Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Bunias orientalis L. 1753
Preferred Common Name
- Turkish warty-cabbage
Other Scientific Names
- Bunias perennis Moench
- Bunias verrucosa Moench
- Laelia orientalis (L.) Desv.
- Laelia orientalis Rchb. 2006
- Myagrum taraxacifolium Lam.
- Rapistrum glandulosum Bergeret
International Common Names
- English: hill mustard; Turkish rocket; warty cabbage
- Spanish: bunia oriental
- French: bunias d'Orient; roquette d'Oriental
- Russian: sverbiga vostochnaya
- Chinese: you guo chi ji
Local Common Names
- Czech Republic: rukevník východný
- Denmark: takkeklap
- Estonia: harilik tõlkjas; rakvere raibe
- Finland: idänukonpalko; ukonpalko
- Germany: Morganländisches Zackenschötchen; Orientalisches Zackenschötchen
- Italy: cascellore orientale
- Latvia: austrumu dizperkone
- Lithuania: rytine engra
- Netherlands: grote hardvrucht
- Norway: russekål
- Poland: rukiewnik wschodny
- Slovakia: roripovník východný
- Sweden: ryssgubbe
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
B. orientalis possess traits characteristic of invasive species: (1) rapid spread into new areas; (2) increasing abundance in invaded sites; regeneration in both a vegetative and generative manner - produces many seeds and forms a large, persistent seed bank; (3) phenotypic plasticity; (4) the species is associated with anthropogenically-disturbed habitats, and the spread is tightly related to human mediation. The species was considered as already invasive in the nineteenth century in east Europe (Klinge, 1887a,b,c). In North America, the species was first included in the Canadian weed list in 1944 just after arrival in the continent (Anon., 1945).
Currently the species is not listed as a regulated pest by international organizations; however, it is on the “black” and “grey” alien invasive species lists in several countries, e.g. Estonia (NOBANIS, 2006) and Switzerland (CPS-SKEW, 2009).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Capparidales
- Family: Brassicaceae
- Genus: Bunias
- Species: Bunias orientalis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Three species belong to the genus Bunias: Bunias orientalis, Bunias erucago and Bunias cochlearioides, all originating in Eurasia. Several synonyms of B. orientalis have been used in the literature, e.g. Myagrum taraxacifolium, Rapistrum glandulosum, Laelia orientalis, Bunias verrucosa and Bunias perennis; however, nowadays they are no longer used.
DescriptionTop of page
B. orientalis is a semi-rosette biennial or perennial hemicryptophyte, 25(40) to 100(150) cm tall. The stems are sparsely pilose with simple, stalked, forked trichomes. The stem is covered with multicellular glandular tubercles present throughout except for the flowers, and these can be seen with the naked eye. The stems are usually branched above or rarely basally. The diameter of the leaf rosette reaches up to 100 cm. The lower leaves are up to 15 (20) cm long, lanceolate or with three-cornered edges or sharp-edged; the upper leaves are entire to pinnatifid and always smaller than the lower leaves. The petals are 4-8 mm long, yellow, entire or truncate. The fruit is asymmetrically ovoid and covered with small, irregular protuberances with one or two subglobose, plump, 2.0-2.5 mm diameter seeds per fruit. A detailed description is available from Flora of China (2009).
Plant TypeTop of page Biennial
DistributionTop of page
The region of origin of B. orientalis is hardly distinguishable. In the literature, divergent opinions on the origin of B. orientalis may be found. Several authors mention that most probably B. orientalis is native to the Armenian highlands (Meusel et al., 1965; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Brandes, 1991). Nevertheless, others draw a much wider original distribution range including the Caucasus, south and central Russia, west Siberia and southeast Europe up to the southern borders of contemporary Slovakia and east Hungary (Klinge, 1887a,b,c; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Starfinger and Kowarik, 2003). In some literature sources from the nineteenth century, the authors mention the rather obscure region Levant or the Orient as the native range of B. orientalis (e.g. Lawson, 1836; Klinge, 1887a,b,c). Possibly, the primary geographic range was the Armenian highlands in the southern Caucasus, from where the species has spread over the neighbouring regions already in the eighteenth century or earlier, promoted by military actions during the Russo-Persian wars (Klinge, 1887a,b,c; Lehmann, 1895). The primary distribution range may also have included parts of west Asia (east Anatolia), contemporary Azerbaijan and northwest Iran. In its native range, B. orientalis is found in grasslands both in alpine and sub-alpine situations (Grossgeim, 1952; Laivins et al., 2006).
