Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Bunias orientalis
(Turkish warty-cabbage)

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Datasheet

Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bunias orientalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Turkish warty-cabbage
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • B. orientalis possess traits characteristic of invasive species: (1) rapid spread into new areas; (2) increasing abundance in invaded sites; regeneration in both a vegetative and generative manner - produces many...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
The appearance of the whole stem often gives a roundish shape. The stem is branched from the ground or at the top, glandular or hairy.
TitleTypical growth habit
CaptionThe appearance of the whole stem often gives a roundish shape. The stem is branched from the ground or at the top, glandular or hairy.
CopyrightAgnese Priede
The appearance of the whole stem often gives a roundish shape. The stem is branched from the ground or at the top, glandular or hairy.
Typical growth habitThe appearance of the whole stem often gives a roundish shape. The stem is branched from the ground or at the top, glandular or hairy.Agnese Priede
Common habitat of Bunias orientalis; disturbed roadside habitat at field edges.
TitleTypical habitat
CaptionCommon habitat of Bunias orientalis; disturbed roadside habitat at field edges.
CopyrightAgnese Priede
Common habitat of Bunias orientalis; disturbed roadside habitat at field edges.
Typical habitatCommon habitat of Bunias orientalis; disturbed roadside habitat at field edges.Agnese Priede
The flower and above part of stem with fruiting pedicels. A conspicuous identification feature is the warty bumps on the stem, which can easily be seen with the naked eye.
TitleFlowers
CaptionThe flower and above part of stem with fruiting pedicels. A conspicuous identification feature is the warty bumps on the stem, which can easily be seen with the naked eye.
CopyrightAgnese Priede
The flower and above part of stem with fruiting pedicels. A conspicuous identification feature is the warty bumps on the stem, which can easily be seen with the naked eye.
FlowersThe flower and above part of stem with fruiting pedicels. A conspicuous identification feature is the warty bumps on the stem, which can easily be seen with the naked eye.Agnese Priede
The flower and upper part of stem with fruiting pedicels. A conspicuous feature for identification is the warty bumps on the stem, which can be seen with the naked eye.
TitleFlowers and stem
CaptionThe flower and upper part of stem with fruiting pedicels. A conspicuous feature for identification is the warty bumps on the stem, which can be seen with the naked eye.
CopyrightAgnese Priede
The flower and upper part of stem with fruiting pedicels. A conspicuous feature for identification is the warty bumps on the stem, which can be seen with the naked eye.
Flowers and stemThe flower and upper part of stem with fruiting pedicels. A conspicuous feature for identification is the warty bumps on the stem, which can be seen with the naked eye.Agnese Priede
Inflorescence; the flower is formed by four yellow petals.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionInflorescence; the flower is formed by four yellow petals.
CopyrightAgnese Priede
Inflorescence; the flower is formed by four yellow petals.
InflorescenceInflorescence; the flower is formed by four yellow petals.Agnese Priede
Close-up of single floret; the inflorescence. Flowers are formed by four yellow petals.
TitleClose-up of floret
CaptionClose-up of single floret; the inflorescence. Flowers are formed by four yellow petals.
CopyrightAgnese Priede
Close-up of single floret; the inflorescence. Flowers are formed by four yellow petals.
Close-up of floretClose-up of single floret; the inflorescence. Flowers are formed by four yellow petals.Agnese Priede
The fruit; an oval pod with warts.
TitleFruits
CaptionThe fruit; an oval pod with warts.
CopyrightAgnese Priede
The fruit; an oval pod with warts.
FruitsThe fruit; an oval pod with warts.Agnese Priede

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bunias orientalis L. 1753

Preferred Common Name

  • Turkish warty-cabbage

Other Scientific Names

  • Bunias perennis Moench
  • Bunias verrucosa Moench
  • Laelia orientalis (L.) Desv.
  • Laelia orientalis Rchb. 2006
  • Myagrum taraxacifolium Lam.
  • Rapistrum glandulosum Bergeret

International Common Names

  • English: hill mustard; Turkish rocket; warty cabbage
  • Spanish: bunia oriental
  • French: bunias d'Orient; roquette d'Oriental
  • Russian: sverbiga vostochnaya
  • Chinese: you guo chi ji

