Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Corbicula fluminalis

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Datasheet

Corbicula fluminalis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Corbicula fluminalis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Mollusca
  •       Class: Bivalvia
  •         Subclass: Heterodonta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774)

Other Scientific Names

  • Tellina fluminalis Müller, 1774

Local Common Names

  • Netherlands: toegeknepen korfmossel

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Mollusca
  •             Class: Bivalvia
  •                 Subclass: Heterodonta
  •                     Order: Veneroida
  •                         Unknown: Corbiculoidea
  •                             Family: Corbiculidae
  •                                 Genus: Corbicula
  •                                     Species: Corbicula fluminalis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative Not invasive Annandale et al., 1919; Jaeckel, 1956; Likharev and Starobogatov, 1967; Solem, 1979
ArmeniaAbsent, unreliable recordNative Not invasive Zhadin, 1952Transcaucasia
AzerbaijanPresentNative Not invasive Denahena, 1947; Aliev, 1960; Kasymov, 1972; Kasymov and Gadzhiyeva, 1974
China
-GuangdongAbsent, unreliable recordNative Not invasive Morton, 1982Corbicula cf. fluminalis from the Pearl River
-ShanghaiAbsent, unreliable recordNative Not invasive Park and Kim, 2003Specimens of C. fluminalis collected in estuary of Yangze River
Georgia (Republic of)Absent, unreliable recordNative Not invasive Zhadin, 1952C. fluminalis reported from Transcaucasia
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNative Not invasive Zhadin, 1952C. fluminalis reported in Kashmir
IranPresentNative Not invasive Müller OFvon, 1774; Annandale et al., 1919; Annandale, 1921; Zhadin, 1952; Kasymov, 1972; Pourang, 1996
IraqLocalisedNative Not invasive Mousson, 1874; Abdel-Azim and Gismann, 1956; Ahmed, 1975; Islam and Hameed, 1982; Al-Hassan and Soud, 1985
IsraelPresentNative Not invasive Martens Evon, 1871; Tristram, 1884; Dautzenberg, 1894; Germain, 1913; Tchernov, 1975
JordanPresentNative Not invasive Bourguignat, 1868; Martens Evon, 1871
KazakhstanLocalisedNative Not invasive Decksbach, 1943C. fluminalis in the mouth of the Amu-Darya River, Aral Sea
PakistanPresentNative Not invasive Schlesch, 1908; Annandale et al., 1919; Zhadin, 1952; Kasymov, 1972
Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeBrown and Wright, 1980In article by Al-Safidi, 1990, it is referred to as Corbicola fluminalis
SyriaPresentNative Not invasive Martens Evon, 1874; Tchernov, 1975; Schuett, 1982; Korniushin, 2004
TurkeyPresentNative Not invasive Locard, 1883; Schuett, 1982
TurkmenistanPresentNative Not invasive Decksbach, 1943C. fluminalis is reported in Turkemia in the valley of the Murgab River
UzbekistanPresentNative Not invasive Decksbach, 1943; Korniushin, 2004

