Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tilapia mariae
(spotted tilapia)

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Datasheet

Tilapia mariae (spotted tilapia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tilapia mariae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spotted tilapia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. mariae, or spotted tilapia, is a cichlid native to the coastal lagoons of western Africa. Where it is introduced it represents a competitive threat to native species by displacing them and competing for resour...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tilapia mariae (spotted tilapia); adult. USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionTilapia mariae (spotted tilapia); adult. USA.
Copyright©U.S. Geological Survey Archive/U.S. Geological Survey/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Tilapia mariae (spotted tilapia); adult. USA.
AdultTilapia mariae (spotted tilapia); adult. USA.©U.S. Geological Survey Archive/U.S. Geological Survey/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Tilapia mariae (spotted tilapia); juvenile specimen, ca.50mm in length.
TitleJuvenile
CaptionTilapia mariae (spotted tilapia); juvenile specimen, ca.50mm in length.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Munkinator, via wikipedia
Tilapia mariae (spotted tilapia); juvenile specimen, ca.50mm in length.
JuvenileTilapia mariae (spotted tilapia); juvenile specimen, ca.50mm in length.Public Domain - Released by Munkinator, via wikipedia

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tilapia mariae Boulenger, 1899

Preferred Common Name

  • spotted tilapia

Other Scientific Names

  • Tilapia dubia Lonnberg, 1904
  • Tilapia heudeloti (non Dumeril, 1861)
  • Tilapia mariae dubia Lonnberg, 1904
  • Tilapia mariae mariae Boulenger, 1899
  • Tilapia meeki Pellegrin, 1911
  • Tilapia melanopleura (non Dumeril, 1861)

Local Common Names

  • : black mangrove cichlid; spotted mangrove cichlid
  • : tigrovaya tsikhlida
  • Cameroon: bone back
  • Germany: Fünfflecktilapie; Marienbuntbarsch
  • Nigeria: mpupa
  • Sierra Leone: a-sannoh

Summary of Invasiveness

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T. mariae, or spotted tilapia, is a cichlid native to the coastal lagoons of western Africa. Where it is introduced it represents a competitive threat to native species by displacing them and competing for resources such as prey or breeding sites. In much of its introduced range, T. mariae is the dominant species both by number and biomass. It has established populations in Australia and the USA. Due to its high fecundity, aggressive behaviour, and ecological plasticity it has the potential for rapid, explosive invasion and has become a significant pest in introduced ranges (ISSG, 2009).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Perciformes
  •                         Family: Cichlidae
  •                             Genus: Tilapia
  •                                 Species: Tilapia mariae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Taylor et al. (1986) considered the specimen collected in Florida as a hybrid between spotted tilapia (Tilapia mariae) and red belly tilapia (Tilapia zilli) based on principal component analyses of variation in shape and meristics, intermediacy in jaw and pharyngeal dentitions and markings in the putative hybrids that combine patterns shown in the two parental species.

Description

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Adults have a compressed, ovate body with large red eyes, a round snout, and a small mouth.

Colouration: T. mariae vary in appearance according to age. Juveniles are not spotted at all, but bear a series of black bars set upon a yellow green or gold background that extend beyond the body and onto the dorsal fins. This disruptive pattern presumably provides the young with some degree of camouflage (Robins, 2009). Adults have two different colour patterns: 1) back, sides and fins entirely black, with very narrow red edge along upper margins of dorsal and caudal fins; 2) a spotted pattern consisting of yellow ground colour becoming greenish on back and olive-green on top of head; in both forms, belly white; sides and caudal peduncle with 5-6 distinct mid-lateral black spots, more close-set on caudal peduncle; scales on sides below midline often with central red spot; unpaired fins greenish, with numerous light red spots between soft rays; blue fringe, edged by narrow red band on distal margins of dorsal and caudal fins, and occasionally all around caudal fin; pelvic fins greenish, darker on anterior margin (Allen et al., 2002; Teugels and Thys van den Audenaerde, 2003). Beyond this basic pattern, adult fish may also exhibit the occasional splash of pink or even an overall darker body tone depending upon the physical condition of the fish or its environment.

The dorsal fin of T. mariae has 16 spines (rarely 15), followed by 12-13 rays. Their anal fin has three spines and 10-11 rays. The lower part of their anterior gill arch has 13 to 15 short gill rakers. There are 29 to 31 scales in a lateral series (Boulenger, 1915).