Nowadays, the exotic distribution range of the species covers temperate regions: most of Europe, except the very Mediterranean regions and Iceland (Hultén and Fries, 1986; DAISIE, 2009), west Asia, west Siberia, scattered localities in the Russian Far East (Hultén and Fries, 1986), and recently it began to spread in northeast China (Flora of China, 2009). The species is also present in North America in several states in the east and northeast USA, and east and west Canada (Hultén and Fries, 1986; USDA-NRCS, 2008).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Armenia||Present||Native||Klinge, 1887a; Klinge, 1887b; Klinge, 1887c; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; GBIF, 2009|
|China||Present||Introduced||Invasive||ITIS, 2008; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2009|
|Georgia (Republic of)||Present||Native||GBIF, 2009|
|Iran||Present||Native||Rechinger, 1968; Hultén and Fries, 1986||Native in northwest Iran|
|Iraq||Present||Native||Townsend and Guest, 1980; Hultén and Fries, 1986||Native in north Iraq|
|Kazakhstan||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2009|
|Mongolia||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2009|
|Turkey||Present||Native||Davis, 1988; Kandemir and Türkmen, 2008; GBIF, 2009|
|Canada||Present||Introduced||1944||Darbyshire, 2003; Brouillet et al., 2006; USDA-ARS, 2008||First recorded in Grand Manan Island|
|-British Columbia||Present||Introduced||Darbyshire, 2003; Brouillet et al., 2006; USDA-ARS, 2008|
|-New Brunswick||Localised||Introduced||1944||Anon., 1945; Darbyshire, 2003; Brouillet et al., 2006; USDA-ARS, 2008|
|-Nova Scotia||Localised||Introduced||Darbyshire, 2003; Brouillet et al., 2006; USDA-ARS, 2008|
|-Quebec||Localised||Introduced||Darbyshire, 2003; Brouillet et al., 2006; USDA-ARS, 2008|
|USA||Present||Introduced||1950s||Hultén and Fries, 1986; Doll, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2008|
|-Michigan||Present||Introduced||Doll, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2008|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Introduced||USDA-ARS, 2008|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||USDA-ARS, 2008|
|-Ohio||Present||Introduced||Doll, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2008|
|-Vermont||Present||Hultén and Fries, 1986; USDA-ARS, 2008|
|-Virginia||Present||Doll, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2008|
|-Wisconsin||Present||Introduced||1958||Invasive||Doll, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2008|
|Austria||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Essl and Rabitsch, 2002; GBIF, 2009; NOBANIS, 2009|
|Belarus||Present||Introduced||DAISIE, 2009; Flora Italiana, 2009|
|Belgium||Present||Introduced||Fitter and Peat, 1994|
|Bulgaria||Present||Introduced||Tutin, 1993; Fitter and Peat, 1994; Ancev, 2007|
|Czech Republic||Widespread||Introduced||1856||Invasive||Pysek et al., 2002|
|Czechoslovakia (former)||Widespread||Introduced||1856||Jehlik and Slavik, 1968|
|Denmark||Present||Introduced||1790||Not invasive||Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; NOBANIS, 2009|
|Estonia||Widespread||Introduced||1796||Invasive||Kull et al., 2005|
|Finland||Present||Introduced||late 1800s||Invasive||Räsänen, 1995; Saarinen, 2000; NOBANIS, 2009|
|France||Widespread||Introduced||1814||Invasive||Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Tela Botanica, 2009|
|Germany||Widespread||Introduced||1810||Invasive||Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Starfinger and Kowarik, 2003; NOBANIS, 2009|
|Hungary||Present||Tutin, 1993; Fitter and Peat, 1994||According to different literature sources, it is not clear whether the species is native or introduced in Hungary|
|Ireland||Present||Introduced||1893||Clapham et al., 1962; Reynolds, 2002|
|Italy||Present||Introduced||Flora Italiana, 2009||North Italy|
|Latvia||Widespread||Introduced||1803||Invasive||Laivins et al., 2006|
|Luxembourg||Present||Introduced||Fitter and Peat, 1994|
|Macedonia||Present||Flora Italiana, 2009|
|Moldova||Present||Introduced||Flora Italiana, 2009|
|Netherlands||Present||Introduced||Clapham et al., 1962; Fitter and Peat, 1994|
|Norway||Widespread||Introduced||1800 or 1812||Invasive||Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Fremstad and Elven, 1997; NOBANIS, 2009|