Africa

BurundiPresentNative Not invasive Daget, 1998C. fluminalis tanganyicensis in Lake Tanganyica
ChadAbsent, unreliable recordNative Not invasive Glaubrecht et al., 2007Possible in Lake Chad as Daget (1998) considers C. tsadiana a morphotype of C. consobrina; Mandahl-Barth (1988) set as a race of C. fluminalis
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNative Not invasive Daget, 1998; Daget, 1998
EgyptPresentNative Not invasive Smith, 1908; Gruvel, 1933; Daget, 1998; Daget, 1998; Korniushin, 2004
EthiopiaLocalisedNative Not invasive Daget, 1998C. fluminalis is reported from lakes and shores of the lower Huash River and the Lake Tana (Tsana), Abyssinia (Norther Ethiopea). Near Bahr-el-Asrak, Blue Nile
GabonAbsent, unreliable recordNative Not invasive Daget, 1998Corbicula gabonensis ( = C. fluminalis)
KenyaAbsent, unreliable recordNative Not invasive Daget, 1998C. fluminalis cunningtoni recorded in Lake Victoria
MalawiAbsent, invalid recordDaget, 1998C. fluminalis africana in Lake Malawi or Nyassa
MozambiqueAbsent, invalid recordNativeDaget, 1998Lake Malawi or Nyassa. C. fluminalis africana
NigerPresentNativeGlaubrecht et al., 2007Possible in Lake Chad as Daget (1998) considers C tsadiana a morphotype as C. consobrina; Mandahl-Barth (1988) set as a race of C. fluminalis
NigeriaPresentNativeGlaubrecht et al., 2007Possible in Lake Chad as Daget (1998) considers C. tsadiana a morphotype as C. consobrina; Mandahl-Barth (1988) set as a race of C. fluminalis
SenegalAbsent, unreliable recordNativeDaget, 1998Presence of C. fluminalis consorbina (identified as Corbicula meridionalis and Corbicula senegalensis)
South AfricaAbsent, invalid recordNative Not invasive Korniushin, 2004By morphological characters Kornuishin sets Corbicula africana as a valid taxa present in Gauritz River, Natal; Transvaal in Oliphant River, Lepenula River
SudanPresentNative Not invasive Daget, 1998
TanzaniaPresentNative Not invasive Daget, 1998; Daget, 1998
UgandaPresentNative Not invasive Daget, 1998C. fluminalis cunningthon, Lake Victoria. Edward and Lake Mobotu, Sese Seko (Lake Albert)
ZambiaLocalisedNative Not invasive Daget, 1998C. fluminalis tanganyicensis, Lake Tanganyica

North America

USAAbsent, invalid recordBritton and Morton, 1979Until now no specimens of C. fluminalis were recorded in the USA

South America

Brazil
-Rio Grande do SulAbsent, unreliable recordIntroduced Invasive Martins et al., 2006Corbicula fluminea, Corbicula largillierti and C. aff. fluminalis in Guaiba Lake

Europe

BelgiumLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Swinnen et al., 1998First time recorded in 1992
FranceWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Bachmann et al., 1997; Rajagopal et al., 2000; Piscart et al., 2005
GermanyLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Haesloop, 1992; Bernauer and Jansen, 2006
HungaryLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Csànyi, 1999First record Ven-Duna at Baja in June-Danube River
ItalyLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Lori et al., 2005; Ciutti and Cappelletti, 2009
LuxembourgPresentIntroduced Invasive Bachmann and Usseglio-Polatera, 1999Found in River Mosel during a benthos survey between 1994-1996
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedBij and Greijdanus-Klaas, 1990First recorded in Meuse and Rhine Delta
PolandLocalisedIntroduced2004 Invasive Labêcka et al., 2005In lower part of Odder River
PortugalAbsent, invalid recordNagel, 1989C. fluminea was identified as C. fluminalis by mistake (Morton, 1996)
RomaniaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Paunovic et al., 2007Record of one population on border with Serbia in Danube River
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentNative Not invasive Izzatullaev, 1980Distribution in Central Asia as C. fluminalis
-Eastern SiberiaPresentNative Not invasive Lindholm, 1927C. fluminalis extrema is described in Southeast Siberia
-Southern RussiaPresentNative Not invasive Kasymov, 1972C. fluminalis is reported as distributed through the Caucasus and Central Asia
-Western SiberiaPresentNative Not invasive Volkova, 1962C. fluminalis, this species is found in Siberian rivers, including Irtysh River
SerbiaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Paunovic et al., 2007Present in Danube River and Sava River
SwitzerlandAbsent, unreliable recordIntroduced1997 Invasive Wittenberg, 2006Classification of C. fluminalis only by differences in shells
UkrainePresentIntroduced Invasive Voloshkevich and Son, 2002Introduced in Danube River Basin in early 1980s