Local Common Names

  • Czech Republic: rukevník východný
  • Denmark: takkeklap
  • Estonia: harilik tõlkjas; rakvere raibe
  • Finland: idänukonpalko; ukonpalko
  • Germany: Morganländisches Zackenschötchen; Orientalisches Zackenschötchen
  • Italy: cascellore orientale
  • Latvia: austrumu dizperkone
  • Lithuania: rytine engra
  • Netherlands: grote hardvrucht
  • Norway: russekål
  • Poland: rukiewnik wschodny
  • Slovakia: roripovník východný
  • Sweden: ryssgubbe

Summary of Invasiveness

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B. orientalis possess traits characteristic of invasive species: (1) rapid spread into new areas; (2) increasing abundance in invaded sites; regeneration in both a vegetative and generative manner - produces many seeds and forms a large, persistent seed bank; (3) phenotypic plasticity; (4) the species is associated with anthropogenically-disturbed habitats, and the spread is tightly related to human mediation. The species was considered as already invasive in the nineteenth century in east Europe (Klinge, 1887a,b,c). In North America, the species was first included in the Canadian weed list in 1944 just after arrival in the continent (Anon., 1945).

Currently the species is not listed as a regulated pest by international organizations; however, it is on the “black” and “grey” alien invasive species lists in several countries, e.g. Estonia (NOBANIS, 2006) and Switzerland (CPS-SKEW, 2009).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Brassicaceae
  •                             Genus: Bunias
  •                                 Species: Bunias orientalis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Three species belong to the genus Bunias: Bunias orientalis, Bunias erucago and Bunias cochlearioides, all originating in Eurasia. Several synonyms of B. orientalis have been used in the literature, e.g. Myagrum taraxacifolium, Rapistrum glandulosum, Laelia orientalis, Bunias verrucosa and Bunias perennis; however, nowadays they are no longer used.

Description

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B. orientalis is a semi-rosette biennial or perennial hemicryptophyte, 25(40) to 100(150) cm tall. The stems are sparsely pilose with simple, stalked, forked trichomes. The stem is covered with multicellular glandular tubercles present throughout except for the flowers, and these can be seen with the naked eye. The stems are usually branched above or rarely basally. The diameter of the leaf rosette reaches up to 100 cm. The lower leaves are up to 15 (20) cm long, lanceolate or with three-cornered edges or sharp-edged; the upper leaves are entire to pinnatifid and always smaller than the lower leaves. The petals are 4-8 mm long, yellow, entire or truncate. The fruit is asymmetrically ovoid and covered with small, irregular protuberances with one or two subglobose, plump, 2.0-2.5 mm diameter seeds per fruit. A detailed description is available from Flora of China (2009).

Plant Type

Top of page Biennial
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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The region of origin of B. orientalis is hardly distinguishable. In the literature, divergent opinions on the origin of B. orientalis may be found. Several authors mention that most probably B. orientalis is native to the Armenian highlands (Meusel et al., 1965; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Brandes, 1991). Nevertheless, others draw a much wider original distribution range including the Caucasus, south and central Russia, west Siberia and southeast Europe up to the southern borders of contemporary Slovakia and east Hungary (Klinge, 1887a,b,c; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Starfinger and Kowarik, 2003). In some literature sources from the nineteenth century, the authors mention the rather obscure region Levant or the Orient as the native range of B. orientalis (e.g. Lawson, 1836; Klinge, 1887a,b,c). Possibly, the primary geographic range was the Armenian highlands in the southern Caucasus, from where the species has spread over the neighbouring regions already in the eighteenth century or earlier, promoted by military actions during the Russo-Persian wars (Klinge, 1887a,b,c; Lehmann, 1895). The primary distribution range may also have included parts of west Asia (east Anatolia), contemporary Azerbaijan and northwest Iran. In its native range, B. orientalis is found in grasslands both in alpine and sub-alpine situations (Grossgeim, 1952; Laivins et al., 2006).