|Poland||Widespread||Introduced||1881||Invasive||INS-PAS, 2009; NOBANIS, 2009|
|Romania||Present||Introduced||Tutin, 1993; Fitter and Peat, 1994|
|Russian Federation||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Central Russia||Widespread||Invasive||Klinge, 1887a; Klinge, 1887b; Klinge, 1887c; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Laivins et al., 2006|
|-Eastern Siberia||Present||Introduced||Hultén and Fries, 1986|
|-Northern Russia||Widespread||Introduced||1790||Invasive||Klinge, 1887a; Klinge, 1887b; Klinge, 1887c|
|-Russian Far East||Present||Introduced||Hultén and Fries, 1986|
|-Southern Russia||Widespread||Invasive||Klinge, 1887a; Klinge, 1887b; Klinge, 1887c; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Laivins et al., 2006|
|-Western Siberia||Widespread||Invasive||Klinge, 1887a; Klinge, 1887b; Klinge, 1887c; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Laivins et al., 2006|
|Slovakia||Present||Tavoda, 2000; GBIF, 2009||According to different literature sources, it is not clear whether the species is native or introduced in Slovakia|
|Spain||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Not invasive||Dana et al., 2001|
|Sweden||Widespread||Introduced||1760||Invasive||Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; NOBANIS, 2009|
|Switzerland||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Fitter and Peat, 1994; NOBANIS, 2009||Common in some parts of the country; listed in invasive species watch list|
|UK||Present||Introduced||1880||Invasive||Clapham et al., 1962; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; GBIF, 2009|
|Ukraine||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Mosyakin and Yavorska, 2002; Flora Italiana, 2009|
|Yugoslavia (former)||Present||Introduced||Tutin, 1993|
|Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)||Present||Introduced||Tutin, 1993|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Since the eighteenth century, the range of B. orientalis has expanded due to both natural and human-mediated reasons; however, the anthropogenic factors remarkably predominate. B. orientalis first spread into the neighbouring regions of Caucasus, which might have happened at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Klinge (1887a,b,c), Lehmann (1895) and some other east European researchers mentioned that the probable reason of the rapid spread of the species was accidentally caused by transportation of hay and animals during the military actions of Russo-Persian wars at the beginning and/or middle of the eighteenth century. An important step for further spread was the development of sea and inland shipping, construction of water canals, and the development of railway transport in the Russian Empire and neighbouring countries in the nineteenth century, which greatly fostered the spread of this accidentally introduced species in Europe (Klinge, 1887a,b,c). By the second half of the nineteenth century it was recognized as a rapidly spreading, invasive species (Klinge, 1887a,b,c; Lehmann, 1895).
In Central Europe, B. orientalis arrived in the second half of the nineteenth century, most probably it was accidentally introduced with imported crops from Russia (Jehlik and Slavik, 1968) by railway and vessel carriage. In some west European countries, where the species arrived in the eighteenth or nineteenth century (e.g. in 1731 in the British Isles, in 1814 in France) the plant was cultivated as a vegetable and forage plant (Hedrick, 1919; Duke, 1998). Lawson (1836) mentioned that some French agriculturists recommended B. orientalis as a herbage and forage plant for field cultures, but it is not known whether the plant had ever been widely cultivated for this reason. Nevertheless, the intentional introductions and experiments with cultivation may have been a reason for the spread of B. orientalis in the British Isles and France.
At the end of the twentieth century, in the Soviet countries of Russia and Ukraine, the hitherto “useless” plant was experimentally cultivated as a valuable fodder plant (Karpenko et al., 1990; Sozinov and Ryabchoun, 1995; Kshnikatkina and Varlamov, 2005) that might have facilitated further invasion of the species into new areas.
