Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Philornis downsi

Toolbox

Datasheet

Philornis downsi

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Philornis downsi
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Philornis downsi is a fly whose larvae reside in birds’ nests and parasitise nestling birds. It is native to mainland South America, and invasive in the Galapagos Islands, where it was was first found in nests...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Medium tree finch, Camarhynchus pauper, female. C. pauper is a critically endangered species threatened by P. downsi
TitleMedium tree finch
CaptionMedium tree finch, Camarhynchus pauper, female. C. pauper is a critically endangered species threatened by P. downsi
CopyrightJeremy Robertson
Medium tree finch, Camarhynchus pauper, female. C. pauper is a critically endangered species threatened by P. downsi
Medium tree finchMedium tree finch, Camarhynchus pauper, female. C. pauper is a critically endangered species threatened by P. downsiJeremy Robertson
Adult Philornis downsi
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult Philornis downsi
CopyrightJody O'Connor
Adult Philornis downsi
AdultAdult Philornis downsiJody O'Connor
Third instar larvae: note blood in gut [of darker] larvae.
TitleLarvae
CaptionThird instar larvae: note blood in gut [of darker] larvae.
CopyrightJody O'Connor
Third instar larvae: note blood in gut [of darker] larvae.
LarvaeThird instar larvae: note blood in gut [of darker] larvae.Jody O'Connor
Dead nestlings of Camarhynchus pauper (Medium tree finch) with signs of P. downsi parasitism.
TitleEffects of parasitism
CaptionDead nestlings of Camarhynchus pauper (Medium tree finch) with signs of P. downsi parasitism.
CopyrightJody O'Connor
Dead nestlings of Camarhynchus pauper (Medium tree finch) with signs of P. downsi parasitism.
Effects of parasitismDead nestlings of Camarhynchus pauper (Medium tree finch) with signs of P. downsi parasitism.Jody O'Connor
Floreana Island, Galapagos. Habitat of P. downsi and its hosts.
TitleFloreana Island
CaptionFloreana Island, Galapagos. Habitat of P. downsi and its hosts.
CopyrightJody O'Connor
Floreana Island, Galapagos. Habitat of P. downsi and its hosts.
Floreana IslandFloreana Island, Galapagos. Habitat of P. downsi and its hosts.Jody O'Connor
Philornis pupae and larvae.
TitlePupae and larvae
CaptionPhilornis pupae and larvae.
CopyrightJody O'Connor
Philornis pupae and larvae.
Pupae and larvaePhilornis pupae and larvae.Jody O'Connor
Dead nestling of Camarhynchus pauper (Medium tree finch) with Philornis larvae.
TitleDead nestling
CaptionDead nestling of Camarhynchus pauper (Medium tree finch) with Philornis larvae.
CopyrightJody O'Connor
Dead nestling of Camarhynchus pauper (Medium tree finch) with Philornis larvae.
Dead nestlingDead nestling of Camarhynchus pauper (Medium tree finch) with Philornis larvae.Jody O'Connor

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitkin, 1968

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Philornis downsi is a fly whose larvae reside in birds’ nests and parasitise nestling birds. It is native to mainland South America, and invasive in the Galapagos Islands, where it was was first found in nests of Darwin’s finches in 1997 (Fessl et al., 2001), though retrospective analysis of insect collections found that it had been present in the islands prior to 1964 (Causton et al., 2006). It has now spread to 12 Galapagos islands and larvae have been found in 64-100% of nests of 11 of the 14 species of Darwin’s finches (members of the Emberizidae) in the Galapagos. Larger larvae reside in the nest material and emerge to feed on the blood and tissues of developing nestlings, causing high levels of brood mortality (Fessl et al 2006a, b). P. downsi distribution and establishment was probably aided by an increase of tourist and boating activities to and within the islands. The parasite is found in higher numbers on elevated islands that have higher rainfall, a humid highland forest, and an agricultural area (Dudaniec et al., 2007; Wiedenfield et al., 2007). P. downsi parasitism has already been implicated in the decline of endemic, critically endangered species such as the mangrove finch Camarhynchus heliobates, medium tree-finch C. pauper and Floreana mockingbird Nesomimus trifasciatus. Currently, there is no control method for P. downsi.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Muscidae
  •                             Genus: Philornis
  •                                 Species: Philornis downsi

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The genus Philornis contains approximately 50 species (Dudaniec and Kleindorfer, 2006) of flies whose larvae reside in birds’ nests and parasitise nestling birds. Philornis species are distributed in the Neotropical regions of Central and South America where they parasitise more than 115 species of birds (Dudaniec and Kleindorfer 2006). Philornis downsi was first described by Dodge and Aitkin after being discovered on the island of Trinidad in 1968 (Dodge and Aitkin, 1968).