Nowadays, the exotic distribution range of the species covers temperate regions: most of Europe, except the very Mediterranean regions and Iceland (Hultén and Fries, 1986; DAISIE, 2009), west Asia, west Siberia, scattered localities in the Russian Far East (Hultén and Fries, 1986), and recently it began to spread in northeast China (Flora of China, 2009). The species is also present in North America in several states in the east and northeast USA, and east and west Canada (Hultén and Fries, 1986; USDA-NRCS, 2008).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentNativeKlinge, 1887a; Klinge, 1887b; Klinge, 1887c; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; GBIF, 2009
ChinaPresentIntroduced Invasive ITIS, 2008; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2009
-HeilongjiangPresentIntroducedITIS, 2008
-LiaoningPresentIntroducedITIS, 2008
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeGBIF, 2009
IranPresentNativeRechinger, 1968; Hultén and Fries, 1986Native in northwest Iran
IraqPresentNativeTownsend and Guest, 1980; Hultén and Fries, 1986Native in north Iraq
KazakhstanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2009
MongoliaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2009
TurkeyPresentNativeDavis, 1988; Kandemir and Türkmen, 2008; GBIF, 2009

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced1944Darbyshire, 2003; Brouillet et al., 2006; USDA-ARS, 2008First recorded in Grand Manan Island
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedDarbyshire, 2003; Brouillet et al., 2006; USDA-ARS, 2008
-New BrunswickLocalisedIntroduced1944Anon., 1945; Darbyshire, 2003; Brouillet et al., 2006; USDA-ARS, 2008
-Nova ScotiaLocalisedIntroducedDarbyshire, 2003; Brouillet et al., 2006; USDA-ARS, 2008
-QuebecLocalisedIntroducedDarbyshire, 2003; Brouillet et al., 2006; USDA-ARS, 2008
USAPresentIntroduced1950sHultén and Fries, 1986; Doll, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2008
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2008
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2008
-MichiganPresentIntroducedDoll, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2008
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2008
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2008
-OhioPresentIntroducedDoll, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2008
-VermontPresentHultén and Fries, 1986; USDA-ARS, 2008
-VirginiaPresentDoll, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2008
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced1958 Invasive Doll, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2008

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Essl and Rabitsch, 2002; GBIF, 2009; NOBANIS, 2009
BelarusPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2009; Flora Italiana, 2009
BelgiumPresentIntroducedFitter and Peat, 1994
BulgariaPresentIntroducedTutin, 1993; Fitter and Peat, 1994; Ancev, 2007
Czech RepublicWidespreadIntroduced1856 Invasive Pysek et al., 2002
Czechoslovakia (former)WidespreadIntroduced1856Jehlik and Slavik, 1968
DenmarkPresentIntroduced1790 Not invasive Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; NOBANIS, 2009
EstoniaWidespreadIntroduced1796 Invasive Kull et al., 2005
FinlandPresentIntroducedlate 1800s Invasive Räsänen, 1995; Saarinen, 2000; NOBANIS, 2009
FranceWidespreadIntroduced1814 Invasive Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Tela Botanica, 2009
GermanyWidespreadIntroduced1810 Invasive Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Starfinger and Kowarik, 2003; NOBANIS, 2009
HungaryPresentTutin, 1993; Fitter and Peat, 1994According to different literature sources, it is not clear whether the species is native or introduced in Hungary
IrelandPresentIntroduced1893Clapham et al., 1962; Reynolds, 2002
ItalyPresentIntroducedFlora Italiana, 2009North Italy
LatviaWidespreadIntroduced1803 Invasive Laivins et al., 2006
LithuaniaWidespreadIntroduced1885 Invasive Gudzinskas, 1997
LuxembourgPresentIntroducedFitter and Peat, 1994
MacedoniaPresentFlora Italiana, 2009
MoldovaPresentIntroducedFlora Italiana, 2009
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedClapham et al., 1962; Fitter and Peat, 1994
NorwayWidespreadIntroduced1800 or 1812 Invasive Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Fremstad and Elven, 1997; NOBANIS, 2009
PolandWidespreadIntroduced1881 Invasive INS-PAS, 2009; NOBANIS, 2009
RomaniaPresentIntroducedTutin, 1993; Fitter and Peat, 1994
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaWidespread Invasive Klinge, 1887a; Klinge, 1887b; Klinge, 1887c; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Laivins et al., 2006
-Eastern SiberiaPresentIntroducedHultén and Fries, 1986
-Northern RussiaWidespreadIntroduced1790 Invasive Klinge, 1887a; Klinge, 1887b; Klinge, 1887c
-Russian Far EastPresentIntroducedHultén and Fries, 1986
-Southern RussiaWidespread Invasive Klinge, 1887a; Klinge, 1887b; Klinge, 1887c; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Laivins et al., 2006
-Western SiberiaWidespread Invasive Klinge, 1887a; Klinge, 1887b; Klinge, 1887c; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Laivins et al., 2006
SlovakiaPresentTavoda, 2000; GBIF, 2009According to different literature sources, it is not clear whether the species is native or introduced in Slovakia
SpainPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Dana et al., 2001
SwedenWidespreadIntroduced1760 Invasive Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; NOBANIS, 2009
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced Invasive Fitter and Peat, 1994; NOBANIS, 2009Common in some parts of the country; listed in invasive species watch list
UKPresentIntroduced1880 Invasive Clapham et al., 1962; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; GBIF, 2009
UkrainePresentIntroduced Invasive Mosyakin and Yavorska, 2002; Flora Italiana, 2009
Yugoslavia (former)PresentIntroducedTutin, 1993
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentIntroducedTutin, 1993