In North America, the species first appeared in the 1940s and 1950s (the first records in 1944 in Grand Manan Island in Canada, and 1958 in Wisconsin in the USA) (Doll, 2005). By 2008, the exotic distribution range in North America covered several states on the east coast and the Great Lakes region in the USA, and Quebec, Nova Scotia and British Columbia in Canada (USDA-NRCS, 2008).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Canada||1944||Crop production (pathway cause)||Yes||Anon. (1945); Brouillet et al. (2006); USDA-ARS (2008)||Accidental|
|Central Russia||Early 1700s||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Klinge (1887a); Klinge (1887b); Klinge (1887c); Laivins et al. (2006)||Accidental|
|China||Early 2000s||Crop production (pathway cause)||Yes||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2009)||Accidental, possibly from Russia|
|Czech Republic||Eastern Europe||1856||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)
Seed trade (pathway cause)
|Yes||Jehlik and Slavik (1968)||Accidental, seed contamination|
|Denmark||Eastern Europe||1790||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Jehlik and Slavik (1968)||Accidental|
|Estonia||Russian Federation||1796||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Kuusk et al. (1993); Ööpik et al. (2008)||Accidental|
|Finland||Russian Federation||late 1800s||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Räsänen (1995); Saarinen (2000)||Accidental|
|France||1814||Crop production (pathway cause)||Yes||Jehlik and Slavik (1968)||Deliberate/Accidental|
|Germany||1810||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Jehlik and Slavik (1968)||Accidental, possibly from Russia|
|Ireland||1893||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Reynolds (2002)||Accidental|
|Latvia||Russian Federation||1803||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Grindel (1803); Laivins et al. (2006)||Accidental|
|Lithuania||1885||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Gudzinskas (1997)||Accidental, possibly from Russia|
|Northern Russia||Early 1700s||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Klinge (1887a); Klinge (1887b); Klinge (1887c)||Accidental|
|Norway||Eastern Europe||1800/1812||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Fremstad and Elven (1997); Jehlik and Slavik (1968)||Accidental|
|Russian Federation||Early 1700s||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Accidental|
|Southern Russia||Early 1700s||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Klinge (1887a); Klinge (1887b); Klinge (1887c); Laivins et al. (2006)||Accidental|
|Sweden||Eastern Europe||1760||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Jehlik and Slavik (1968)||Accidental|
|UK||1731||Crop production (pathway cause)||Yes||Jehlik and Slavik (1968)||Deliberate/Accidental|
|USA||1950s||Crop production (pathway cause)||Yes||Doll (2005)||Accidental|
|Western Siberia||Early 1700s||Hitchhiker (pathway cause)||Yes||Klinge (1887a); Klinge (1887b); Klinge (1887c); Laivins et al. (2006)||Accidental|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Typically B. orientalis occurs in urban areas, along roads and railways, grasslands, and in farmlands which, in many cases, are habitats highly susceptible to invasions and simultaneously pathways of further invasion. The risks of introduction are related to numerous factors: (1) accidental transportation with vehicles (roads, railways); (2) transportation with cargo (both terrestrial and marine transport); (3) transportation of contaminated seed material, hay, sods, seeds of various crops and garden plants, bird seeds etc.; (4) road construction and transportation of soil containing seeds and root fragments of B. orientalis; (5) transportation of domestic animals, seeds may be attached to wild animals and birds; (6) seeds may be transported by water in streams; (7) intentional introductions – B. orientalis cultivated as a crop or vegetable; (8) lack of grassland management both in urban and rural areas, and “selective management” of urban lawns leaving the “good-looking” invasive plants uncut.
HabitatTop of page
B. orientalis predominantly invades disturbed habitats. In the earlier phases of expansion the species was probably more often found on alkaline soils in limestone regions (Klinge, 1887a,b,c; Brandes, 1991; Dietz et al., 1999). However, a strong relation to chalky soil types is not proven because the species, in many cases, grows in almost any type of dry to mesic soils including artificial substrates such as rubbish and ruins. Common habitats of B. orientalis are roadsides and adjacent grasslands, fallow lands, pastures, railway verges, weedy sites in urban areas, in yards, dump sites and industrial areas (Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Brandes, 1991; Darbyshire, 2003; Laivins et al., 2006). Jehlik and Slavik (1968) mention that a large proportion of the localities in the former Czechoslovakia were found in river valleys, particularly in flood land meadows. In north Europe and the European part of Russia, the species is known as a common farmland invader (Jehlik and Slavik, 1968). In central Europe, it also invades dry thermophilous grasslands and vineyards (Starfinger and Kowarik, 2003).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Disturbed areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Rail / roadsides||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Dietz et al. (1996) found allelopathic effects when analysing soils from densely-invaded sites, but the impacts of root exudates, leaves and leaf litter leachates on seedling growth were rather weak and varied between species. The allelopathic effect may potentially increase the dominance of B. orientalis, promoting formation of dense stands, although this is not the only factor that explains the rapid expansion of the species.
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The genome haploid size (1C-value) so far known for B. orientalis is 1C = 2.43 pg, chromosome number 2n = 14 (Gupta, 2009).