Description

Top of page

Eggs:approximately the shape of a rice grain, 2-3mm in length, creamy white in colour.

Larvae:1st, 2nd and 3rd instar phases vary in size and developmental features (e.g. spiracles). Cream-coloured, soft-bodied, segmented thoracic region, mouth hooks, teeth-like spines at anterior end, spiracles (for breathing) present in posterior and anterior regions (anterior spiracles in 2nd and 3rd instar only).

Pupae:light brown when newly pupated, and become increasingly darker in colour over the approximately 2 weeks until adult fly eclosion. Pupae are characterized by an elongated barrel-shaped frothy cocoon tapering towards the anterior and posterior ends, rounded on one end with an acute cuff-like margin on the other.

Adult fly:Similar in size to common house-fly (Musca domestica), generally dark in colour though colour varies according to size of individual. Large adults usually have yellow legs, whereas smaller males have darker legs.

Detailed descriptions of P. downsi morphology are given in Dodge and Aitkin (1968), and Fessl et al. (2006b).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

North America

Trinidad and TobagoPresent1968Dodge and Aitkin (1968)Various locations across the island of Trinidad

South America

ArgentinaPresentSilvestri et al. (2011)Chaco province. First reported in 2008-10
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Rio de JaneiroPresent1999Mendonça and Couri (1999)Angra dos reis
EcuadorPresentBulgarella et al. (2015)First reported from mainland Ecuador in 2013-4
-Galapagos IslandsPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveFessl et al. (2001); Causton et al. (2006); Wiedenfeld et al. (2007)Galapagos Islands: Santa Cruz, Floreana, Gardner por Floreana, Isabela, San Cristobal, Champion, Pinzon, Santiago, Marchena, Fernandina, Santa Fe, and Daphne

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Philornis downsi was first described from pupae and reared fly specimens that were collected from birds’ nests in Trinidad (Dodge and Aitkin, 1968). Ten species of Philornis are recognized from the island of Trinidad where the genus is not considered to be invasive. P. downsi has been reported once from Brazil (Mendonca and Couri, 1999). P. downsi larvae were first discovered in nests of Darwin’s finches on the Galapagos Islands in 1997 (Fessl et al., 2001), but P. downsi flies were discovered in a retrospective examination of a Galapagos insect collection from 1964 (Causton et al., 2006). P. downsi is thought to have been accidentally introduced to the main ports of Santa Cruz Island and established a large population due to the abundance of resources for both the adult and larval stages across elevational habitats (artificial water sources, agricultural crops, nesting birds). It may have been introduced to the Galapagos Islands as adult flies transported with imported fruits and vegetables from continental South America, although the exact means of introduction remains speculative (Fessl et al., 2006b). It is now found in nests on 12 of the 14 main Galapagos Islands and is found in significantly higher numbers on elevated islands (>500m max elevation) that have a highland forest habitat (300-600m) (Wiedenfeld et al., 2007; Dudaniec et al., 2007; O’Connor et al., 2010a). Since its discovery in the Galapagos, P. downsi has been reported in northern Argentina; it is not certain whether this is part of its historical range or whether it has recently spread there (Silvestri et al., 2011). More recently, it has been reported in the western part of mainland Ecuador, supporting the hypothesis that the Galapagos population originated there (Bulgarella et al., 2015).

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Galapagos Islands before 1964 Yes No Causton et al. (2006); Fessl and Tebbich (2002) Presumed to have been introduced accidentally

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

P. downsi has already established itself on 12 of the 14 main Galapagos Islands. The islands from which P. downsi has not been recorded are smaller, drier, and uninhabited by humans, and have significantly smaller populations of breeding birds. The Galapagos National Parks and Charles Darwin Research Station have established quarantine measures to reduce the risk of further spread of this parasite, or new introductions of other pests.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

The number of parasites feeding on each nestling may be diluted in nests with larger broods (4-5 nestlings) (Dudaniec et al. 2006). Tree-finch (Camarhynchus) species generally have smaller brood sizes (2-3 nestlings) (Kleindorfer 2007), which may increase larval feeding on fewer nestlings. More P. downsi larvae are found in nests of Darwin’s finch species that are larger-bodied and build larger nests (Dudaniec et al., 2007; Kleindorfer and Dudaniec 2009). Larger-bodied hosts may provide resources for a greater number of P. downsi larvae, while larger nests may offer more space for both larval and pupal stages (see Kleindorfer and Dudaniec 2009). More larvae per nest (30-50 larvae) are found on elevated islands that have a humid highland forest, and an agricultural zone. Bulgarella et al. (2015) found that levels of parasitism in nests of bird species in mainland Ecuador were much lower than in the nests of Galapagos birds; they also state, citing other sources, that a total of 37 host species have been recorded from different parts of the range.

