Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Phenacoccus solenopsis
(cotton mealybug)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phenacoccus solenopsis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cotton mealybug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Phenacoccus solenopsis is a mealybug native to North America that is now widespread. It has the ability to multiply rapidly, but is inefficient at dispersal unless assisted by wind, animals or machinery passing through the crop. When its...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Adult female on microscope slide.
TitleAdult female
CaptionPhenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Adult female on microscope slide.
Copyright©PaDIL/Chamaiporn Buamas Department of Agriculture, Thailand - CC BY 3.0 AU
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Adult female on microscope slide.
Adult femalePhenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Adult female on microscope slide.©PaDIL/Chamaiporn Buamas Department of Agriculture, Thailand - CC BY 3.0 AU
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Live adult female on seepweed (Suaeda sp.) has pale yellow body contents; dorsum with 2 dark bars formed of submarginal grey spots on intersegmental areas of thorax and abdomen; with 18 pairs of lateral wax filaments. Brawley, California, USA. April, 1985.
TitleAdult
CaptionPhenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Live adult female on seepweed (Suaeda sp.) has pale yellow body contents; dorsum with 2 dark bars formed of submarginal grey spots on intersegmental areas of thorax and abdomen; with 18 pairs of lateral wax filaments. Brawley, California, USA. April, 1985.
Copyright©United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs/USDA-ARS/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Live adult female on seepweed (Suaeda sp.) has pale yellow body contents; dorsum with 2 dark bars formed of submarginal grey spots on intersegmental areas of thorax and abdomen; with 18 pairs of lateral wax filaments. Brawley, California, USA. April, 1985.
AdultPhenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Live adult female on seepweed (Suaeda sp.) has pale yellow body contents; dorsum with 2 dark bars formed of submarginal grey spots on intersegmental areas of thorax and abdomen; with 18 pairs of lateral wax filaments. Brawley, California, USA. April, 1985.©United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs/USDA-ARS/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Adult female on microscope slide, antennae each 9 (rarely 8) segmented. Cerrarii numbering 18 pairs, each cerarius with 2 lanceolate spinose setae. Hind leg with translucent pores on femur and tibia.
TitleAntenna
CaptionPhenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Adult female on microscope slide, antennae each 9 (rarely 8) segmented. Cerrarii numbering 18 pairs, each cerarius with 2 lanceolate spinose setae. Hind leg with translucent pores on femur and tibia.
Copyright©PaDIL/Chamaiporn Buamas Department of Agriculture, Thailand - CC BY 3.0 AU
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Adult female on microscope slide, antennae each 9 (rarely 8) segmented. Cerrarii numbering 18 pairs, each cerarius with 2 lanceolate spinose setae. Hind leg with translucent pores on femur and tibia.
AntennaPhenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug); Adult female on microscope slide, antennae each 9 (rarely 8) segmented. Cerrarii numbering 18 pairs, each cerarius with 2 lanceolate spinose setae. Hind leg with translucent pores on femur and tibia.©PaDIL/Chamaiporn Buamas Department of Agriculture, Thailand - CC BY 3.0 AU

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, 1898

Preferred Common Name

  • cotton mealybug

Other Scientific Names

  • Phenacoccus cevalliae Cockerell, 1902
  • Phenacoccus gossypiphilous Abbas et al., 2005; 2007; 2008

International Common Names

  • English: Solenopsis mealybug

Local Common Names

  • Spanish: chanchito blanco del suelo
  • Chile: soil mealybug
  • France: cochenille du coton
  • India: cotton mealy bug
  • Pakistan: cotton mealy bug
  • USA: Chinese hibiscus mealybug

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Phenacoccus solenopsis is a mealybug native to North America that is now widespread. It has the ability to multiply rapidly, but is inefficient at dispersal unless assisted by wind, animals or machinery passing through the crop. When its dispersal is assisted, it can spread to vast areas where its host plants occur, in a relatively short period of time. The species is polyphagous and has been reported from host-plants in over 200 genera belonging to 64 families. After its original description from Boerhavia spicata and Kallstroemia californica in New Mexico, USA in 1898, P. solenopsis was not reported again until 1967. Later, in 1988, small, sporadic populations were reported on cotton in Runnels County, Texas, USA that spread 75 to 200 miles from the original site with contiguous populations reported by 1990. With the increase in international trade in live plant material over the last few decades this mealybug has been accidentally spread, and has been collected and identified on host material at international ports and in greenhouses outside its native range. P. solenopsis has become established as an invasive pest in the Afrotropical, Australasian, Nearctic, Neotropical, and Oriental regions. As an introduced species, P. solenopsis has the capability to cause direct economic and ecological damage to native fauna and flora, with heavy infestations reducing plant vigour and causing plant death