History of Introduction and Spread

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Since the eighteenth century, the range of B. orientalis has expanded due to both natural and human-mediated reasons; however, the anthropogenic factors remarkably predominate. B. orientalis first spread into the neighbouring regions of Caucasus, which might have happened at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Klinge (1887a,b,c), Lehmann (1895) and some other east European researchers mentioned that the probable reason of the rapid spread of the species was accidentally caused by transportation of hay and animals during the military actions of Russo-Persian wars at the beginning and/or middle of the eighteenth century. An important step for further spread was the development of sea and inland shipping, construction of water canals, and the development of railway transport in the Russian Empire and neighbouring countries in the nineteenth century, which greatly fostered the spread of this accidentally introduced species in Europe (Klinge, 1887a,b,c). By the second half of the nineteenth century it was recognized as a rapidly spreading, invasive species (Klinge, 1887a,b,c; Lehmann, 1895).

In Central Europe, B. orientalis arrived in the second half of the nineteenth century, most probably it was accidentally introduced with imported crops from Russia (Jehlik and Slavik, 1968) by railway and vessel carriage. In some west European countries, where the species arrived in the eighteenth or nineteenth century (e.g. in 1731 in the British Isles, in 1814 in France) the plant was cultivated as a vegetable and forage plant (Hedrick, 1919; Duke, 1998). Lawson (1836) mentioned that some French agriculturists recommended B. orientalis as a herbage and forage plant for field cultures, but it is not known whether the plant had ever been widely cultivated for this reason. Nevertheless, the intentional introductions and experiments with cultivation may have been a reason for the spread of B. orientalis in the British Isles and France.

At the end of the twentieth century, in the Soviet countries of Russia and Ukraine, the hitherto “useless” plant was experimentally cultivated as a valuable fodder plant (Karpenko et al., 1990; Sozinov and Ryabchoun, 1995; Kshnikatkina and Varlamov, 2005) that might have facilitated further invasion of the species into new areas.

 