Distribution

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T. mariae is native to Africa, living in coastal lagoons and lower river courses from the Tabou River (Côte d'Ivoire) to the Kribi River (Cameroon), although is absent from the area between the Pra River (Ghana) and Benin (Teugelsand Thys van den Audenaerde, 2003). T. mariae was found to constitute 31% of the cichlid catch from the Ethiope River (one of the main tributaries of the Benin River/Niger Delta) (Ikomi and Jessa, 2003).

It was introduced to the USA, USSR and Australia either directly from western Africa or via other countries as ornamental fish.
 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Africa

BeninPresentNative Not invasive Teugels and Thys, 1990
CameroonPresentNative Not invasive Kadem and Teugels, 1998
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative Not invasive Teugels and Thys, 1990
GhanaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels and Thys, 1990
NigeriaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels and Thys, 1990

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Courtenay and Hensley, 1979
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Courtenay and Hensley, 1979
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1974 Invasive Hogg, 1974; Welcomme, 1988Established; Natural reproduction
-NevadaLocalisedIntroduced1980 Invasive Courtenay and Deacon, 1982; Courtenay and Stauffer, 1990Locally established

Europe

Russian FederationLocalisedIntroducedHolcik, 1991Artificial reproduction only

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Koehn and Mackenzie, 2004The species was first reported from the lower Barron River near Cairns, although the timing of this introduction was not known (ACTFR, 2007)
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced1980 Invasive Koehn and Mackenzie, 2004Found in the cooling ponds of a power station (ACTFR, 2007)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Although T. mariae is considered a pest in the USA it seems that the most affected area is the state of Florida. Many organizations are trying to promote awareness of the impact of this species in other states.

T. mariae was possibly introduced for experimental purposes into the waters of southern Arizona (Courtenay and Hensley, 1979; Courtenay et al., 1984; 1986) and was considered to be established in the state by Courtenay and Hensley (1979). T. mariae is also present in the Salton Sea, Colorado River, and Los Angeles area in California.
 
The first records in Florida were from Snapper Creek Canal in South Miami, Dade County, in April 1974 (Hogg, 1974). By the latter half of the 1970s, it had become established in canals throughout most of eastern Dade County (Hogg, 1976a,b), in southeastern Broward County, and possibly in southern Collier County (Courtenay and Hensley, 1979; Courtenay et al., 1984; 1986). Previously absent in the Everglades National Park (Loftus and Kushlan, 1987), it became established there and in the Big Cypress National Preserve by the late 1980s (Courtenay, 1989; Tilmant, 1999). This species is now considered established or has been reported from water bodies, mainly canals, lakes, and ponds, in at least eight counties, all in the southern portion of the state; these include Brevard, Broward, Collier, Dade, Indian River, Martin, Monroe, and Palm Beach counties (Hogg, 1976b; Courtenay and Hensley, 1979; Clark, 1981; Courtenay et al., 1984; 1986; Taylor et al., 1986; Loftus and Kushlan, 1987).
 
It has been established and reportedly has been abundant in Nevada in Rogers Spring, a thermal spring in Lake Mead National Recreation Area above the Overton Arm of Lake Mead, in Clark County, since about 1980 (Courtenay and Deacon, 1982; 1983; Deacon and Williams, 1984; Courtenay and Stauffer, 1990). A single specimen was taken from the Blue Point Spring outlet in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Clark County, in December 1980, but there was no evidence of reproduction (Courtenay et al., 1986 in Nico, 2010).
 
In Australia, some records of the introduction of T. mariae are confused with other species such as Oreochromis mossambicus and Tilapia zilli (Pearce, 2007).
 

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Arizona 1970s Yes Courtenay et al. (1986) Waters of southern Arizona
Australia   Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes Cadwallader et al. (1980) Self-sustained population in pondage
Florida 1972-1974 Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes Hogg (1974) First record from Snapper Creek Canal, Miami
Nevada 1980 Yes Courtenay and Stauffer (1990) Rogers Spring
New South Wales   Yes NSW-DPI (2005) Class 3 noxious sp.
Queensland   Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)
Yes Queensland Government (2009) Mainly in Cairns, penalty up to AUS $ 200.000 to release dead or alive
Victoria   Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes Koehn and Mackenzie (2004)