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Pseudococcidae
  •                                     Genus: Phenacoccus
  •                                         Species: Phenacoccus solenopsis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Phenacoccus solenopsis was initially described by Tinsley (1898a) from specimens infesting the roots and stems of Boerhavia spicata and Kallstroemia californica within the nests of the ant, Solenopsis geminata, in New Mexico, USA. Later, Tinsley (1898b) provided a brief description of the adult female collected on the roots of Atriplex canescens. Cockerell (1902) described the species Phenacoccus cevalliae from specimens on the host plant Cevallia sinuata obtained at Roswell, New Mexico, USA. This species name was listed by Fernald (1903), but later synonymized with P. solenopsis by Ferris (1950). The taxonomy of P. solenopsis is documented by García Morales et al. (2016). The adult female has since been redescribed by Ferris (1950), McKenzie (1967), Kosztarab (1996), Williams and Granara de Willink (1992), Granara de Willink and Szumik (2007), and Hodgson et al. (2008).

Miller and Kosztarab (1979) recognized morphological variations within P. solenopsis, inferring that it might consist of two cryptic sexual species. More recently, specimens on cotton (Gossypium spp.) in India with morphological traits that differed from the original description of P. solenopsis were described as a new species, P. gossypiphilous (Abbas et al., 2005; Abbas et al., 2008). However, because no type specimens were named in the original description of P.gossypiphilous, Hodgson et al. (2008) considered the name to be a nomen nudum. The presence of morphological variation among specimens of P. solenopsis in different regions of India often led to misidentification of the mealybug species (Asha and Ramamurthy, 2008). However, Hodgson et al. (2008) made a comprehensive morphological study and concluded that there were no significant differences between specimens from the Indian subcontinent and those from the Neotropics, so considered the name P. gossypiphilous to be a junior synonym of P. solenopsis.

Description

Top of page

Phenacoccus solenopsis is a bisexual species with multiple generations annually. The species can be identified using the morphology of the adult female with a fair degree of certainty, although its separation from P. solani can be difficult (Zhao et al., 2014; see Similarities to Other Species/Conditions section). The adult female is 2 to 5 mm long and 2 to 4 mm wide and is covered with a powdery white wax secretion, apart from two interrupted, longitudinal submedian dark bands formed of about six dark grey patches of bare cuticle on the pro- to metathoracic segments. Paired segmental wax filaments extend from the margin around the body, with the terminal pair of filaments longest. An ovisac of fluffy, loose-textured wax strands is produced (McKenzie, 1967; Kosztarab, 1996).

Slide-mounted females are distinguished by the presence of nine-segmented antennae, five-segmented legs with translucent pores on the hind femur and tibia, each claw with a minute tooth, two sizes of ventral oral collar tubular ducts, absence of quinquelocular pores, presence of a large circulus, and multilocular pores concentrated around the vulva and posterior abdominal segments, often with a few also present in the submarginal areas of the abdominal segments (McKenzie, 1961; 1967; Kosztarab, 1996; Hodgson et al., 2008). On the mesal area of abdominal segment VII the multilocular pores are present across the entire depth of the segment in P. solenopsis (Zhao et al., 2014). On the dorsum, 18 pairs of cerarii, each with two enlarged setae, are located around the margin. Oral rim and oral collar tubular ducts and multilocular pores are absent from the dorsum.

Female development consists of first-instar nymph (crawler), second- and third-instar nymphs and the adult, whereas males undergo first- and second-instar nymphal, prepupal, pupal and adult stages of development. Hodgson et al. (2008) provided comprehensive descriptions and illustrations for the immature stages of P. solenopsis. First-instar nymphs are separated from the other stages by possessing six-segmented antennae, no circulus, and have quinquelocular pores on the head, thorax and abdomen. Second-instar nymph has six-segmented antennae, 18 pairs of distinct cerarii around the margin of the body, lack quinquelocular pores, and the claw has a distinct denticle. The third-instar nymph has seven-segmented antennae and a circulus.

