Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Centaurea iberica
(Iberian starthistle)



Centaurea iberica (Iberian starthistle)


  • Last modified
  • 03 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Centaurea iberica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Iberian starthistle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. iberica appears to be somewhat weedy in its native environment, but is less aggressively invasive elsewhere than other Centaurea species. The only South American country where it appears to have estab...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page
Centaurea iberica; habit. Turkey.  June 2016.
CaptionCentaurea iberica; habit. Turkey. June 2016.
Copyright©Erhan Yelekci/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Centaurea iberica; habit. Turkey.  June 2016.
HabitCentaurea iberica; habit. Turkey. June 2016.©Erhan Yelekci/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Centaurea iberica; flowering habit. Israel.
CaptionCentaurea iberica; flowering habit. Israel.
Copyright©Eitan f/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Centaurea iberica; flowering habit. Israel.
HabitCentaurea iberica; flowering habit. Israel.©Eitan f/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Centaurea iberica; flower. Menashe hills, Israel. May 2008.
CaptionCentaurea iberica; flower. Menashe hills, Israel. May 2008.
Copyright©Eitan f/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Centaurea iberica; flower. Menashe hills, Israel. May 2008.
FlowerCentaurea iberica; flower. Menashe hills, Israel. May 2008.©Eitan f/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Centaurea iberica Trev. Ex Sprengel (1826)

Preferred Common Name

  • Iberian starthistle

Other Scientific Names

  • Calcitrapa iberica (Spreng.) Schur (1866)
  • Leucantha iberica (Spreng.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1961)

Local Common Names

  • : abrepuño gigante; azulejo gigante
  • : Iberian knapweed; Spanish centaury-thistle
  • Brazil: centáurea-gigante

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

C. iberica appears to be somewhat weedy in its native environment, but is less aggressively invasive elsewhere than other Centaurea species. The only South American country where it appears to have established as an invasive alien is Argentina. It has been introduced in Europe and North America, but has either failed to persist or eradication efforts have been successful to some degree. Only in California has eradication not been achieved. Introductions in Wyoming and Oregon have not expanded rapidly. In its native range, various uses in folk medicine are proving to have a scientific basis. C. iberica is on prohibited weed lists in Chile and Australia; and is a Class A noxious weed in California and Oregon, and a prohibited noxious weed in Arizona, Nevada and Wyoming.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Centaurea
  •                                 Species: Centaurea iberica


Top of page

Plants 20-200 cm tall; stems 1-several, divaricately much branched (‘bushy’ in some references), often forming a rounded mound, puberulent to loosely tomentose. Leaves hispidulous to loosely tomentose, more or less glabrate, dotted with minute resin glands; proximal leaves petiolate, blades 10-20 cm, margins 1-2 times pinnately lobed or dissected, rosette with central cluster of spines; mid sessile, not decurrent, blades more or less lanceolate, shorter; distal blades linear to oblong, entire to coarsely dentate or shallowly lobed. Heads disciform, borne singly or in leafy cymiform arrays, sessile or short-pedunculate. Involucres ovoid to hemispheric, 10-18 mm. Principal phyllaries: bodies greenish or stramineous, ovate, scarious-margined, appendages stramineous, spiny-fringed at the base, each tipped by a stout, spreading spine 1-3 cm long. Inner phyllaries: appendages truncate, spineless. Florets many; corollas white, pink or pale purple, those of sterile florets slender, 15-20 mm, those of fertile florets 15-20 mm. Cypselae white or brown streaked, 3-4 mm, glabrous. Pappus of white bristles 1-2.5 mm (Keil and Ochsmann, 2006).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentNative Not invasive Holm et al., 1979
ArmeniaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2009
AzerbaijanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2009
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-XinjiangPresentNative Not invasive Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1959
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2009
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNative Not invasive Hooker, 1882; Kaul, 1986; Sharma et al., 1995Kashmir 5-6000 ft. Westward to the Atlantic
IranPresentNative Not invasive Rechinger, 1963; Parsa, 1978; Khaniki, 1995
IraqPresentNative Not invasive Field, 1940Jebel Baykhair near Zakho, near Amara
IsraelPresentNative Not invasive Tadmor et al., 1974; Feinbrun-Dothan, 1978; Rubin and Benjamin, 1984
JordanPresentNative Not invasive Petney, 1988; Qasem, 2006
KazakhstanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2009
KyrgyzstanPresentNative Not invasive Komarov et al., 1934-1964; USDA-ARS, 2009
LebanonPresentNative Not invasive Mouterde, 1966; Senatore et al., 2005
PakistanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2009
SyriaPresent only under cover/indoorsNative Not invasive Mouterde, 1966
TajikistanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2009
TurkeyWidespreadNative Not invasive Wagenitz, 1975Fields, roadsides, waste land s.l. -2300 m
TurkmenistanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2009
UzbekistanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2009