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Adult P. downsi flies are non-parasitic and vegetarian, feeding mainly on fruit. They oviposit in birds’ nests, where they lay eggs on nest material surfaces or on nestlings. Fly eggs have also been found on the nasal openings (nares) of nestlings. The eggs hatch into 1st instar larvae, which proceed to feed within the nestlings’ nares. The 2nd and 3rd instar stages reside in the nest base and emerge at night to feed on the blood and tissues of nestlings either by external attachment or by entering through the nares to feed internally (Fessl et al., 2006b; O’Connor et al., 2010b). Larvae pupate in the nest base after about 7 days, and emerge as flies approximately 14 days later. Female flies are known to mate with up to 5 males per laying event (Dudaniec et al., 2008) although other details of the fly’s mating behaviour are largely unknown. More larvae are found per nest on the 5 elevated Galapagos islands, which all have an elevated humid highland area, agricultural areas, higher annual rainfall, and large populations of breeding birds (Wiedenfeld et al., 2007).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
10 27

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 15
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 19 35
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 27 32
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 17 22

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration09number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall2101500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Uniform

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Brachymeria podagrica Parasite Pupae not specific
Spalangia endius Parasite Pupae not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page
In the Galapagos Islands, 5% of P. downsi pupae are parasitized by 2 parasitoid wasp species: Brachymeria podagrica (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae), and Spalangia endius Walter (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) (P. Lincango, Charles Darwin Research Station, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, unpublished data). Both species are introduced generalists that have been registered in other countries as parasitoids of more than 10 fly species (Legner and Brydon 1966; Marchiori et al. 2003; Couri et al. 2006; Geden et al. 2006; Oliva 2008). Bulgarella et al. (2015) found an unidentified Brachymeria species attacking P. downsi in mainland Ecuador; its significance in suppressing the population is unknown.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Hitchhiker Yes
Self-propelled Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plants Yes

Economic Impact

Top of page

About 27,000 people now live in the Galapagos, and more than 100,000 tourists visit the islands each year to experience the distinctive biodiversity, including its endemic birds. Darwin's finches are iconic to the field of evolutionary biology, and attract large numbers of scientists, bird-watchers and biology enthusiasts to the islands. The loss of these species may ultimately lead to a reduction in eco-tourism opportunities for the Galapagos community.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Impact on biodiversity

P. downsi has been given the highest risk ranking for invasive organisms threatening biodiversity in the Galapagos Islands (Causton et al., 2006). Rare finch species such as the critically endangered mangrove finch (Camarhynchus heliobates) and Darwin’s medium tree-finch (C. pauper) are at an increased risk of extinction due to P. downsi parasitism (Fessl et al, 2006b; O’Connor et al., 2010d). C. pauper has high numbers of larvae per nest, over 40% of its nestlings die due to parasitism, and its sole population on Floreana Island (approximately 1600 individuals) is small and declining (O’Connor et al., 2010c, 2010d). Mist-netting surveys regularly observe adult finches with physically deformed beaks and nasal openings, a relict of P. downsi parasitism (Galligan and Kleindorfer, 2009). Fledglings that survive parasitism may experience continued fitness costs as adults in the form of: reduced sexual attractiveness and pairing success, reduced feeding efficiency, and increased susceptibility to disease; Kleindorfer et al. (2019) found that males with enlarged nostrils due to P. downsi had altered songs, increasing the time it took for them to find mates, and potentially leading to hybridization between finch species.