No data are available on the hybridization of B. orientalis with the congener or other brassicaceous species.
B. orientalis flowers from May to August. The seeds ripen from July to September. The flowers are hermaphroditic and are pollinated by bees and flies. The plant is self-fertile (Clapham et al., 1962). One plant produces 5000 seeds on average (Rasinš, 1962; Pogodins and Tomsons, 1970) forming a large, long viable seed bank in soil. According to Dietz et al. (1999) the amount of seeds can reach up to 150,000 seeds per m2 of soil. The germination rates are high and the juvenile mortality is low (Dietz et al., 1999).
The plants of B. orientalis are biennial or perennial. In the latter case, they can reach an age of more than 10 years (Dietz and Ullmann, 1998).
B. orientalis can also regenerate from root fragments (Dietz et al., 1999).
Physiology and Phenology
An experimental study by Dietz and Ullmann (1997) showed that B. orientalis has a two-phased rosette growth behaviour with a first peak cover in spring and a second in autumn. The seasonally bimodal growth partly compensates the competitive pressure by other herbaceous species during the vegetation season. The significance of temporal niche separation for survival and growth of B. orientalis individuals varies with habitat conditions, being most apparent in occasionally disturbed habitats with a relatively low frequency of gap formation (Dietz and Ullmann, 1997).
Plants of B. orientalis that experience low competition intensity attain high above-ground performance and reproductive output as well as reproductive success, whereas those under high competition intensity recruitment, regeneration and growth are strongly negatively affected. The high morphological plasticity of rosette growth of B. orientalis seems to be advantageous for persistence after disturbances (Dietz et al., 1999).
B. orientalis is a ruderal species that mainly occurs in early succession phases of primary and secondary succession. Within the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological system, B. orientalis is reported as dominating or accompanying species in the following units of vegetation classification: ruderal communities (Artemisietea, Convolvulo-Agropyrion, Aegopodion podagrariae, Tanaceto-Artemisietum), tall forb nitrophilous communities (Galio-Urticetea, Calystegietalia), and grassland communities (Arrhenatherion) (Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Heinrich, 1985; Brandes, 1991; Steinlein et al., 1996; Priede and Laivinš, 2007; FloraWeb, 2009). The species often forms monodominant, dense stands with a low proportion of other ruderal and/or grassland species.
ClimateTop of page
|BS - Steppe climate||Preferred||> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Preferred||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Preferred||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
|Dw - Continental climate with dry winter||Preferred||Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-45|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||-15||25|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||10||25|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-15||5|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||2||3||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||500||3000||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page Bimodal
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Plant species belonging to the family Brassicaceae, including B. orientalis, have specific chemical defence mechanisms against herbivores and pathogens. The plants of the Brassicaceae produce glucosinolates that directly or indirectly negatively affect insect herbivores. However, in many cases the herbivores are adapted to the defence mechanisms (Gols and Harvey, 2009; Müller, 2009), therefore the herbivores that specialize on brassicaceous plants evolve adaptation to excrete or detoxify glucosinolates and use the toxic effects against their own enemies parasitoids or predators (Gols and Harvey, 2009).
The larvae of several taxa feed on Brassicaceae plants, e.g. Pieris spp. (e.g. Feltwell, 1982). Plutella xylostella is a widespread insect herbivore of European origin, nowadays occurring in North America, Australasia, and Europe, which feeds on many both cultivated and wild plant species of Brassicaceae including B. orientalis (Crafford and Chown, 1987).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
The seeds of the species are disseminated by wind and carried by water both at local and long-distance scales. If the species grows on river banks and/or alluvial grasslands in the flooded zone, the fruits can float downstream several kilometres per day, establishing stands into new areas (Jehlik and Slavik, 1968). Although the fruits and seeds are relatively large (according to Dietz et al. (1999) the mean seed mass is 7 mg), they may also be dispersed by wind, although not for long distances. Winter winds disperse the dry fruits and seeds efficiently along the snow surface (NatureGate, 2009).
The seeds may be attached to animal fur and carried over longer distances. Similarly, the seeds can be transported both short and long distances within the digestive system of animals.