In North America, the species first appeared in the 1940s and 1950s (the first records in 1944 in Grand Manan Island in Canada, and 1958 in Wisconsin in the USA) (Doll, 2005). By 2008, the exotic distribution range in North America covered several states on the east coast and the Great Lakes region in the USA, and Quebec, Nova Scotia and British Columbia in Canada (USDA-NRCS, 2008).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Canada 1944 Crop production (pathway cause) Yes Anon. (1945); Brouillet et al. (2006); USDA-ARS (2008) Accidental
Central Russia Early 1700s Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Klinge (1887a); Klinge (1887b); Klinge (1887c); Laivins et al. (2006) Accidental
China Early 2000s Crop production (pathway cause) Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2009) Accidental, possibly from Russia
Czech Republic Eastern Europe 1856 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) ,
Seed trade (pathway cause)
Yes Jehlik and Slavik (1968) Accidental, seed contamination
Denmark Eastern Europe 1790 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Jehlik and Slavik (1968) Accidental
Estonia Russian Federation 1796 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Kuusk et al. (1993); Ööpik et al. (2008) Accidental
Finland Russian Federation late 1800s Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Räsänen (1995); Saarinen (2000) Accidental
France 1814 Crop production (pathway cause) Yes Jehlik and Slavik (1968) Deliberate/Accidental
Germany 1810 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Jehlik and Slavik (1968) Accidental, possibly from Russia
Ireland 1893 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Reynolds (2002) Accidental
Latvia Russian Federation 1803 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Grindel (1803); Laivins et al. (2006) Accidental
Lithuania 1885 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Gudzinskas (1997) Accidental, possibly from Russia
Northern Russia Early 1700s Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Klinge (1887a); Klinge (1887b); Klinge (1887c) Accidental
Norway Eastern Europe 1800/1812 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Fremstad and Elven (1997); Jehlik and Slavik (1968) Accidental
Russian Federation Early 1700s Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Accidental
Southern Russia Early 1700s Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Klinge (1887a); Klinge (1887b); Klinge (1887c); Laivins et al. (2006) Accidental
Sweden Eastern Europe 1760 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Jehlik and Slavik (1968) Accidental
UK 1731 Crop production (pathway cause) Yes Jehlik and Slavik (1968) Deliberate/Accidental
USA 1950s Crop production (pathway cause) Yes Doll (2005) Accidental
Western Siberia Early 1700s Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Klinge (1887a); Klinge (1887b); Klinge (1887c); Laivins et al. (2006) Accidental

Risk of Introduction

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Typically B. orientalis occurs in urban areas, along roads and railways, grasslands, and in farmlands which, in many cases, are habitats highly susceptible to invasions and simultaneously pathways of further invasion. The risks of introduction are related to numerous factors: (1) accidental transportation with vehicles (roads, railways); (2) transportation with cargo (both terrestrial and marine transport); (3) transportation of contaminated seed material, hay, sods, seeds of various crops and garden plants, bird seeds etc.; (4) road construction and transportation of soil containing seeds and root fragments of B. orientalis; (5) transportation of domestic animals, seeds may be attached to wild animals and birds; (6) seeds may be transported by water in streams; (7) intentional introductions – B. orientalis cultivated as a crop or vegetable; (8) lack of grassland management both in urban and rural areas, and “selective management” of urban lawns leaving the “good-looking” invasive plants uncut.

Habitat

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B. orientalis predominantly invades disturbed habitats. In the earlier phases of expansion the species was probably more often found on alkaline soils in limestone regions (Klinge, 1887a,b,c; Brandes, 1991; Dietz et al., 1999). However, a strong relation to chalky soil types is not proven because the species, in many cases, grows in almost any type of dry to mesic soils including artificial substrates such as rubbish and ruins. Common habitats of B. orientalis are roadsides and adjacent grasslands, fallow lands, pastures, railway verges, weedy sites in urban areas, in yards, dump sites and industrial areas (Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Brandes, 1991; Darbyshire, 2003; Laivins et al., 2006). Jehlik and Slavik (1968) mention that a large proportion of the localities in the former Czechoslovakia were found in river valleys, particularly in flood land meadows. In north Europe and the European part of Russia, the species is known as a common farmland invader (Jehlik and Slavik, 1968). In central Europe, it also invades dry thermophilous grasslands and vineyards (Starfinger and Kowarik, 2003).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Dietz et al. (1996) found allelopathic effects when analysing soils from densely-invaded sites, but the impacts of root exudates, leaves and leaf litter leachates on seedling growth were rather weak and varied between species. The allelopathic effect may potentially increase the dominance of B. orientalis, promoting formation of dense stands, although this is not the only factor that explains the rapid expansion of the species.

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The genome haploid size (1C-value) so far known for B. orientalis is 1C = 2.43 pg, chromosome number 2n = 14 (Gupta, 2009).

No data are available on the hybridization of B. orientalis with the congener or other brassicaceous species.