Risk of Introduction

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T. mariaeis native to West Africa from the coastal lowlands and brackish lagoons of central Ivory Coast to southwest Ghana and from southeast Benin to the Kribi River, Cameroon. Non-native populations are established in Arizona, Florida and Nevada, USA and Queensland and Victoria, Australia. Populations in Florida may be found in no less than eight southern counties, with the first individuals found in Snapper Creek Canal, south Miami in 1974. In many south Florida canals T. mariae are now the most abundant cichlid amongst a host of introduced cichlids. Courtenay and Hensley (1979) reported a population explosion of T. mariae near Miami. The presence of native predators such as Micropterus salmoides and Lepisosteus platyrhincus has failed to deter range expansion by T. mariae. A fish such as T. mariae could become established and dominant in predator-free habitats in the southwest desert with ease. More serious is that T. mariae, an omnivore, shows a preference for green algae in Florida, and green algae is a preferred food of many small endemic fishes in desert springs. Some of these endemic fishes also feed on small snails and ostracods, and the source of food for these invertebrates is also algae. Moreover, a fish that is capable of inflicting such damage on its own kind, as was noted for T. mariae in Rogers Spring, may prey on smaller fishes (Courtenay and Deacon, 1983).

Habitat

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T. mariae lives in still or flowing waters in rocky, sandy or mud-bottomed areas. It is found inhabiting temperatures of 11-37°C with a preferred temperature range of 25-33°C. Although T. mariae is a freshwater fish it is tolerant of higher salinity as they are also found in estuaries (ISSG, 2009).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
Brackish
Estuaries Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome numbers of T. mariae are n=20 and 2n=40 (Froese and Pauly, 2009). The 16S sequences of this species were included in a study by Schwarzer et al. (2009) investigating the root of East African cichlid radiations.
 
Reproductive Biology

T. mariae is a bi-parental, substrate breeder that guards its nests (Taylor et al., 1986). It may be sexually mature at 11 cm TL. It shows interspecific and, especially intraspecific, aggression during the spawning period. The annual breeding cycle of this species is not known from their native range; however, it is believed to breed throughout the year with seasonal peaks in the spring and autumn (Schwanck, 1987; Shafland, 1996). Hogg (1974) reported spawning in Florida to occur on shallow-water ledges (under 0.5 m). Males burrow in preparation for spawning, and nests are frequently built under gravel, debris or rocks. Typically T. mariae lays 200-400 eggs per nest (but there can be up to 2000) (Riehl and Baensch, 1991). King and Etim (2004) found that the absolute fecundity ranged from 953 to 3200 eggs in samples of T. mariae collected from a Nigerian stream. The eggs are turquoise (Lee et al., 1980 in GSMFC, 2005).
 
Schwanck (1987) reported that T. mariae prefer spawning in groups over their natural range. This author also presented evidence of lunar periodicity in their spawning. Colonial breeding has been reported in Lake Volta, Ghana (see Taylor et al., 1986 and references within).

T. mariae are generally monogamous, however males have been observed breeding with more than one female. Pairs establish breeding territories. After two days, females remove fertile eggs form the nest to a nearby pit and consume the unfertile eggs. Exhibiting complex parental care, males and females work together to strictly guard, brood, and feed hatchlings until they are free swimming and about 3-4 cm in length, which takes about 9 days (GSMFC, 2005; NSW-DPI, 2005; ACTFR, 2007; Froese and Pauly, 2009; Robins, 2009).
 
Physiology and Phenology

There is some sexual dimorphism in T. mariae. Males are typically larger than females. Males tend to have longer dorsal and caudal fins which are decorated with shimmering white spots, which are absent in females. In addition, males have a steeper rise to their foreheads (Riehl and Baensch, 1991).
 
Nutrition

T. mariae feed mostly on macrophytesbut will filter phytoplankton in plankton rich water. Diatoms are the most consumed algae found in stomach of T. mariae. Olukolajo et al. (2009) reported that the most important diatoms were Melosira sp. in Badagry Lagoon whereas Navicula sp. were the dominant diatoms in the stomach of T. mariae from Ologe Lagoon, Nigeria. The second most important algae in the latter lagoon was the cyanobacteria Oscillatoria sp.
 
Other food items such as desmids, green and filamentous algae, detritus and animal parts were also found in the stomach of this species.