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Belgium 1992 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Nguyen and Pauw (2002); Swinnen et al. (1998) Started colonizing in the River Meuse and some major connecting canals in Belgium
France   Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Brancotte and Vincent (2002) Invaded in at least seven different ways of which the upstream colonization in the Rhine has a dominating role
Germany   Hitchhiker (pathway cause) ,
Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)
Yes Bachmann et al. (1997); Bernauer and Jansen (2006); Haesloop (1992) In the Wesser River with first introduction and in the Rhine and Mossel rivers by upstream colonization from the Netherlands population
Hungary   Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Bódis et al. (2008) Restricted to the downstream section of the Paks (nuclear power plant)
Italy South Asia 2004 Yes Cianfanelli et al. (2007); Gherardi et al. (2008) Unintentional introduction. Pathway still unknown
Luxembourg   Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Bachmann and Usseglio-Polatera (1999) River Mossel border
Poland 2004 Hitchhiker (pathway cause)Labêcka et al. (2005) Lower Odder River
Romania   Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Paunovic et al. (2007) North Serbia in Danube River
Serbia   Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Paunovic et al. (2007) Danube River; tributary river Sava was also invaded, first the lower part (Makis) and upstream to Sabac
Switzerland Asia   Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Wittenberg (2006) Introduced from Asia via North America
Ukraine South East Asia   Hitchhiker (pathway cause) ,
Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)
Yes Alexandrov et al. (2007); Voloshkevich and Son (2002)

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Estuaries Principal habitat Natural
Estuaries Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Inland saline areas Principal habitat Natural
Inland saline areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Lagoons Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lagoons Principal habitat Natural
Lagoons Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Present, no further details Natural
Lakes Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Ponds Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Principal habitat Natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Intertidal zone Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Salt marshes Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Other
Stored products Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Salinity (part per thousand) Optimum 50 tolerated (Morton, 1986)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) Optimum 0 tolerated (Volkora, 1962)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aix sponsa Predator Juveniles to genus
Alosa sapidissima Predator Juveniles to genus
Anas acuta Predator Juveniles to genus
Anas clypeata Predator Juveniles to genus
Anas platyrhynchos Predator Juveniles to genus
Anas rubripes Predator Juveniles to genus
Angiostrongylus cantonensis Parasite Adult to genus
Aythya valisineria Predator Juveniles to genus
Cercaria corbiculae Parasite Adult to species
Chaetogaster limnaei Adult to species
Fulica americana Predator Juveniles to genus
Haplochromis Predator Adult to genus
Ictalurus furcatus Predator Juveniles to genus
Ictalurus punctatus Predator Juveniles to genus
Ictiobus bubalus Predator Juveniles to genus
Ictiobus niger Predator Juveniles to genus
Iheringichthys westermanni Predator Juveniles to genus
Leporinus obtusidens Predator Juveniles to genus
Lophotaspis orientalis Parasite Adult to genus
Multipeniata Adult to species
Neovison vison Predator Adult to genus
Odontesthes humensis Predator Juveniles to genus
Ondatra zibethicus Predator Juveniles to genus
Oreochromis mossambicus Predator Juveniles to genus
Oxydoras kneri Predator Juveniles to genus
Paraloricaria vetula Predator Juveniles to genus
Pimelodus albicans Predator Juveniles to genus
Pimelodus maculatus Predator Juveniles to genus
Procyon lotor Predator Adult to genus
Pterodoras granulosus Predator Juveniles to genus
Rallus longirostris Predator Juveniles to genus
Ricola macrops Predator Juveniles to genus
Spirinchus thaleichthys Predator Juveniles to genus

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Filtration
  • Fouling
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Hybridization
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

In Asia, the use of Corbicula and their applications in the regional and national economy are diverse. Intensive aquaculture relies on this bivalve which has great economic importance on DianSan Lake in Shangai (Xu et al., 1988), and in Vietnam, where the production of Corbicula subsulcata reaches 600-1,000 t/yr (Phung, 2000). In the Pearl River, China, Corbicula sp. are used for food and the manufacture of lime from the shells (Miller and McClure, 1931). In Taiwan, it is not considered a high-value aquaculture product and it is consumed mostly as a side dish and in soups. In 1987, it had the fourth highest total shellfish market quantity, around 8000 mt produced at 3.7 mt/ha (Phelps, 1994b). Harvesting activities are reported in Luzon in Laguna Bay, Philippines, and in Sulawesi in Lake Lindu Corbicula sp. are harvested for human food (Arriola and Villaluz, 1939; Bonne and Sandground, 1939).
 