Distribution

Top of page

Phenacoccus solenopsis is widespread and has become established in a variety of regions ranging from arid to tropical. Due to the difficulty of identifying the species, it is likely to be more widespread than the countries listed below.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced2019Invasive
BeninPresentIntroducedInvasive
CameroonPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
EgyptPresent
EswatiniPresentIntroduced Highveld, Lowveld and Lubombo regions.
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced
GhanaPresentIntroducedInvasive
KenyaPresent
MaliPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
RéunionPresent
SenegalPresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
SudanPresent

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresentIntroduced2005
-AnhuiPresentIntroduced
-FujianPresentIntroduced
-GuangdongPresent, Widespread2009Introduced2008InvasivePotential for spread throughout cotton-growing districts
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroduced
-HubeiPresentIntroduced
-HunanPresentIntroduced
-JiangsuPresentIntroduced
-JiangxiPresentIntroduced
-ShanghaiPresentIntroduced
-SichuanPresentIntroduced
-XinjiangPresentIntroduced
-YunnanPresentIntroduced
-ZhejiangPresentInvasive
Hong KongPresent, Few occurrences
IndiaPresentIntroduced2004InvasiveSome people speculate the pest entered the country in 1999 on trade products. Now widespread in cotton growing regions.
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroduced
-BiharPresentIntroduced
-DelhiPresentIntroduced
-GoaPresentIntroduced
-GujaratPresent, LocalizedIntroduced2004Invasive
-HaryanaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-JharkhandPresentIntroduced
-KarnatakaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-KeralaPresentIntroduced
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroduced
-MaharashtraPresent, LocalizedIntroduced2009Invasive
-PunjabPresent, Widespread2009IntroducedInvasiveDhawan et al. (1980) suggested the species had been attacking cotton in India since the 1980s
-RajasthanPresentIntroduced
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroduced
-West BengalPresentIntroduced
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Irian JayaPresentIntroduced
-JavaPresentIntroduced
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentIntroduced
IranPresent
IraqPresentIntroducedAl-Ghadir and Al-Karrada Al-Sharqiya
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresentIntroduced
-KyushuPresentIntroduced
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced
PakistanPresent, Localized2009Introduced2005InvasiveSignificant pest of cotton, first reported in 2005
Saudi ArabiaPresent
Sri LankaPresent, Localized2009Introduced2008Invasive
TaiwanPresent, Localized2008IntroducedInvasive
ThailandPresent, Localized2009IntroducedInvasive
TurkeyPresentIntroduced
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresent, LocalizedIntroduced2007Invasive

Europe

GreecePresent, Localized
-CretePresent, Localized
ItalyPresent, Localized
-SicilyPresent
NetherlandsAbsent, Intercepted only
SpainPresentIntroduced
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced
United KingdomAbsent, Intercepted only

North America

BarbadosPresent
BelizePresentIntroducedInvasive
CanadaPresent, Few occurrences
-AlbertaPresent, Few occurrences
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedInvasive
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint BarthélemyPresentIntroduced
Saint MartinPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresent
-ArizonaPresentNativeInvasive
-CaliforniaPresentNativeInvasive
-ColoradoPresentNative
-District of ColumbiaPresent
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1996
-IdahoPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MichiganPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MississippiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MissouriPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NevadaPresent
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New MexicoPresentNativeInvasive
-New YorkPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OhioPresentIntroducedInvasive
-OregonPresent
-TexasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-UtahPresent
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced2009
-QueenslandPresent, LocalizedIntroduced2009Emerald, central Queensland and Ayr and Bowen, northern Queensland
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
BrazilPresent2009Introduced2005
-AcrePresentIntroduced
-BahiaPresentIntroduced
-CearaPresentIntroduced
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ParaibaPresentIntroduced
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasive
ColombiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
EcuadorPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Phenacoccus solenopsis was discovered in 1898 by Tinsley (1898a) in New Mexico, USA. Later it was reported to have spread to Arizona, California, Colorado, Mississippi, Washington D.C. and Texas, USA (McKenzie, 1967). It was reported in Texas on two non-cultivated hosts by 1975 (McDaniel, 1975). Fuchs et al. (1991) discovered from their survey that the species had spread throughout the several cotton-growing areas of Texas by 1988 and also recorded the mealybug from 29 additional plant hosts. P. solenopsis was recorded from infestations in 18 US states. It was first recorded from Mexico, Ecuador and the Caribbean islands in 1992.

