsTop of page
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