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1923 Invasive Howell, 1959; Robbins et al., 1970; Hickman, 1993Eradicated in 1 location, ongoing in 2 others
-KansasPresentIntroducedMcGregor et al., 1976; McGregor, 1986
-OregonPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1954 Not invasive Roché and Roché, 1998; Institute of Natural Resources, 2009Jackson Co. Clackamas & Wheeler counties
-WashingtonAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1929 Not invasive Roché and Talbott, 1986Kittitas Co.
-WyomingPresentIntroduced1955Dorn, 1977Converse (2000), Big Horn counties

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced1956PARODI, 1956; Holm et al., 1979; Rodolfo de la Peña M, 1997Also collections at Smithsonian Herbarium from 1961-1988
ChileProhibited weed seed


BulgariaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2009
CyprusPresentNative Not invasive Meikle, 1977
FranceAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Not invasive Touchy, 1857Transitory species at Juvenal Port
GreecePresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2009
ItalyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Pignatti, 1982Adventive, disturbed places
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced1967Gudzinskas, 1997
RomaniaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2009
UKAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced>1900 Not invasive Dunn, 1905; Fraser, 1905; Clement and Foster, 1994Casual alien e.g., once or twice near Slateford Railway Sta. & Leith Docks in 1904
UkrainePresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2009
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNative Not invasive Dostàl, 1976


AustraliaProhibited to import

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

C. iberica was introduced in Europe in the 1800s and early 1900s (e.g., Juvenal Gate in southern France and grain fields and railway stations in England and Scotland) but most introductions have failed to persist. Ballast ground introductions in North America have also not established. In California, C. iberica was first reported in 1923 near Solvang, Santa Ynez Canyon, Santa Barbara County (Robbins et al., 1970). In July 1929 a larger population was found near Santa Rosa. Two infestations, one of about 80 acres, were reported in San Diego County (near Ramona in 1932 and in Santa Teresa Valley in 1938) (Howell, 1959; Robbins et al., 1970). As a Class A noxious weed, an eradication program is in effect; one population has been eradicated and eradication is on-going for the other two (Rejmanek and Pitcairn, 2006). C. iberica was reported from 1955 through 2000 in Converse County, Wyoming (Dorn, 1977; Rice, 2009).


Top of page
C. iberica has been reported in fields and on roadsides and wasteland in Turkey, from sea level to 2300 m (Wagenitz, 1975).

In North America, C. iberica grows along roadsides and in fields and pastures (Keil and Ochsmann, 2006). In California it has often been reported to colonize the banks of watercourses and other moist sites (DiTomaso and Healy, 2007).

Habitat List

Top of page
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details
Arid regions Present, no further details

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

C. iberica was reported to be one of the top three weeds in mustard fields in the district of Chakwal in Pakistan, and was ranked seventh overall in importance among all the weeds (Nasir and Sultan, 2006).

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

2n=16 (Tonian, 1980)

Reproductive Biology

C. iberica reproduces prolifically by seed (Whitson et al., 1996).

Physiology and Phenology

C. iberica plants form a rosette in late May and June and flower in July and August (Whitson et al., 1996). In California, flowering occurs between July and October (DiTomaso and Healy, 2007). It is a winter annual, biennial (Whitson et al., 1996) or short-lived perennial (Keil and Ochsmann, 2006). DiTomaso and Healy (2007) state that “the biology of this species is probably similar to purple starthistle” indicating that little is known about C. iberica in North America. Turkoglu et al. (2009) studied the effects of temperature on germination in C. iberica above 1750 m in Turkey. In Israel, it flowers in April, May, June and July (

Environmental Requirements

In Israel, C. iberica grows on light soils and in the Mediterranean it occurs in woodlands and on shrublands, semi-steppes and the montane vegetation of Mt. Hermon.