Accidental introduction plays a major role in the spread of B. orientalis. Nowadays the species is distributed mainly by transport cargos, attached to vehicles and dispersed by air turbulence created by transport vehicles, thus facilitating migration of the species along transport routes (roads, railways). The seeds of the species are often carried with cargos of various crops, seeds and hay (Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Hanson and Mason, 1985), therefore, often the initial donor areas into new regions are the nearest surroundings of grain dryers, grain stores etc., thus extending the range of the species. In a similar way, the seeds of the plant may be transported with wool, fur and other animal products. As the species also spreads vegetatively by root fragments (Dietz et al., 1999), it is often dispersed with soil and debris, particularly while building or renovating the roads and railways.
The species is occasionally introduced as a fodder crop in some post-Soviet countries (Ukraine, Russia) (Karpenko et al., 1990; Sozinov and Ryabchoun, 1995; Kshnikatkina and Varlamov, 2005), which perhaps facilitates the spread and abundance of the species into new areas.
In some cases, it might be cultivated as a vegetable in gardens, although exact information of the species as a food resource is unknown.
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Crop production||Yes||Yes||Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Laivins et al., 2006|
|Digestion and excretion||Yes||Yes|
|Disturbance||Yes||Yes||Brandes, 1991; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968|
|Forage||Yes||Yes||Kshnikatkina and Varlamov, 2005|
|Garden waste disposal||Yes|
|Harvesting fur, wool or hair||Yes|
|Industrial purposes||Yes||Jehlik and Slavik, 1968|
|Interconnected waterways||Yes||Klinge, 1887a; Klinge, 1887b; Klinge, 1887c|
|Live food or feed trade||Yes||Jehlik and Slavik, 1968|
|Seed trade||Yes||Jehlik and Slavik, 1968|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Bulk freight or cargo||Yes|
|Clothing, footwear and possessions||Yes|
|Containers and packaging - non-wood||Yes|
|Containers and packaging - wood||Yes|
|Debris and waste associated with human activities||Yes|
|Mulch, straw, baskets and sod||Yes||Yes|
|Soil, sand and gravel||Yes||Yes|
|Water||Yes||Yes||Jehlik and Slavik, 1968|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Economic/livelihood||Positive and negative|
Economic ImpactTop of page
Since the nineteenth century, B. orientalis has become a widespread agricultural weed in some regions in the European part of Russia, Scandinavia and the Baltic region (Klinge, 1887a,b,c; Rasinš, 1962; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Laivins et al., 2006), some decades later followed by central and west Europe and lately North America. It occurs in crop fields, gardens and field edges, creating competitive pressure on the target species and causing seed contamination. Over the last decades it has also become a problematic weed in vineyards, being difficult to eradicate (Starfinger and Kowarik, 2003).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitat
B. orientalis can outcompete native species. Although the plant is a relatively weak competitor, it usually forms mono-dominant stands only in early succession phases after disturbances.
Direct impacts on habitat properties are not known. The rising dominance of the species might cause changes in native grassland vegetation by changing the composition of native species assemblages and environmental conditions with allelopathic interactions. Rare, threatened habitats might suffer in massively invaded grasslands (e.g. dry, thermophilous) as mentioned by Starfinger and Kowarik (2003) or floodland meadows (NOBANIS, 2006), particularly in nature protected areas.
Impact on Biodiversity
A risk of negative impacts on native plant communities resides in the frequency of pollination of B. orientalis versus native plants (Goodell, 2008). B. orientalis as an attractive nectar source considerably increases the resources for pollinator communities, thus it negatively affects native plant species by depressing visitation frequencies (Schürkens and Chittka, 2001).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Long lived
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Reproduces asexually
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Competition - strangling
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
The latest studies on the value of B. orientalis as a fodder plant have shown that the species can be successfully cultivated for this purpose (Karpenko et al., 1990; Kshnikatkina and Varlamov, 2005). The extent of the current cultivation of the species is not known.
Additionally, B. orientalis is a valuable nectar plant for bumble bees (Bombus spp.). The nectar production per flower in B. orientalis is relatively low; however, the number of flowers per plant and area is high (Schürkens and Chittka, 2001).
The leaves (sometimes also stems) of B. orientalis have been traditionally eaten raw and boiled in soups in Caucasus (Grossgeim, 1952). Similarly it was consumed in some other east European countries, e.g. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus (Luczaj and Szymanski, 2007). In central and west European cuisines it is little known as an edible plant and the uses of the species are probably known in very few regions (e.g. Bennett et al., 2006). In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the culinary traditions were partly adapted in west Europe, in France and Britain (Lawson, 1936; Duke, 1998), perhaps also in other countries, although today wide use of the plant is not known. Nowadays various parts of B. orientalis (leaves, stems, roots, shoots) are still advised as a healthy and easily available food source.