 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Conductivity (µmhos/cm) 8.84 Optimum
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 4.4-8.5 Optimum
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 5-19 Optimum
Salinity (part per thousand) 1.0-8 Optimum Live well in brackish water
Turbidity (JTU turbidity) Optimum Transparency 0.54 (Anene and Okorie, 2008)
Water pH (pH) 6-8 Optimum
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 20-25 Optimum 11-37 tolerated

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Clarias Fry to species Schwanck, 1987b
Lepomis Egg to species Annett et al., 1999
Pomacea paludosa Egg to species Annett et al., 1999

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In their native habitat in Africa, walking catfish (Clarias sp.)are important predators of T. mariae nests and offspring (Schwanck, 1987). Annett et al. (1999) reported that in their introduced habitat in Florida predators of T. mariae embryos include sunfishes (Lepomis spp.) and the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa).Schwanck (1986) observed filial cannibalism in 152 pairs of T. mariae in a laboratory study.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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In the USA it is believed that T. mariae was possibly introduced for experimental purposes into the waters of southern Arizona and then became established in the state. Rogers Spring in Nevada has been used as a release site for non-native species, mostly aquarium species, since the 1960s. Courtenay and Deacon (1983) discovered a resident population of T. mariae in the spring previously only recorded as established in the United States only in Florida. The first records in Florida were from Snapper Creek Canal in South Miami, Dade County, in April 1974. By the latter half of the 1970s, it had become established in canals throughout most of the counties of the state (Hogg, 1974).

T. mariae entered Australia through importation of a small number of fish for the aquarium trade. Captive individuals were dispersed to other areas by fish hobbyists. Some that escaped or were released established self-sustaining populations (Mather and Arthington, 1991).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AquacultureFrom West Africa to former USSR (for warm water aquaculture) & USA (as aquarium species) Yes Yes ACTFR, 2007; FAO, 2009

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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T. mariae dominates introduced habitats, representing a competitive threat to native species and lowering biodiversity. It is extremely aggressive and territorial while breeding. It is capable of rapid invasion and has high fecundity. Native fish may be displaced and competed with for resources such as prey or breeding sites. In much of its introduced range, T. mariae is the dominant species both by number and biomass (ISSG, 2009).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses List

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General

  • Pet/aquarium trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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T. mariae is sometimes confused with its relative, the red-belly tilapia (Tilapia zilli). The only known hybrids occur between these two species. During its lifecycle T. mariae changes colour with the distinctive bars and spots (blotches) appearing later in life. The colour also changes with the environment, stress, diet and the presence of predators (Taylor et al., 1986).

Prevention and Control

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One method is to accept the inevitability of the established introduced species by turning them into socio-economic good such as in the case of the introduction of the peacock cichlid (Cichla ocellaris) in artificial canals in Florida to feed on abundant T. mariae to provide sport fish for urban anglers (Helfman, 2007).

Mackenzie (2003) listed the Government of Queensland’s strategies for controlling noxious species such as T. mariae.

References

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ACTFR, 2007. Pest fish profiles - Tilapia mariae. Pest fish profiles - Tilapia mariae., Australia: Australian Center for Tropical Freshwater Research, unpaginated. http://www.jcu.edu.au/vhosts/actfr/Projects/Pestfish/Profiles/ProfileTilapiaMariae.htm

Adite A; Thielen RVan, 1995. Ecology and fish catches in natural lakes of Benin, West Africa. Environ. Biol. Fish, 43:381-391.

Allen GR; Midgley SH; Allen M, 2002. Field guide to the fresh water fishes of Australia. Western Australia, Australia: Western Australian Museum, unpaginated.

Anene A; Okorie PU, 2008. Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Tilapia mariae (Boulenger 1901) in a small lake in southern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(14):2478-2482.

Annett CA; Pierott R; Baylis JR, 1999. Male and female parental roles in the monogamous cichlid, Tilapia mariae, introduced in Florida. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 54:283-293.

Arthington AH; Kailola PJ; Woodland DJ; Zalucki JM, 1999. Baseline Environmental Data Relevant to an Evaluation of Quarantine Risk Potentially Associated with the Importation to Australia of Ornamental Finfish. Report to the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra, ACT. http://www.aqis.gov.au/docs/qdu/Environmental-report.pdf

Boulenger GA, 1915. Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Africa in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume III. London, UK: British Museum of Natural History, 392 pp.