In 2005, P. solenopsis was found seriously infesting cotton plants in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan (Arif et al., 2007). By 2006, it had spread to a large number of cotton-growing districts in Pakistan, where it not only had a dramatic impact on the plant, but also reduced the value of the cotton produced. In India, Deshpande (2009) inferred that the invasion by P. solenopsis resulted from growers buying infested Bt-cotton bolls from the USA. Once established, populations of the pest increased due to the waxy tests that protect it from natural enemies and pesticides, its high reproductive rate, its small size that contributes to its ability to hide in cracks and crevices and its ability to survive on multiple host plants. The pest also has the ability to spread rapidly to uninfested areas by natural carriers such as the wind, rain and water-ways, on farm equipment, and by clinging to clothing and animals.

P. solenopsis was first recorded in West Africa (Ghana, possibly brought in from USA) in 2007, and was found infesting ornamentals in Nigeria in 2008 (Akintola and Ande, 2009); Hodgson et al. (2008) inferred that the infestation in Nigeria might have originated from South America.

P. solenopsis reached China in 2008 and is still spreading in southern Asia; and it reached Australia in early 2010 (Muniappan et al., 2011). International trade plays a major role in the spread of this pest to new regions of the world. P. solenopsis continues to extend its range through trade in infested live plant materials, and climate warming is likely to extend its potential range further in both hemispheres (Wang et al., 2010).

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Argentina 2003 Yes No Granara de Willink and Szumik (2007); Granara de Willink (2003)
Brazil 2002 Yes No Muniappan (2009); Prishanthini and Vinobaba (2009)
Chile 2002 Yes No Prishanthini and Vinobaba (2009)
China 2008 Yes No Muniappan (2009)
Colombia 2008 Yes No Granara de Willink and Szumik (2007); Kondo et al. (2008)
Cuba 1992 Yes No Ben-Dov (1994); Granara de Willink and Szumik (2007); Kondo et al. (2008); Williams and Granara de Willink (1992)
Ecuador 1992 Yes No Prishanthini and Vinobaba (2009)
Galapagos Islands 2001 Yes No Causton et al. (2006)
Ghana USA 2008 Yes No Muniappan (2009)
India 2006 Yes No Prishanthini and Vinobaba (2009)
Mexico 1992 Yes No Granara de Willink and Szumik (2007); Hodges et al. (2008); Kondo et al. (2008); Williams and Granara de Willink (1992)
New Caledonia  2009 Yes No Abbas et al. (2009)
Nigeria South America 2008 Yes No Hodgson et al. (2008); Akintola and Ande (2009); Muniappan (2009)
Pakistan 2005 Yes No Arif et al. (2007)
Sri Lanka 2008 Yes No Prishanthini and Vinobaba (2009)
Thailand 2007 Yes No Abbas et al. (2009); Muniappan (2009)
Australia 2010 Yes No Muniappan et al. (2011)
Bangladesh 2017 Yes No Ismail et al. (2017)
Barbados 2000 Yes No EPPO (2020)
Canary Islands 2015 Yes No Gavrilov-Zimin and Danzig (2015)
Canary Islands 2015 Yes No Gavrilov-Zimin and Danzig (2015)
Swaziland 2018 Yes No Assefa and Diamini (2018)
Ethiopia 2018 Yes No Assefa and Diamini (2018)
Haiti 2008 Yes No Perez-Gelabert (2008)
Java 2009 Yes No Muniappan et al. (2009)
Malaysia 2016 Yes No Sartiami et al. (2016)
Sierra Leone 2015 Yes No Fand and Suroshe (2015)
Leeward Islands 2006 Yes No Matile-Ferrero and Étienne (2006) St Barthelemy and St Martin

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Based on the range of climates and large number of host species on which P. solenopsis can survive, and the damage inflicted on the host plants, this species poses a serious threat of expanding its range (Wang et al., 2010). The hydrophobic waxy test, cryptic habits, small size, ability to feed on all parts of the plant, multiple overlapping generations and high reproductive rates, allow P. solenopsis the opportunity to disperse over extended areas. Its cryptic colouration and small size mean that it can be overlooked on infested vegetables, fruits and other crops, facilitating transport to other regions.