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Commercial pollinator
Human food and beverage
- Honey/honey flora
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Identification of the species is relatively simple without specific botanical knowledge. All characteristics for field identification can be seen with the naked eye. The use of simple identification keys with illustration of the species in various phenological stages may help land managers identify the species.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
B. orientalis is an easily distinguishable species. Perhaps it may be confused with some other Brassicaceae species, e.g. yellow rocket (Barbarea vulgaris) or the congener species, corn rocket (Bunias erucago) that are present in the same distribution ranges as B. orientalis. In comparison to other possibly similar species, attention should be paid to the height of the plant (B. orientalis usually reaches up to 0.5 to 1.0 m in height), shape of leaves (B. orientalis has relatively large, lanceolate, toothed, hairy leaves, not narrow or lyrate, not hairless), stem (the stem of B. orientalis is covered with warty bumps (warts), not glabrous), and the pods (B. orientalis has oval or tear-shaped (not narrow) pods with few, relatively large seeds, not many very small seeds).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
In order to control and eradicate this species, the information on the invasiveness and ability of the rapid spread of the species must be distributed, including early warning systems in still un-invaded regions neighbouring the distribution range of the species. Therefore international collaboration and databases, e.g. NOBANIS (http://www.nobanis.org) and DAISIE (http://www.daisie.org) in Europe are crucial.
The information must be available for the public in print and on the internet, and must include a simple identification key, species biology and ecology, as well as applicable management measures. The main target groups are land managers in nature protected areas, urban areas and roadsides, farmers and gardeners. The recently emerged approach of ‘black’ and ‘grey lists’ (e.g. CPS-SKEW, 2009) may help to prioritize the need for control of the particular species in a certain country or region.
Mowing and digging out are the most realistic and applicable means of control of B. orientalis. However, it must be born in mind that mowing should be done before ripening of seeds in order to prevent establishment of the species into new sites. Mowing should be regular (at least twice a year) to prevent ripening and dissemination of seeds. Such short-term management does not give any positive results, because the species expands at mown sites that do not have dense vegetation cover better than at closed, unmown sites (Woitke and Dietz, 2002). Removal of the mown herbaceous mass increases the risk of accidental introduction of the species to new sites where the hay is dumped, therefore the most appropriate way is burning of the biomass. For the same reason the mown herbaceous material cannot be composted. A proper mowing is necessary to avoid leaving flowering plants of B. orientalis for decorative or other purposes as observed in some urban areas (A Priede, Nature Protection Agency, Latvia, personal communication, 2009).
If possible, in invaded grasslands, pasturing cattle, horses or small stock can help to diminish the vitality and abundance of the invader, but due to the specific taste and smell of the plant it is poorly accepted by animals, particularly in later development phases of the plant. Mowing for fodder purposes in late spring and early summer before flowering or in the early flowering phase when the nutritional value is the highest, is advisable in order to prevent development and dispersal of seeds.
A high risk of introduction is related to soil removal in road reconstruction works and eradication of the species by digging out individual plants due to the high regenerative capacity of root fragments. Tillage may help to diminish the number of individual plants in a short-time perspective, but promotes dispersal with root fragments.
Herbicides are being evaluated in the USA. Preliminary results suggest that the plant is sensitive to glyphosate, 2,4-D and metsulfuron, but more information on the effective application of herbicides is needed (Renz and Doll, 2009).
Monitoring and Surveillance
Monitoring of the distribution dynamics of the species can be implemented from regional to local scale. Common methods include regular surveys and analysis of botanical records of various time periods. In order to carry out regular monitoring, a monitoring programme must be compiled and carried out. For some countries, recent distribution maps of B. orientalis are published, e.g. in Germany (FloraWeb, 2009), Poland (Aliens Species in Poland, 2009), and Latvia (Laivins et al., 2006), which serve as a basis for further studies of dynamics.
Nevertheless, country-scale monitoring is often difficult to implement, therefore it can be partly replaced with local-scale monitoring, e.g. in nature protected areas or certain model areas that may help to understand the major patterns, dynamics and related factors of the species distribution in the particular country in relation to applied management measures.
ReferencesTop of page
Bennett RN; Rosa EAS; Mellon FA; Kroon PA, 2006. Ontogenic profiling of glucosinolates, flavonoids, and other secondary metabolites in Eruca sativa (salad rocket), Diplotaxis erucoides (wall rocket), Diplotaxis tenuifolia (wild rocket), and Bunias orientalis (Turkish rocket). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(11):4005-4015.