Brooks WR; Jordan RC, 2010. Enhanced interspecific territoriality and the invasion success of the spotted tilapia (Tilapia mariae) in South Florida. Biological Invasions, 12(4):865-874. http://www.springerlink.com/content/12r52705056h1t13/?p=dab8851dbcca4ba49460f7bf0aa4d83f&pi=15

Cadwallader PL; Backhouse GN; Fallu R, 1980. Occurrence of exotic tropical fish in the cooling pondage of a power station in temperate south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Reserve, 31:541-546.

Clark MR, 1981. Probable establishment and range extension of the spotted tilapia, Tilapia mariae Boulenger (Pisces: Cichlidae) in east central Florida. Florida Scientist, 44(3):168-171.

Courtenay Jr WR; Hensley DA; Taylor JN; McCann JA, 1984. Distribution of Exotic Fishes in the Continental United States. In: Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes [ed. by Courtney Jr WR, Stauffer Jr JR] Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press, 41-77.

Courtenay WR Jr, 1989. Exotic fishes in the national park system. In: Proceedings of the 1986 conference on science in the national parks, volume 5. Management of exotic species in natural communities [ed. by Thomas, L. K.]. Washington, DC, USA: U.S. National Park Service and George Wright Society, 237-252.

Courtenay WR Jr; Deacon JE, 1983. Fish introductions in the American southwest: a case history of Roger Spring, Nevada. The Southwestern Naturalist, 28(2):221-224.

Courtenay WR Jr; Hensley DA, 1979. Range expansion in southern Florida of the introduced spotted tilapia, with comments on its environmental impress. Environ. Cons, 6(2):149-151.

Courtenay WR; Deacon JE, 1982. Status of introduced species in certain spring systems in southern Nevada. The Great Basin Naturalist, 42:361-366.

Courtenay WR; Stauffer JR, 1990. The introduced fish problem and the aquarium fish industry. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 21(3):145-159.

Courtenay WRJr; Hensley DA; Taylor JN; McCann JA, 1986. Distribution of exotic fishes in North America. In: The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes [ed. by Hocutt CH, Wiley EO] New York, NY, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 675-698.

Deacon JE; Williams JE, 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 97(1):103-118.

Fagade SO, 1971. The food and feeding habits of tilapia species in the Lagos lagoon. Journal of Fish Biology, 3:151-156.

FAO, 2009. Tilapia mariae. Register of international introductions of inland aquatic species. unpaginated. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5628E/x5628e0f.htm#tilapia%20mariae%20boulenger:%20cichlidae

Froese R; Pauly D, 2009. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

GSMFC, 2005. Non-native aquatic species in the gulf of Mexico and south atlantic regions. Non-native aquatic species in the gulf of Mexico and south atlantic regions. Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, unpaginated. http://nis.gsmfc.org/

Helfman GS, 2007. Fish conservation: a guide to understanding and restoring global aquatic biodiversity and fisheries resources. Washington, USA: Island Press, 212-213.

Hogg RG, 1974. Environmental hazards posed by exotic fish species newly established in Florida. Environ. Conserv, 1:176.

Hogg RG, 1976. Ecology of fishes of the family Cichlidae introduced into the fresh waters of Dade county, Florida. Coral Gables, FL, USA: University of Miami, 142 pp.

Hogg RG, 1976. Established exotic cichlid fishes in Dade county, Florida. Florida Scientist, 39(2):97-103.

Holcik J, 1991. Fish introduced in Europe with particular reference to its central and eastern part. Aquat. Sci, 48(suppl.1):13-23.

Ikomi RB; Jessa HO, 2003. Studies on aspects of the biology of Tilapia mariae (Boulenger, 1899) (Osteichthyes Cichlidae) in Ethiope river, Niger Delta, Nigeria. African Zoology, 38(22):255-264.

ISSG, 2009. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Kadem Toham A; Teugels GG, 1998. Diversity patterns of fish assemblages in the lower Ntem river Basin (Cameroon), with notes on potential effects of deforestation. Arch. Hydrobiol, 141(4):421-446.

King RP; Etim L, 2004. Reproduction, growth, mortality and yield of Tilapia mariae Boulenger 1899 (Cichlidae) in a Nigerian rainforest wetland stream. J. Appl. Ichthyol, 20:502-510.

Koehn JD; Mackenzie RF, 2004. Priority management actions for alien freshwater fish species in Australia. Alien freshwater fish management. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, No. 38:457-472.

Loftus WF; Kushlan JA, 1987. Freshwater fishes of southern Florida. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum of Biological Science, 31(4):255.