As an introduced species, P. solenopsis has the capability to cause direct economic and ecological damage to native fauna and flora, with heavy infestations reducing plant vigour and causing plant death. Once the species has established within a region, it has the capability of rapid multiplication resulting in significant damage to the crop. Sharma (2007) documented a seasonal outbreak of P. solenopsis on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in 2007, which developed into a heavy infestation by the end of the growing season and resulted in a 90% loss of seeds. Wang et al. (2009) recorded 17 provinces and 11 regions in China where this invasive species could spread and cause significant economic and environmental damage. Based on an international pest risk analysis for P. solenopsis, Wang et al. (2009) rated this mealybug as a high-risk invasive threat to China, with risk score of 0.856.

Habitat

Top of page

This species has been documented infesting 204 plant species representing 64 families with a distribution in Africa, Asia, North America and South America and Oceanic regions including the Caribbean nations (García Morales et al., 2016). Specimens from different geographical regions exhibit similar morphological characteristics (Hodgson et al., 2008). Hodgson et al. (2008) noted a significant difference in the ecology of P. solenopsis from the hot, dry climate of southwestern USA; here the mealybug occurs primarily on the roots and underside of the foliage and stems, compared to the more humid regions of India and Pakistan, where it is found almost entirely on the upper portions of the foliage, well above the soil line. Dhawan et al. (2009a) inferred that meteorological parameters influenced the presence and population size of the mealybug, with high humidity and rainfall having a negative effect.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

The solenopsis mealybug has been recorded on 204 host plant species that include field crops, ornamentals, trees, vegetables and weeds (García Morales et al., 2016). In Pakistan, P. solenopsis obtained the status of a serious pest on a wide host range. In a field survey, Arif et al. (2009) identified the mealybug from 154 plant species, the majority of which belong to the families Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Significant economic damage occurs on cotton (Gossypium spp.), brinjal (Solanum melongena), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sesame (Sesamum indicum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis; Sharma, 2007; Arif et al., 2009; Jagadish et al., 2009b).