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bruchidius tuberculatus Herbivore Seeds Nakeer et al., 2013

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page
Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Most seed falls near the parent plant or is dispersed over short distances by wind or sometimes water (DiTomaso and Healy, 2007).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Longer distance dispersal is probably mediated by human or other animal activities, for example, on vehicles, in mud or soil, on hooves or equipment, clinging to fur or hair, or passing through the digestive tract of an animal. The presence of C. iberica at woollen mills indicates that sheep transport the seeds (Fraser, 1905).
Accidental Introduction

All of the introductions appear to have been accidental, or at least caused by carelessness. Soil carried as ballast on ships may have been the most significant long distance dispersal mechanism for C. iberica between continents (Roché and Talbott, 1986) but it has also been transported with grains (Dunn, 1905).

Economic Impact

Top of page

In Israel, where it is native, C. iberica is a weed in agricultural fields (Rubin and Benjamin, 1984; Hadar et al., 1988) as well as a dominant plant in some annual grasslands. It is used as rangeland for sheep production (Tadmor et al., 1974).

Environmental Impact

Top of page
Impact on Biodiversity

C. iberica
is present as a part of the diverse native flora in the best rangelands on the West Bank, which are suitable for a Highly Sensitive Area (HSA): in the District of Jenin, on the northeastern side of the mountain of Lehif Jader (Palestine Institute For Arid Land and Environmental Studies, 1996).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture


Top of page
Economic Value

Drozda (1965) reported the occurrence of cnicin in C. iberica. Dumlu and Gürkan (2006) isolated sesquiterpene lactones and a steroidal compound from C. iberica in Turkey, which showed significant antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Ulusoylu et al. (2001) reported antibacterial and antifungal activities in extracts from C. iberica in Turkey.

C. iberica
is one of several Centaurea species used in Turkish folk medicine to alleviate the pain and inflammatory symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis, high fever, headache, and for healing of wounds (in particular, the aerial part of C. iberica is applied on wounds for healing). Koca et al. (2009) evaluated the anti-inflammatory and healing properties of extracts of C. iberica. They found that C. iberica displays remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activity. Senatore et al. (2005) studied the chemistry of C. iberica in Lebanon and isolated 91 volatile components, mostly fatty acids and hydrocarbons. In Pakistan, Hussain et al. (2004) studied antidiabetic compounds in C. iberica and found insulin secretagogue activity at 10 µg/mL in its extracts. Abdel-Jalil (2002) also investigated extracts of C. iberica for possible hypoglycaemic activity.

In Jordan, Qasem (2002) studied the effects of root exudates of C. iberica on parasitic branched broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) and determined that they did not reduce parasitic infection in tomatoes.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

C. iberica closely resembles Centaurea calcitrapa (Keil and Ochsmann, 2006). The rosettes of both species have deeply lobed leaves with light coloured midribs and spines develop in the centre of the rosette. The introductions in Kansas and Wyoming were first reported as C. calcitrapa (McGregor, 1986). The capitula of C. iberica are more globose than the narrow heads of C. calcitrapa (Roché and Roché, 1998). Achenes of C. iberica are plumed with a pappus, whereas those of C. calcitrapa lack this feature (Keil and Ochsmann, 2006; DiTomaso and Healy, 2007). Plants of C. iberica tend to be taller and more robust thanthose of C. calcitrapa (McGregor, 1986).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.


In 1978 Chile included C. iberica in a list of species whose seeds were prohibited from entry to the country ( It is also on the prohibited seed list for Australia (


Top of page

Abdel-Jalil H, 2002. Screenng for a possible hypoglycemic activity of selected Jordanian medicinal plants. Jordan Journal of Applied Science (Natural Sciences), 4(1):1-7.

Ahmed N; Bibi R, 1979. Chemical investigation of Centaurea iberica. Fitoterapia, 5:199-200.

Al-Ali AS; Abbas SA; Al-Neamy IK; Abdul-Masih AME, 1978. On the biology of the yellow safflower fly Chaetorellia carthami Diptera Tephritidae in Iraq. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 87:439-445.

Bazzaz BSF; Haririzadeh G, 2003. Screening of Iranian plants for antimicrobial activity. Pharmaceutical Biology, 41(8):573-583.

Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1959. [English title not available]. (Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.) Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. unpaginated.

Clement EJ; Foster MC, 1994. Alien plants of the British Isles: a provisional catalogue of vascular plants (excluding grasses). Oundle, UK; Botanical Society of the British Isles, 590 pp.