Corbicula sp. are considered a healthy food and have the highest glycogen content (50%) of any shellfish (Phelps, 1994b). They are also considered of high medicinal importance, e.g. C. leana in Japan (Ikematsu and Kammakura, 1975). The health and medicinal importance might rely on the caloric content estimated at 5.02 Kcal/g in dry weight (Sickel, 1976). They also contain appreciable amounts of vitamin B12 (Halarnkar et al., 1987). Iritani et al. (1979) showed that rats fed with C. japonica significantly reduced their high cholesterol levels, this is explained by the several sterols present in the clam, making them a hypolipidemic food item (Iritani et al., 1979).However, in Japan, water extracts from C. japonica were shown to be lethal to mice via injection. The toxicity exhibits a regional variation independent from seasonality or sexual periods. In addition, both Corbicula sandai and C. leana have the same toxin but less potent (Arita et al., 2001).
  
Social Benefit
 
In Laguna de Luzon (Philippines), Corbicula sp. is gathered in huge quantities approaching a commercial scale. This item is used to feed domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), and is also a food item for the habitants, especially the working classes (Villadolid and Del Rosario, 1930). These authors also suggest measurements of conservation of this economically-important species. Corbicula sp. is harvested in other places like Lake Lindu in Indonesia (Carney et al., 1980), Japan (Cahn, 1951), and in the USA in Potomac River above Washington, DC (Phelps, 1994b).
 
Asiatic clams can act as bioindicators of viruses; there has been documented absorption of 99.94% of viruses by clams (Payne, 1985). Faust et al. (2009) documented the absorption of bird flu virus from infected waters, thus potentially reducing the infectivity. Some benefits in public human health can be reported as Corbicula can be used as a functional bioindicator of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in infected waste and in irrigation waters (Graczyk et al., 1997; 2003; Miller et al., 2005).
 
Environmental Services
 
Individuals of Corbicula have been recommended for the biological assessment of water quality (Kerans and Karr, 1994; Carlisle and Clements, 1999).
 
Pourang (1996) reports using C. fluminalis, among others macrozoobenthonic taxa, in the assessment of concentrations of heavy metal (Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb) in superficial sediments in the Anzali wetlands (Iran). C. fluminalis showed lower heavy metals concentrations compared to the other taxa studied.

Diagnosis

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The principal feature to differentiate the morphotypes are the shell characteristics. C. fluminalis has a smaller size (around 25 mm), with a triangular, rounded base form and thicker shell than C. fluminea; has concentric ridges that are thinner and less spaced, with 13-16 per cm (Zhadin, 1952; Korniushin, 2004).

As an example, in Italy, Lake Garda, the two species of Corbicula sp. were clearly distinguishable from patterns of shell sculpture, shape and colour. C. fluminalis shells shows finer ridges and a violet inner surface, whereas C. fluminea has coarser ridges with pale inner surface (Ciutti and Cappelletti, 2009).

Detection and Inspection

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The reports of C. fluminalis invasion are always when populations are already established, e.g. by dead shells on the shorelines in Italy (Ciutti and Cappelletti, 2009); in a sampled benthos survey in the Mosel River, France (Bachmann et al., 1997); and in reports of fishermen nets in the Danube River, Serbia (Paunovic et al., 2007).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Since there are sympatric populations of C. fluminalis and C. fluminea in Europe (Swinnen et al., 1998; Csányi, 1999; Pfenninger et al., 2002; Paunovic et al., 2007; Ciutti and Cappelletti, 2009), these may have the same habitat requirements (Karatayev et al., 2007). Additionally, in recent surveys both species appear to have similar reproduction pathways (Korniushin, 2004).

The principal feature to differentiate the morphotypes are the shell characteristics. C. fluminalis has a smaller size (around 25 mm), with a triangular, rounded base form and thicker shell than C. fluminea; has concentric ridges that are thinner and less spaced, with 13-16 per cm (Zhadin, 1952; Korniushin, 2004).

As an example, in Italy, Lake Garda, the two species of Corbicula sp. were clearly distinguishable from patterns of shell sculpture, shape and colour. C. fluminalis shells shows finer ridges and a violet inner surface, whereas C. fluminea has coarser ridges with pale inner surface (Ciutti and Cappelletti, 2009).