Several cultivated plants, as well as weeds, have been used as trap crops to suppress the population numbers in an area. In surveys of the insect fauna in the southwestern USA, this pseudococcid was recorded on several plant hosts ranging from silver nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium; Goeden, 1971) to jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis; Pinto and Frommer, 1980).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)MalvaceaeWild host
Abutilon muticumMalvaceaeWild host
Acacia leucophloea (white-barked Acacia)FabaceaeWild host
Acacia modestaFabaceaeWild host
Acalypha wilkesianaEuphorbiaceaeWild host
Achillea (milfoil)AsteraceaeWild host
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)AmaranthaceaeWild host
Aerva javanicaChenopodiaceaeWild host
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)AsteraceaeWild host
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)FabaceaeWild host
Alcea rosea (Hollyhock)MalvaceaeUnknown
Althaea (hollyhocks)MalvaceaeWild host
Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus cruentus (red amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus flavusAmaranthaceaeOther
Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)AmaranthaceaeWild host
Ambrosia (Ragweed)AsteraceaeWild host
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)AsteraceaeOther
Ambrosia confertifoliaAsteraceaeOther
Ambrosia dumosaAsteraceaeOther
Ambrosia psilostachya (perennial ragweed)AsteraceaeOther
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)AsteraceaeOther
Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeOther
Anagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel)PrimulaceaeWild host
Aphelandra squarrosa (Zebra plant)AcanthaceaeOther
Artemisia annuaAsteraceaeWild host
Asclepias (Silkweed)AsclepiadaceaeWild host
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern)LiliaceaeWild host
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)LiliaceaeWild host
Atriplex (orach)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
Atriplex canescens (Fourwing saltbush)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Azadirachta indica (neem tree)MeliaceaeOther
Bassia indicaChenopodiaceaeWild host
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)FabaceaeWild host
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)AsteraceaeWild host
Blumea laceraAsteraceaeWild host
Boerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)NyctaginaceaeUnknown
Boerhavia repensWild host
Boerhavia spicataNyctaginaceaeWild host
Bombax ceiba (silk cotton tree)BombacaceaeWild host
Bougainvillea glabraNyctaginaceaeWild host
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)NyctaginaceaeUnknown
Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)MoraceaeWild host
Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold)AsteraceaeWild host
Calotropis procera (apple of sodom)ApocynaceaeWild host
Cannabis sativa (hemp)CannabaceaeUnknown
Capparis deciduaCapparaceaeWild host
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeUnknown
Capsicum frutescens (chilli)SolanaceaeOther
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
Carthamus oxyacanthusAsteraceaeUnknown
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum)FabaceaeWild host
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)ApocynaceaeUnknown
Celosia argentea (celosia)AmaranthaceaeWild host
Centaurea cyanus (cornflower)AsteraceaeWild host
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine)SolanaceaeWild host
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)SolanaceaeWild host
Cevallia sinuataLoasaceaeWild host
Chamaesyce prostrataEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Chenopodium (Goosefoot)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Chenopodium murale (nettleleaf goosefoot)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists'))AsteraceaeWild host
Cichorium intybus (chicory)AsteraceaeOther
Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle)AsteraceaeWild host
Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth)CucurbitaceaeOther
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeWild host
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeOther
Citrus sinensis (sweet orange)RutaceaeWild host
Cleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)CapparaceaeWild host
Clerodendrum inermeLamiaceaeWild host
Coleus blumei (common coleus)LamiaceaeWild host
Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)CombretaceaeWild host
Convolvulus althaeoidesUnknown
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
Convolvulus prostratusConvolvulaceaeWild host
Conyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)AsteraceaeWild host
Conyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)AsteraceaeOther
Corchorus antichorusTiliaceaeWild host
Corchorus olitorius (jute)TiliaceaeUnknown
Corchorus trilocularisTiliaceaeWild host
Cressa creticaConvolvulaceaeWild host
Croton sparciflorumEuphorbiaceaeWild host
Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Cucumis tetragonaCucurbitaceaeWild host
Cucurbita (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cuscuta reflexa (dodder)CuscutaceaeWild host
Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (guar)FabaceaeWild host
Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PoaceaeWild host
Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)CyperaceaeWild host
Dalbergia sissooFabaceaeWild host
Datura metel (Hindu datura)SolanaceaeWild host
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeWild host
Digera muricataChenopodiaceaeWild host
Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop)VerbenaceaeWild host
Echinochloa colona (junglerice)PoaceaeWild host
Eclipta prostrata (eclipta)AsteraceaeUnknown
Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom)ZingiberaceaeWild host
Eleusine indica (goose grass)PoaceaeWild host
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)AsteraceaeOther
Encelia farinosaAsteraceaeWild host
EnceliopsisAsteraceaeWild host
Eragrostis minorPoaceaeWild host
EriophyllumAsteraceaeWild host
Eucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)LithomyrtusWild host
Euphorbia (spurges)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
Euphorbia cotinifoliaWild host
Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
Euphorbia prostrataEuphorbiaceaeWild host
Euphorbia trigona (African milk weed)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
Fagonia creticaZygophyllaceaeWild host
FicusMoraceaeUnknown
Ficus benghalensis (banyan)MoraceaeWild host
Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeWild host
Ficus virens (grey fig)MoraceaeWild host
FranseriaWild host
Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine)RubiaceaeWild host
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Gossypium arboreum (cotton, tree)MalvaceaeMain
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton)MalvaceaeUnknown
Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Grewia asiatica (phalsa)TiliaceaeWild host