DiTomaso JM; Healy EA, 2007. Weeds of California and other Western States. Vol 1. California, USA: UC Davis, 1808 pp. [University of California ANR Pub. 3488.]

Dorn RD, 1977. Manual of the vascular plants of Wyoming. 2 vols. New York, USA: Garland Publishing Inc., 1498 pp.

Dostàl J, 1976. Centaurea L. In: Flora Europaea. Vol. 4. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 254-301.

Drozda B, 1965. The occurrence of cnicin in the herbs Centaurea calcitrapa L., C. iberica Trev. and C. ovina Pal. Diss. Pharm. Pharmacol, 19:223-225.

Dumlu MU; Gürkan E, 2006. A new active compound from Centaurea species. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. Section C, Biosciences, 61(1/2):44-46.

Dunn ST, 1905. Alien flora of Britain. London, UK: West, Newman & Co., 109.

Feinbrun-Dothan N, 1978. Flora Palaestina 3: Ericaceae to Compositae. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

Field H, 1940. The anthropology of Iraq: the Upper Euphrates. The anthropology of Iraq: the Upper Euphrates, 30(1). Chicago, USA: Field Museum of Natural History, unpaginated. [Field Museum of Natural History Anthropological Publication 469.]

Font M; Garcia-Jacas N; Vilatersana R; Roquet C; Susanna A, 2009. Evolution and biogeography of Centaurea section Acrocentron inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA sequence analyses. Annals of Botany, 103(6):985-997.

Fraser J, 1905. Alien plants near Edinburgh. The Annals of Scottish Natural History, 53. Edinburgh, UK: David Douglas.

Garcia-Jacas N; Susanna A; Ilarslan R; Ilarslan H, 1997. New chromosome counts in the subtribe Centaureinae (Asteraceae, Cardueae) from West Asia. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 125(4):343-349.

Garcia-Jacas N; Susanna A; Mozaffarian V; Ilarslan R, 2000. The natural delimitation of Centaurea (Asteraceae: Cardueae): ITS sequence analysis of the Centaurea jacea group. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 223(3/4):185-199.

Garcia-Jacas N; Susanna A; Vilatersana R; Guara M, 1998. New chromosome counts in the subtribe Centaureinae (Asteraceae, Cardueae) from west Asia, II. Botany Journal of the Linnaean Society, 128:403-412.

Garcia-Jacas N; Uysal T; Romashchenko K; Suárez-Santiago VN; Ertugrul K; Susanna A, 2006. Centaurea revisited: a molecular survey of the Jacea group. Annals of Botany, 98(4):741-753.

Goldblatt P; Johnson DE, 1991. Index to plant chromosome numbers 1988-1989. Index to plant chromosome numbers 1988-1989. Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden, unpaginated. [Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden.]

Gudzinskas Z, 1997. Conspectus of alien plant species of Lithuania. 4. Asteraceae. Botanica Lithuanica, 3(4):335-366.

Hadar A; Chachlon Y; Yovel H; Colodney G; Glidai S; Shuli T, 1998. Derby for postemergence broadleaves control in wheat. In: Phytoparasitica, 27(2). 109-126.

Hellwig FH, 1994. [English title not available]. (Chromosomenzahlen aus der Tribus Cardueae (Compositae).) Willdenowia, 24:219-248.

Hickman JC, 1993. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Hooker JD, 1882. The flora of British India. The flora of British India, 3(1). London, UK: L. Beeve & Co., Covent Garden, 385.

Howell JT, 1959. Distributional data on weedy thistles in western North America. Leafl. West. Bot, 9(2):17-29.

Institute of Natural Resources, 2009. List of key exotic species in Oregon. List of key exotic species in Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, unpaginated.

ISSG, 2009. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.

Katar'yan BT; Torgashova GG, 1976. Spectrum of herbicidal activity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. Doklady Akademii Nauk Armyanskoi SSR, 63(2):109-112.

Kaul MK, 1986. Weed Flora of Kashmir Valley. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers, 422 pp.

Keil DJ; Ochsmann J, 2006. Centaurea. In: Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol..19. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 181-194.

Khaniki GB, 1995. Meiotic studies on some Iranian Centaurea (Compositae). Cytologia, 60(4):341-346.