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Camarhynchus heliobates (mangrove finch)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGalapagos IslandsParasitism (incl. parasitoid)Dvorak et al., 2004; Wiedenfeld et al., 2007
Camarhynchus pauper (medium tree-finch)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)Galapagos IslandsParasitism (incl. parasitoid)O'Connor et al., 2010d
Mimus trifasciatus (Floreana mockingbird)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)Galapagos IslandsParasitism (incl. parasitoid)Wiedenfeld et al., 2007

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

Top of page

Bulgarella, M., Quiroga, M. A., Brito Vera, G. A., Dregni, J. S., Cunninghame, F., Mosquera Muñoz, D. A., Monje, L. D., Causton, C. E., Heimpel, G. E., 2015. Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), an avian nest parasite invasive to the Galápagos Islands, in mainland Ecuador. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 108(3), 242-250. http://www.bioone.org/loi/esaa doi: 10.1093/aesa/sav026

Causton CE, Peck SB, Sinclair BJ, Roque-Albelo L, Hodgson CJ, Landry B, 2006. Alien insects: threats and implications for conservation of Galápagos Islands. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 99(1):121-143. http://docserver.esa.catchword.org/deliver/cw/pdf/esa/freepdfs/00138746/v99n1s14.pdf

Couri MS, Tavares MT, Stenzel RR, 2006. Parasitoidism of chalcidid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) on Philornis sp. (Diptera, Muscidae). Brazilian Journal of Biology, 66(2A):553-557. http://www.bjb.com.br

Dodge HR, Aitkin THG, 1968. Some new and little known species of Philornis Meinert (Diptera, Muscidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 41:134-154

Dudaniec RY, Gardner MG, Donnellan S, Kleindorfer S, 2008. Genetic variation in the invasive avian parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae) on the Galápagos archipelago. BMC Ecology, 8(13):(31 July 2008). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6785/8/13

Dudaniec RY, Kleindorfer S, 2006. Effects of the parasitic flies of the genus Philornis (Diptera:Muscidae) on birds. Emu, Journal of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, 106(1):13-20. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/96.htm

Dudaniec RY, Kleindorfer S, Fessl B, 2006. Effects of the introduced ectoparasite Philornis downsi on haemoglobin level and nestling survival in Darwin's Small Ground Finch (Geospiza fuliginosa). Austral Ecology, 31(1):88-94. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=aec

Dudaniec RY, Kleindorfer S, Fessl B, 2007. Interannual and interspecific variation in intensity of the parasitic fly, Philornis downsi, in Darwin's finches. Biological Conservation, 139:325-332

Dvorak M, Vargas H, Fessl B, Tebbich S, 2004. On the verge of extinction: a survey of the mangrove finch Cactospiza heliobates and its habitat on the Galápagos Islands. Oryx, 38(2):171-179

Fessl B, Couri MS, Tebbich S, 2001. Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, new to the Galapagos Islands (Diptera, Muscidae). Studia Dipterologica, 8(1):317-322

Fessl B, Kleindorfer S, Tebbich S, 2006. An experimental study on the effects of an introduced parasite in Darwin's finches. Biological Conservation, 127(1):55-61. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00063207

Fessl B, Sinclair BJ, Kleindorfer S, 2006. The life-cycle of Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) parasitizing Darwin's finches and its impacts on nestling survival. Parasitology, 133(6):739-747. http://journals.cambridge.org/

Fessl B, Tebbich S, 2002. Philornis downsi - a recently discovered parasite on the Galápagos archipelago - a threat for Darwin's finches? Ibis (London), 144(3):445-451. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=synergy&synergyAction=showAbstract&doi=10.1046/j.1474-919X.2002.00076.x

Galligan TH, Kleindorfer S, 2009. Naris and beak malformation caused by the parasitic fly, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), in Darwin's small ground finch, Geospiza fuliginosa (Passeriformes: Emberizidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 98(3):577-585. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/bij

Geden CJ, Moon RD, Butler JF, 2006. Host ranges of six solitary filth fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Chalcididae) from Florida, Eurasia, Morocco, and Brazil. Environmental Entomology, 35(2):405-412. http://docserver.esa.catchword.org/deliver/cw/pdf/esa/freepdfs/0046225x/v35n2s29.pdf

Kleindorfer S, 2007. Nesting success in Darwin's small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus): evidence of female preference for older males and more concealed nests. Animal Behaviour, 74:795-804

Kleindorfer S, Dudaniec R, 2009. Love thy neighbour? Social nesting pattern, host mass and nest size affect ectoparasite intensity in Darwin's finches. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 63:731-739

Kleindorfer, S., Custance, G., Peters, K. J., Sulloway, F. J., 2019. Introduced parasite changes host phenotype, mating signal and hybridization risk: Philornis downsi effects on Darwin's finch song. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 286(1904), article 20190461. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.0461 doi: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.0461

Legner EF, Brydon HW, 1966. Supression of dung-inhabiting fly populations by pupal parasites. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 59(4):638-651

Marchiori CH, Pereira LA, Filho OMS, Borges VR, 2003. Parasitoids of flies collected on human faeces in Itumbiara County, Goias State, Brazil. Biotemas, 16(1):121-128