Reproductive Biology

B. orientalis flowers from May to August. The seeds ripen from July to September. The flowers are hermaphroditic and are pollinated by bees and flies. The plant is self-fertile (Clapham et al., 1962). One plant produces 5000 seeds on average (Rasinš, 1962; Pogodins and Tomsons, 1970) forming a large, long viable seed bank in soil. According to Dietz et al. (1999) the amount of seeds can reach up to 150,000 seeds per m2 of soil. The germination rates are high and the juvenile mortality is low (Dietz et al., 1999).

The plants of B. orientalis are biennial or perennial. In the latter case, they can reach an age of more than 10 years (Dietz and Ullmann, 1998).

B. orientalis can also regenerate from root fragments (Dietz et al., 1999).

Physiology and Phenology

An experimental study by Dietz and Ullmann (1997) showed that B. orientalis has a two-phased rosette growth behaviour with a first peak cover in spring and a second in autumn. The seasonally bimodal growth partly compensates the competitive pressure by other herbaceous species during the vegetation season. The significance of temporal niche separation for survival and growth of B. orientalis individuals varies with habitat conditions, being most apparent in occasionally disturbed habitats with a relatively low frequency of gap formation (Dietz and Ullmann, 1997).

Plants of B. orientalis that experience low competition intensity attain high above-ground performance and reproductive output as well as reproductive success, whereas those under high competition intensity recruitment, regeneration and growth are strongly negatively affected. The high morphological plasticity of rosette growth of B. orientalis seems to be advantageous for persistence after disturbances (Dietz et al., 1999).

Associations

B. orientalis is a ruderal species that mainly occurs in early succession phases of primary and secondary succession. Within the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological system, B. orientalis is reported as dominating or accompanying species in the following units of vegetation classification: ruderal communities (Artemisietea, Convolvulo-Agropyrion, Aegopodion podagrariae, Tanaceto-Artemisietum), tall forb nitrophilous communities (Galio-Urticetea, Calystegietalia), and grassland communities (Arrhenatherion) (Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Heinrich, 1985; Brandes, 1991; Steinlein et al., 1996; Priede and Laivinš, 2007; FloraWeb, 2009). The species often forms monodominant, dense stands with a low proportion of other ruderal and/or grassland species.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
65 37

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -45
Mean annual temperature (ºC) -15 25
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 10 25
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -15 5

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration23number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5003000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pieris Herbivore to genus Feltwell, 1982
Plutella xylostella Herbivore to genus Crafford and Chown, 1987

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Plant species belonging to the family Brassicaceae, including B. orientalis, have specific chemical defence mechanisms against herbivores and pathogens. The plants of the Brassicaceae produce glucosinolates that directly or indirectly negatively affect insect herbivores. However, in many cases the herbivores are adapted to the defence mechanisms (Gols and Harvey, 2009; Müller, 2009), therefore the herbivores that specialize on brassicaceous plants evolve adaptation to excrete or detoxify glucosinolates and use the toxic effects against their own enemies parasitoids or predators (Gols and Harvey, 2009).

The larvae of several taxa feed on Brassicaceae plants, e.g. Pieris spp. (e.g. Feltwell, 1982). Plutella xylostella is a widespread insect herbivore of European origin, nowadays occurring in North America, Australasia, and Europe, which feeds on many both cultivated and wild plant species of Brassicaceae including B. orientalis (Crafford and Chown, 1987).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The seeds of the species are disseminated by wind and carried by water both at local and long-distance scales. If the species grows on river banks and/or alluvial grasslands in the flooded zone, the fruits can float downstream several kilometres per day, establishing stands into new areas (Jehlik and Slavik, 1968). Although the fruits and seeds are relatively large (according to Dietz et al. (1999) the mean seed mass is 7 mg), they may also be dispersed by wind, although not for long distances. Winter winds disperse the dry fruits and seeds efficiently along the snow surface (NatureGate, 2009).

Vector Transmission

The seeds may be attached to animal fur and carried over longer distances. Similarly, the seeds can be transported both short and long distances within the digestive system of animals.