Koca U; Süntar IP; Keles H; Yesilada E; Akkol EK, 2009. In vivo anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of Centaurea iberica Trev. ex Spreng. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 126(3):551-556.

Komarov VL; Shishkin BK; Bobrov EG, 1934-1964. Flora SSSR, 28. Leningrad, USSR: Agropromizdat.

Litardiere Rde; Maire R, 1930. [English title not available]. (Contributions a l'etude de la flore du Maroc.) Fascicule 2 Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc, 26:1-56.

McGregor RL, 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, USA: University Press of Kansas.

McGregor RL; Brooks RE; Hauser LA, 1976. Checklist of Kansas vascular plants. Checklist of Kansas vascular plants. Kansas, USA: Kansas State University, unpaginated. [Technical Publications of State Biological Survey of Kansas, No. 2.]

Meikle RD, 1977. Flora of Cyprus. Volume One. Kew, UK: Bentham-Moxon Trust, Royal Botanic Gardens., xii + 832 pp.

Meikle RD, 1985. Flora of Cyprus. Volume Two. 1985, xiii + 1136 (833 1970) pp.; many ref.

Mouterde P, 1966. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. Beirut, Lebanon: Del'imprimerie Catholique.

Nakeer Razak; Saini MS; Irfan Ahmad; Irfan Rashid, 2013. Report of Bruchidius tuberculatus (Hochhut 1847) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) from biodiversity hotspot region of Kashmir Himalaya - a promising biocontrol agent against invasive alien weed Centurea iberica Trev. ex Spreng. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 7(23):1670-1674.

Nasir ZA; Sikander Sultan, 2006. Noxious weeds of winter crops in District Chakwal, Pakistan. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 1(5):480-487.

Palestinian Institute for Arid Land and Environmental Studies, 1996. Palestine: country report to the FAO International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources, Leipzig. Palestine: country report to the FAO International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources, Leipzig. Hebron, West Bank: PIALES, unpaginated.

PARODI LR, 1956. A new weed in the fields of Buenos Aires province. (Una nueva maleza en los campos bonaerenses.) Revista Argentina de Agronomia, 23(3):132-7.

Parsa A, 1978. Flora of Iran. Tehran, Iran: Offset Press.

Peachey E, 2009. Pacific northwest weed management handbook. Pacific northwest weed management handbook. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University, unpaginated.

Petney TN, 1988. Influence of insect attack on reproductive potential of thistle species in Jordan. Entomologia Generalis, 14(1):25-35.

Pignatti S, 1982. Flora of Italy. [Flora d'Italia.]. Bologna, Italy: Edagricole.

Plitman U, 1976. Taxonomic studies in Centaurea sect. Calcitrapa. III. Cytotaxonomic notes. Israel Journal of Botany, 25:84-89.

Plitmann U, 1973. Taxonomic studies in Centaurea section Calcitrapa. Part 1. New taxa in Palestine. Israel Journal of Botany, 22:47-66.

Plitmann U, 1975. Taxonomic studies in Centaurea section Calcitrapa. Part 2. The Middle-East. Israel Journal of Botany, 24:10-25.

Powell AM; Kyhos DW; Raven PH, 1974. Chromosome numbers in Compositae. X. American Journal of Botany, 61:909-913.

Qasem JR, 2002. Plants as sources of natural herbicides against branched broomrape (Orobanche ramosa L.). In: Allelopathy: from molecules to ecosystems [ed. by Reigosa, M. J.\Pedrol, N.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 153-182.

Qasem JR, 2006. Response of onion (Allium cepa L.) plants to fertilizers, weed competition duration, and planting times in the central Jordan Valley. Weed Biology and Management, 6(4):212-220.

Qasem JR; Foy CL, 2006. Selective weed control in Syrian marjoram (Origanum syriacum) with oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen herbicides. Weed Technology, 20(3):670-676.

Rechinger KH, 1963. Flora Iranica: flora of the Iranian Plateau and the surrounding mountains. (Flora Iranica: Flora des iranischen Hochlandes und der umrahmenden Gebirge). Graz, Austria.

Rejmánek M; Pitcairn MJ, 2003. When is eradication of exotic pest plants a realistic goal? In: Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: Proceedings of the International Conference on eradication of island invasives [ed. by Veitch, C. R.\Clout, M. N.]. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN-The World Conservation Union, 249-253.