Brouillet L; Coursol F; Favreau M, 2006. VASCAN. The database of Canadian vascular plants. VASCAN. The database of Canadian vascular plants. Herbier Marie-Victorin, Montréal, Canada: Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Université de Montréal, unpaginated.
CPS-SKEW, 2009. The Swiss commission for wild plant conservation CPS/SKEW. The Swiss commission for wild plant conservation CPS/SKEW. Nyon, Switzerland: ACW, unpaginated. http://www.cps-skew.ch/english/info_cps_english.htm
Dana ED; Cerrillo MI; Sanz-Elorza M; Sobrino E; Mota JF, 2001. [English title not available]. (Contribución al conocimieno de las xenófitas en España: catàlogo provisional de la flora alóctona de Almería.) Acta Botanica Malacitana, 26:264-276.
Dietz H; Steinlein T; Winterhalter P; Ullmann I, 1996. Role of allelopathy as a possible factor associated with the rising dominance of Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae) in some native plant assemblages. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 22(10):1797-1811.
FloraWeb, 2009. [English title not available]. (Daten und Informationen zu Wildpflanzen und zur Vegetation Deutschlands.) Daten und Informationen zu Wildpflanzen und zur Vegetation Deutschlands. unpaginated. http://www.floraweb.de
Heinrich W, 1985. [English title not available]. (Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung der Orientalischen Zackenschote (Bunias orientalis L.) in Thüringen. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift Friedrich-Schiller Universitat Jena.) Naturwissenschftliche Reiche, 34(4):577-583.
Lawson P, 1836. The agriculturist's manual being a familiar description of the agricultural plants cultivated in Europe, including practical observations respecting those suited to the climate of Great Britain and forming a report of Lawson's agricultural museum in Edinburgh. The agriculturist's manual being a familiar description of the agricultural plants cultivated in Europe, including practical observations respecting those suited to the climate of Great Britain and forming a report of Lawson's agricultural museum in Edinburgh. Edinburgh & London, UK: William Blackwood and Sons, 192 pp.
Luczaj L; Szymanski WM, 2007. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 3(17):(15 April 2007). http://www.ethnobiomed.com/articles/browse.asp
NOBANIS, 2009. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. Gateway to information on Invasive Alien species in North and Central Europe. http://www.nobanis.org/default.asp
Renz MJ; Doll JD, 2009. Hill mustard, an invasive mustard on the move in Southwestern Wisconsin. Hill mustard, an invasive mustard on the move in Southwestern Wisconsin. Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin-Extension, unpaginated. http://dnr.wi.gov/invasives/fact/pdfs/hill_mustard.pdf
Saarinen K, 2000. Russian polemochores and other immigrants along an old railway in Lappeenranta, South-East Finland. (Lappeenrannan vanhan rautatien venäläiskasveja ja muita tulokkaita.) Lutukka, 16(4):99-105.
Schürkens S; Chittka L, 2001. The significance of the invasive crucifer species Bunias orientalis (Brassicaceae) as a nectar source for central European insects. (Zur Bedeutung der invasiven Kreuzblütler-Art Bunias orientalis (Brassicaceae) als Nektarquelle für mitteleuropäische Insekten.) Entomologia Generalis, 25(2):115-120.
Sozinov AA; Ryabchoun VK, 1995. Ukraine: country report to the FAO international technical conference on plant genetic resource (Leipzig, 1996). Ukraine: country report to the FAO international technical conference on plant genetic resource (Leipzig, 1996). Rome, Italy: FAO, unpaginated. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/agps/PGRFA/pdf/ukraine.pdf
Steinlein T; Dietz H; Ullmann I, 1996. Growth patterns of the alien perennial Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae) underlying its rising dominance in some native plant assemblages. Vegetatio, 125(1):73-82.
Tela Botanica, 2009. [English title not available]. (Bunias orientalis L., Roquette d'Oriental.) . unpaginated. [Tela Botanica: base de Données Nomenclaturale de la Flore de France par Benoît Bock, BDNFF v4.02.] http://www.tela-botanica.org/eflore/BDNFF/4.02/nn/11457/export/pdf
USDA-ARS, 2008. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
ContributorsTop of page
30/10/09 Original text by:
Agnese Priede, University of Latvia, Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences, Alberta 10, Riga, LV-1006, Latvia
Distribution MapsTop of page
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