Accidental Introduction

Accidental introduction plays a major role in the spread of B. orientalis. Nowadays the species is distributed mainly by transport cargos, attached to vehicles and dispersed by air turbulence created by transport vehicles, thus facilitating migration of the species along transport routes (roads, railways). The seeds of the species are often carried with cargos of various crops, seeds and hay (Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Hanson and Mason, 1985), therefore, often the initial donor areas into new regions are the nearest surroundings of grain dryers, grain stores etc., thus extending the range of the species. In a similar way, the seeds of the plant may be transported with wool, fur and other animal products. As the species also spreads vegetatively by root fragments (Dietz et al., 1999), it is often dispersed with soil and debris, particularly while building or renovating the roads and railways.

Intentional Introduction

The species is occasionally introduced as a fodder crop in some post-Soviet countries (Ukraine, Russia) (Karpenko et al., 1990; Sozinov and Ryabchoun, 1995; Kshnikatkina and Varlamov, 2005), which perhaps facilitates the spread and abundance of the species into new areas. 

In some cases, it might be cultivated as a vegetable in gardens, although exact information of the species as a food resource is unknown.

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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Since the nineteenth century, B. orientalis has become a widespread agricultural weed in some regions in the European part of Russia, Scandinavia and the Baltic region (Klinge, 1887a,b,c; Rasinš, 1962; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968; Laivins et al., 2006), some decades later followed by central and west Europe and lately North America. It occurs in crop fields, gardens and field edges, creating competitive pressure on the target species and causing seed contamination. Over the last decades it has also become a problematic weed in vineyards, being difficult to eradicate (Starfinger and Kowarik, 2003).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitat

B. orientalis can outcompete native species. Although the plant is a relatively weak competitor, it usually forms mono-dominant stands only in early succession phases after disturbances.

Direct impacts on habitat properties are not known. The rising dominance of the species might cause changes in native grassland vegetation by changing the composition of native species assemblages and environmental conditions with allelopathic interactions. Rare, threatened habitats might suffer in massively invaded grasslands (e.g. dry, thermophilous) as mentioned by Starfinger and Kowarik (2003) or floodland meadows (NOBANIS, 2006), particularly in nature protected areas.

Impact on Biodiversity

A risk of negative impacts on native plant communities resides in the frequency of pollination of B. orientalis versus native plants (Goodell, 2008). B. orientalis as an attractive nectar source considerably increases the resources for pollinator communities, thus it negatively affects native plant species by depressing visitation frequencies (Schürkens and Chittka, 2001).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

The latest studies on the value of B. orientalis as a fodder plant have shown that the species can be successfully cultivated for this purpose (Karpenko et al., 1990; Kshnikatkina and Varlamov, 2005). The extent of the current cultivation of the species is not known.

Additionally, B. orientalis is a valuable nectar plant for bumble bees (Bombus spp.). The nectar production per flower in B. orientalis is relatively low; however, the number of flowers per plant and area is high (Schürkens and Chittka, 2001).

Social Benefit

The leaves (sometimes also stems) of B. orientalis have been traditionally eaten raw and boiled in soups in Caucasus (Grossgeim, 1952). Similarly it was consumed in some other east European countries, e.g. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus (Luczaj and Szymanski, 2007). In central and west European cuisines it is little known as an edible plant and the uses of the species are probably known in very few regions (e.g. Bennett et al., 2006). In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the culinary traditions were partly adapted in west Europe, in France and Britain (Lawson, 1936; Duke, 1998), perhaps also in other countries, although today wide use of the plant is not known. Nowadays various parts of B. orientalis (leaves, stems, roots, shoots) are still advised as a healthy and easily available food source.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Commercial pollinator

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora
  • Vegetable

Detection and Inspection

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Identification of the species is relatively simple without specific botanical knowledge. All characteristics for field identification can be seen with the naked eye. The use of simple identification keys with illustration of the species in various phenological stages may help land managers identify the species.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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B. orientalis is an easily distinguishable species. Perhaps it may be confused with some other Brassicaceae species, e.g. yellow rocket (Barbarea vulgaris) or the congener species, corn rocket (Bunias erucago) that are present in the same distribution ranges as B. orientalis. In comparison to other possibly similar species, attention should be paid to the height of the plant (B. orientalis usually reaches up to 0.5 to 1.0 m in height), shape of leaves (B. orientalis has relatively large, lanceolate, toothed, hairy leaves, not narrow or lyrate, not hairless), stem (the stem of B. orientalis is covered with warty bumps (warts), not glabrous), and the pods (B. orientalis has oval or tear-shaped (not narrow) pods with few, relatively large seeds, not many very small seeds).