Rice P, 2009. Invaders database system. Division of Biological Sciences. Invaders database system. Division of Biological Sciences. Missoula, USA: University of Montana, unpaginated.

Robbins WW; Bellue MK; Ball WS, 1970. Weeds of California. Sacramento, USA: CDA, 547 pp.

Robson TO; Americanos PJ; Abu Irmaileh BE, 1991. Major weeds of the Near East. 242 pp.

Roché BF Jr; Roché CT, 1991. Identification, introduction, distribution, ecology and economics of Centaurea species. chapter 28. In: Noxious Range Weeds [ed. by James LF, Evans JO, Ralphs MH, Child RD]. Boulder, USA: Westview Press, 274-291.

Roché BF Jr; Talbott CJ, 1986. The collection history of Centaureas found in Washington State. Research Bulletin, Agriculture Research Center, Washington State University, No.XB 0978:36pp.

Roché CT; Roché BF Jr, 1998. Purple starthistle and Iberian starthistle. Purple starthistle and Iberian starthistle. Pullman, USA: Washington State University, unpaginated. [PNW 0350. Coop. Ext. Bull PNW 0350.]

Roché Jr BF; Piper GL; Talbott CJ, 1986. Knapweeds of Washington, EB1393. Washington, USA: Washington State University, 41 pp.

Rodolfo de la Peña M, 1997. Catàlogo de nombres vulgares de la flora Argentina: (lista preliminar). Santa Fe, Argentina: Centro de Publicaciones, Universidad Nacional del Litoral.

Rosenthal SS; Davarci T; Ercis A; Platts B; Tait S, 1994. Turkish herbivores and pathogens associated with some knapweeds (Asteraceae: Centaurea and Acroptilon) that are weeds in the United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 96(1):162-175

Rubin B; Benjamin A, 1984. Solar heating of the soil: involvement of environmental factors in the weed control process. Weed Science, 32(1):138-142.

Senatore F; Arnold NA; Bruno M, 2005. Volatile components of Centaurea eryngioides Lam. and Centaurea iberica Trev. var. hermonis Boiss. Lam., two Asteraceae growing wild in Lebanon. Natural Product Research, 19(8):749-754.

Shamyanov ID; Akhmedov UA; Saidkhodzhaev AI, 1998. Sesquiterpene lactones and other components of Centaurea iberica. Khimiya prirodnykh Soedinenii, 3:377-379.

Sharma BD; Hajra PK; Rao RR; Singh DK; Uniyal BP, 1995. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 12-13.

Susanna A; Garcia-Jacas N; Soltis DE; Soltis PS, 1995. Phylogenetic relationships in the tribe Cardueae (Asteraceae) based on ITS sequences. American Journal of Botany, 32(8):1056-1068.

Tadmor NH; Eyal E; Benjamin RW, 1974. Plant and sheep production on semiarid annual grassland in Israel. Journal of Range Management, 27(6):427-432.

Tonian TR, 1980. Relation between chromosome number and some morphological features of Centaureinae Less representatives. Review of Biology, 33(5):552-554.

Touchy M, 1857. [English title not available]. (Bulletin de la Société botanique de France.) Bulletin de la Société botanique de France, 4(1):1051.

Turkoglu N; Alp S; Cig A, 2009. Effect of temperature on germination biology in Centaurea species. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(3):259-261.

Ulusoylu M; Ondersev DV; Soyogul U; Gurkan E; Tuzlaci E, 2001. The cytotoxic and the biological (antibacterial and antifungal) activities of Centaurea iberica and Ferulago confusa. Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Gazi University, 18:75-80.

USDA-ARS, 2009. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-NRCS, 2009. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.

Wagenitz G, 1975. Centaurea. In: Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, volume 5 [ed. by Davis PH] Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 522.

Whitson TD; Burrill LC; Dewey SA; Cudney DW; Nelson BE; Lee RD; Parker R, 1996. Weeds of the west. Laramie, Wyoming, USA: Western Society of Weed Science in cooperation with Cooperative Extension Services, University of Wyoming, 630 pp.

Zakir Hussain; Abdul Waheed; Qureshi RA; Burdi DK; Verspohl EJ; Naeema Khan; Mashooda Hasan, 2004. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree Region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Phytotherapy Research, 18(1):73-77.

Links to Websites

Top of page
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS) source for updated system data added to species habitat list.


Top of page

30/11/09 Original text by:

Cindy Roché, Consultant, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map