Mackenzie R, 2004. Queensland's approach to the control of exotic pest fishes. In: Conference Proceedings: Managing invasive freshwater fish in NZ. Proceedings of a workshop hosted by DOC, 10-12 May 2001, Hamilton. 21-26. http://www.doc.org.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/PF03mackenzie.pdf

Mather PB; Arthington AH, 1991. An assessment of genetic differentiation among feral Australian tilapia populations. Australian Journal of Marine Freshwater Reserve, 42:721-728.

Nico L, 2010. Tilapia mariae. Tilapia mariae. Gainesville, FL, USA: USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, unpaginated. http://nas3.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=482

NSW-DPI, 2005. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries: Fisheries. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries: Fisheries. unpaginated. http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fisheries

Olukolajo SO; Olalusi A; Ireti AC, 2009. Aspects of ecology and biology of the cichlid, Tilapia mariae from two adjacent low-brackish water lagoons in Nigeria. Afr. J. Agri. Res, 4(5):474-483.

Pearce M, 2007. Pest fish in Queensland: north Queensland and tilapia. Pest fish in Queensland: north Queensland and tilapia. unpaginated. http://www.bdtnrm.org.au/projects/downloads/M_Pearce_DPIF_Pest_Tilapia.pdf

Queensland Government, 2009. Tilapia. Tilapia. unpaginated. http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/28_13879.htm

Riehl R; Baensch HA, 1991. Aquarium atlas. Melle, Germany: Mergus, 992 pp.

Robins R, 2009. Spotted tilapia, ichthyology at the Florida Museum of Natural History, education, biological profile. Spotted tilapia, ichthyology at the Florida Museum of Natural History, education, biological profile. unpaginated. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/Descript/SpottedTilapia/SpottedTilapia.html

Schwanck E, 1986. Filial cannibalism by Tilapia mariae. J. Appl. Ichthyol, 2:65-74.

Schwanck E, 1987. Lunar periodicity in the spawning of tilapia in the Ethiop river, Nigeria. J. Fish Biol, 30:533-537.

Schwanck E, 1987. Reproductive behaviour of a monogamous cichlid fish, Tilapia mariae. Stockholm, Sweden: University of Stockholm, 130 pp.

Schwarzer J; Misof B; Tautz D; Schliewen UK, 2009. The root of the East African cichlid radiations. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9(186):(5 August 2009). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/9/186

Shafland PL, 1996. Exotic fishes of Florida-1994. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 4(2):101-122.

Taylor JN; Snyder DB; Courtenay WR Jr, 1986. Hybridization between two introduced, substrate-spawning tilapias (Pisces: Cichlid) in Florida. Copeia, 4:903-909.

Teugels GG; Thys van den Audenaerde DFE, 1990. Description of a new species of Bryoconaethiops (Teleostei: Characidae) from Nigeria and Cameroon. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat, 1(3):207-212.

Teugels GG; Thys van den Audenaerde DFE, 2003. Cichlidae. In: The fresh and brackish water fishes of West Africa Volume 2 [ed. by Paugy, D.\Lévêque, C.\Teugels, G. G.]. Paris, France: Institut de recherche de développement, 521-600. [Coll. faune et flore tropicales 40.]

Tilmant JT, 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. USA: National Park Service, 50 pp.

Welcomme RL, 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 294:x + 318 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Everglades Cooperative Invasive Species Management Areahttp://www.evergladescisma.org
FAO International Introductions of Inland Aquatic Specieshttp://www.fao.org/docrep/X5628E/x5628e00.htm#Contents
FishBasehttp://www.fishbase.com/
Fishnote - Tilapiahttp://www.nt.gov.au/d/Content/File/p/Fishnote/FN38.pdf
Florida Museum of Natural History - Spotted Tilapiahttp://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/Descript/SpottedTilapia/SpottedTilapia.html/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global Invasive Species Databasehttp://www.issg.org/databaseThe GISD aims to increase awareness about invasive alien species and to facilitate effective prevention and management. It is managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the Species Survival Commission.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Queensland Government - Tilapiahttp://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/cps/rde/dpi/hs.xsl/28_13879_ENA_HTML.htm

Contributors

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04/12/09 Original text by:

Tagried Kurwie, Mahurangi Technical Institute1 Glenmore Drive, Warkworth, New Zealand

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