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

The first steps on slowing or stopping the spread of invasive species is for international cooperation in acceptance of measurements discussed and approved in IMO Conventions on hull fouling and ballast waters and ICES Code of Practice (Karatayev et al., 2007). Corbicula sp. invades disturbed habitats more often then unmodified ones. The maintenance and restoration of natural conditions may be one of the best defences against benthos domination by exotic mussels (Stein and Imlay, 1976). Management programs, mitigation measures and eradication efforts on invasive species do only make sense when being undertaken by all affected countries (Gollasch, 2007).

SPS measures
 
There exists a report of C. fluminea (identified as C. manilensis) being sold in open markets in Hawaii (Kailua, Oahu Island). With the potential threat of invasion, the Department of Agriculture Plant Quarantine Office has twice confiscated shipments of C. manilensis (Burch, 1978). No similar reports exist for C. fluminalis.
 
Early warning systems
 
In addition to the ALARM project a new electronic journal was created “Aquatic Invasions” as an important part of the developing European early warning systems on invasive species in Europe (Panov et al., 2009b).
 
Public awareness
 
Education of public can indeed reduce the spread of an invasive species (Karatayev et al., 2007). In order to minimize human mediated transport, measures should be taken such as the education of the fishermen in not using Corbicula as bait outside invaded places (Aldridge and Muller, 2001). Caution should be taken in not transferring sand or gravel from invaded locals (Counts, 1986); stocking activities and transport of these clams outside invaded range (Karatayev et al., 2007).
 
Eradication
 
Elimination of an entire invasive population is rarely attempted (Simberloff, 2002); it is very expensive and may have detrimental non-target effects. However, Aldridge et al. (2006) proposed an effective and selective processes to kill invaders, focussing on zebra mussels, the biobullets. This new technique may provides us with a useful method to eradicate invasive mussels by releasing less chemicals to the environment, reducing anthropogenic ecosystem disturbances and protecting the native species from being killed in extermination process (Aldridge et al., 2006).
               
Control
 
Movement control
 
After invasion the best measure is to reduce the spreading (Aldridge and Muller, 2001). This includes the washing-down of boats use on invaded locales and the barges used on transporting sediment. Equipment like hand dredges and nets should be cleaned with appropriate effective methods like hot water (above 50ºC), and chlorinated water (Thompson and Sparks, 1977; Aldridge and Muller, 2001).
 
Biological control
 
No species-specific techniques are available for the eradication of Corbicula sp. However, some population density controls are proposed by Covich et al. (1981) using crayfish, and by Robinson and Welborn (1988) using benthic-foraging fish that control formation of dense patches.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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C. fluminalis is a poorly understood species, few consistent reports exist on its life cycle, reproductive behaviour and patterns of growth (Korniushin, 2004). Korniushin’s 2004 review is for now the most extensive work done on this species.

However, if the distribution of Korniushin (2004) is to be corroborated by genetic data, introduction pathways for C. fluminalis need to be reviewed. African Corbicula distribution is far from being complete - the distinction between C. artartina from C. fluminalis and C. africana has never been done. Little knowledge exists on C. fluminalis from Gabon (Preston, 1909), considered by Mandahl-Barth (1974) as a different species in Gabon. Also C. fluminalis species in Senegal require more study as there is so little information available.
 
On Lake Chad, Corbicula populations are controversial, and were not analysed by Korniushin (2004). Daget (1998) placed them as C. consobrina, and Mandahl-Barth (1988) as a race of C. fluminalis (in Glaubrecht et al., 2007). The existence of fossils records in Lake Chad and nearby regions like Algeria and central Sahara could indicate a refuge for C. fluminalis within Lake Chad (Fischer-Piette, 1949).

In addition to the studies of Hedtke et al. (2008) it is suggested there should be a worldwide database for multiple androgenic lineages of Corbicula. Also it is recommended to create a phylogeny of Corbicula using single copy genes because of unexpected polyphyly in androgenic lineages. The rRNA genes are suggested by Hedtke et al. (2008) due to their conservative characteristics within the eukaryotes.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
ALARM (Assessing Large Scale Risks for biodiversity with tested methods)http://www.alarmproject.net/alarm/
DAISIE Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europehttp://www.europe-aliens.org/index.jsp

Contributors

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03/01/10 Original text by:

Fabiana Freitas, University of Aveiro, Portugal

Distribution Maps

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