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

In order to control and eradicate this species, the information on the invasiveness and ability of the rapid spread of the species must be distributed, including early warning systems in still un-invaded regions neighbouring the distribution range of the species. Therefore international collaboration and databases, e.g. NOBANIS (http://www.nobanis.org) and DAISIE (http://www.daisie.org) in Europe are crucial.

The information must be available for the public in print and on the internet, and must include a simple identification key, species biology and ecology, as well as applicable management measures. The main target groups are land managers in nature protected areas, urban areas and roadsides, farmers and gardeners. The recently emerged approach of ‘black’ and ‘grey lists’ (e.g. CPS-SKEW, 2009) may help to prioritize the need for control of the particular species in a certain country or region.

Control

Physical/mechanical control

Mowing and digging out are the most realistic and applicable means of control of B. orientalis. However, it must be born in mind that mowing should be done before ripening of seeds in order to prevent establishment of the species into new sites. Mowing should be regular (at least twice a year) to prevent ripening and dissemination of seeds. Such short-term management does not give any positive results, because the species expands at mown sites that do not have dense vegetation cover better than at closed, unmown sites (Woitke and Dietz, 2002). Removal of the mown herbaceous mass increases the risk of accidental introduction of the species to new sites where the hay is dumped, therefore the most appropriate way is burning of the biomass. For the same reason the mown herbaceous material cannot be composted. A proper mowing is necessary to avoid leaving flowering plants of B. orientalis for decorative or other purposes as observed in some urban areas (A Priede, Nature Protection Agency, Latvia, personal communication, 2009).

If possible, in invaded grasslands, pasturing cattle, horses or small stock can help to diminish the vitality and abundance of the invader, but due to the specific taste and smell of the plant it is poorly accepted by animals, particularly in later development phases of the plant. Mowing for fodder purposes in late spring and early summer before flowering or in the early flowering phase when the nutritional value is the highest, is advisable in order to prevent development and dispersal of seeds.

A high risk of introduction is related to soil removal in road reconstruction works and eradication of the species by digging out individual plants due to the high regenerative capacity of root fragments. Tillage may help to diminish the number of individual plants in a short-time perspective, but promotes dispersal with root fragments.

Chemical control

Herbicides are being evaluated in the USA. Preliminary results suggest that the plant is sensitive to glyphosate, 2,4-D and metsulfuron, but more information on the effective application of herbicides is needed (Renz and Doll, 2009).

Monitoring and Surveillance

Monitoring of the distribution dynamics of the species can be implemented from regional to local scale. Common methods include regular surveys and analysis of botanical records of various time periods. In order to carry out regular monitoring, a monitoring programme must be compiled and carried out. For some countries, recent distribution maps of B. orientalis are published, e.g. in Germany (FloraWeb, 2009), Poland (Aliens Species in Poland, 2009), and Latvia (Laivins et al., 2006), which serve as a basis for further studies of dynamics.

Nevertheless, country-scale monitoring is often difficult to implement, therefore it can be partly replaced with local-scale monitoring, e.g. in nature protected areas or certain model areas that may help to understand the major patterns, dynamics and related factors of the species distribution in the particular country in relation to applied management measures.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Bunias orientalis factsheet, University of Wisconsinhttp://ipcm.wisc.edu/Portals/0/Blog/Files/17/280/Hill%20Mustard%20Fact%20Sheet%20MR.pdf
Flora Italianahttp:/luirig.altervista.org/
Linnean Herbariumhttp://linnaeus.nrm.se/
Neoflorahttp://www.floraweb.de/neoflora/
United States Department of Agriculture - PLANTS databasehttp://plants.usda.gov/
Vascular Plants of Poland, Photoflorahttp://www.atlas-roslin.pl/gatunki/Bunias_orientalis.htm

Contributors

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30/10/09 Original text by:

Agnese Priede, University of Latvia, Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences, Alberta 10, Riga, LV-1006, Latvia

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