Mendonça E de C, Couri MS, 1999. New associations between Philornis Meinert (Diptera, Muscidae) and Thamnophilidae (Aves, Passeriformes). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 16(4):1223-1225

O'Connor JA, Dudaniec RY, Kleindorfer S, 2010. Parasite infestation and predation in Darwin's small ground finch: contrasting two elevational habitats between islands. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 26(3):285-292. http://www.journals.cup.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7452396&next=true&jid=TRO&volumeId=26&issueId=03

O'Connor JA, Robertson J, Kleindorfer S, 2010. Video analysis of host-parasite interactions in nests of Darwin's finches. Oryx, 44(4):588-594. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=ORX

O'Connor JA, Sulloway FJ, Kleindorfer S, 2010. Avian population survey in the Floreana highlands: is Darwin's Medium Tree Finch declining in remnant patches of Scalesia forest? Bird Conservation International, 20(4):343-353. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=BCI

O'Connor JA, Sulloway FJ, Robertson J, Kleindorfer S, 2010. Philornis downsi parasitism is the primary cause of nestling mortality in the critically endangered Darwin's medium tree finch (Camarhynchus pauper). Biodiversity and Conservation, 19(3):853-866. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p47h876t1034415l/?p=fe09c0be027a40f7b1c044251ec1d193&pi=15

Oliva A, 2008. Parasitoid wasps (hymenoptera) from puparia of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, 67(3-4):139-141

Silvestri L, Antoniazzi LR, Couri MS, Monje LD, Beldomenico PM, 2011. First record of the avian ectoparasite Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Argentina. Systematic Parasitology, 80(2):137-140. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=103002

Wiedenfeld DA, Jiménez GA, Fessl B, Kleindorfer S, Valerezo JC, 2007. Distribution of the introduced parasitic fly Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae) in the Galapagos Islands. Pacific Conservation Biology, 13:14-19

Distribution References

Bulgarella M, Quiroga M A, Brito Vera G A, Dregni J S, Cunninghame F, Mosquera Muñoz D A, Monje L D, Causton C E, Heimpel G E, 2015. Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), an avian nest parasite invasive to the Galápagos Islands, in mainland Ecuador. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 108 (3), 242-250. http://www.bioone.org/loi/esaa DOI:10.1093/aesa/sav026

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Causton C E, Peck S B, Sinclair B J, Roque-Albelo L, Hodgson C J, Landry B, 2006. Alien insects: threats and implications for conservation of Galápagos Islands. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 99 (1), 121-143. http://docserver.esa.catchword.org/deliver/cw/pdf/esa/freepdfs/00138746/v99n1s14.pdf DOI:10.1603/0013-8746(2006)099[0121:AITAIF]2.0.CO;2

Dodge H R, Aitkin T H G, 1968. Some new and little known species of Philornis Meinert (Diptera, Muscidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 134-154.

Fessl B, Couri M S, Tebbich S, 2001. Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, new to the Galapagos Islands (Diptera, Muscidae). Studia Dipterologica. 8 (1), 317-322.

Mendonça E de C, Couri M S, 1999. New associations between Philornis Meinert (Diptera, Muscidae) and Thamnophilidae (Aves, Passeriformes). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. 16 (4), 1223-1225. DOI:10.1590/S0101-81751999000400030

Silvestri L, Antoniazzi L R, Couri M S, Monje L D, Beldomenico P M, 2011. First record of the avian ectoparasite Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Argentina. Systematic Parasitology. 80 (2), 137-140. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=103002 DOI:10.1007/s11230-011-9314-y

Wiedenfeld D A, Jiménez G A, Fessl B, Kleindorfer S, Valerezo J C, 2007. Distribution of the introduced parasitic fly Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae) in the Galapagos Islands. Pacific Conservation Biology. 14-19.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Galapagos National Parkshttp://www.galapagospark.org
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global Invasive Species Database: Philornis downsi profilehttp://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1400&fr=1&sts=sss&lang=EN
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Organizations

Top of page

Ecuador: Galapagos National Parks (Parque Nacional Galapagos) (PNG), Puerto Ayora, Isla Santa Cruz, Galapagos, http://www.galapagospark.org

Galapagos Islands: Charles Darwin Research Station (CDRS), run by the Charles Darwin Foundaton, Puerto Ayora, Isla Santa Cruz, Galapagos, http://www.darwinfoundation.org/english/pages/index.php

Contributors

Top of page

23/10/09 Original text by:

Jody O'Connor, School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 1200, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia

Sonia Kleindorfer, School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 1200, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map