Hamelia patensRubiaceaeWild host
Helianthus (sunflower)AsteraceaeMain
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeMain
Heliotropium europaeum (common heliotrope)BoraginaceaeWild host
Heliotropium indicum (Indian heliotrope)BoraginaceaeUnknown
Heliotropium strigosumBoraginaceaeWild host
Herissantia crispaWild host
Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeMain
Hibiscus mutabilis (cottonrose)MalvaceaeOther
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeMain
Hibiscus syriacus (shrubby althaea)MalvaceaeUnknown
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeOther
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeWild host
Jacquemontia pentanthaConvolvulaceaeWild host
Jasminum cuspidatumOleaceaeWild host
Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)OleaceaeWild host
Jatropha integerrima (peregrina)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
Kallstroemia brachystylisZygophyllaceaeOther
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)CucurbitaceaeWild host
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)LythraceaeWild host
Lantana camara (lantana)VerbenaceaeWild host
Launia nudicaulisAsteraceaeWild host
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)LythraceaeWild host
Lepidium didymum (lesser swine-cress)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Lepidium sativum (garden cress)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeWild host
Lupinus spp.FabaceaeWild host
Lycium chinense (chinese wolfberry)SolanaceaeOther
Malva parvifloraWild host
Malva sylvestrisMalvaceaeUnknown
Malvastrum coromandelianumMalvaceaeWild host
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)MalvaceaeWild host
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
Medicago laciniataFabaceaeUnknown
Medicago polymorpha (bur clover)FabaceaeWild host
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree)LithomyrtusWild host
Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeWild host
Melilotus indica (Indian sweetclover)FabaceaeWild host
Mentha longifoliaLamiaceaeOther
Mentha piperita (Peppermint)LamiaceaeOther
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeWild host
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeWild host
Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco)SolanaceaeUnknown
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Ocimum basilicum (basil)LamiaceaeMain
Orobanche (broomrape)OrobanchaceaeWild host
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)OxalidaceaeWild host
PanaxAraliaceaeMain
PartheniumMain
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)AsteraceaeMain
Persicaria glabraPolygonaceaeWild host
Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)ArecaceaeOther
Phyllanthus niruri (seed-under-the-leaf)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
Physalis (Groundcherry)SolanaceaeWild host
Physalis alkekengiSolanaceaeWild host
Piper betle (betel pepper)PiperaceaeWild host
Plumeria (frangipani)ApocynaceaeOther
Plumeria rubra var. acutifolia (Mexican frangipani)ApocynaceaeWild host
Polyalthea longifoliaAnnonaceaeWild host
Polygonum barbatum (knot grass)PolygonaceaeWild host
Portulaca grandiflora (Rose moss)PortulacaceaeWild host
Portulaca oleracea (purslane)PortulacaceaeWild host
Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeOther
Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
Rosa chinensis (China rose)RosaceaeWild host
Ruellia squarrosaAcanthaceaeWild host
Rumex dentatusWild host
Salsola baryosmaChenopodiaceaeWild host
Salvadora oleoidesSalvadoraceaeWild host
Salvia officinalis (common sage)LamiaceaeWild host
Sesamum indicum (sesame)PedaliaceaeMain
Sesbania sesban (sesban)FabaceaeWild host
Sida rhombifoliaMalvaceaeWild host
Sida urensMalvaceaeWild host
Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba)SimmondsiaceaeMain
Solanum americanumSolanaceaeUnknown
Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum muricatum (melon pear)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum spp.SolanaceaeMain
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum virginianumSolanaceaeWild host
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)AsteraceaeWild host
SpermacoceWild host
Suaeda (sea blite)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Suaeda nigraChenopodiaceaeWild host
Synsepalum dulcificumSapotaceaeWild host
Tabernaemontana divaricataApocynaceaeWild host
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)AsteraceaeWild host
Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)AsteraceaeWild host
Tecoma stans (yellow bells)BignoniaceaeWild host
Tinospora cordifoliaMenispermaceaeWild host
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)CommelinaceaeWild host
Trianthema portulacastrum (horse purslane)AizoaceaeWild host
Trianthema triquetraAizoaceaeWild host
Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine)ZygophyllaceaeOther
Trigonella polycerataFabaceaeWild host
Urena lobata (caesar weed)MalvaceaeWild host
Verbena officinalis (vervain)VerbenaceaeWild host
Withania somnifera (poisonous gooseberry)SolanaceaeWild host
Xanthium spinosum (bathurst burr)AsteraceaeUnknown
Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur)AsteraceaeWild host
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther
Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)RhamnaceaeWild host

Growth Stages

Top of page
Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page

The extraction of phloem sap by the mealybugs results in the leaves of the plant turning yellow and becoming crinkled or malformed, which leads to loss of plant vigour, foliage and fruit drop, and potential death of the plant if not treated. Phloem feeding affects the growing regions of the plant, often resulting in bunched and stunted growth (Dhawan et al., 2009b; Jagadish et al., 2009a), with plants producing smaller fruit or flowers, which ultimately leads to a reduction in seed or fruit yields.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal patterns
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / premature drop
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / honeydew or sooty mould
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Inflorescence / dieback
Inflorescence / discoloration (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / distortion (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / dwarfing; stunting
Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
Inflorescence / internal feeding
Inflorescence / wilt
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / internal feeding
Roots / reduced root system
Stems / distortion
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / witches broom
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / wilt

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Reproductive Biology

P. solenopsis reproduces sexually and has multiple generations annually, the number depending on temperature and host quality. Each adult female lays 150 to 600 eggs, protected within a waxy ovisac (Lu et al., 2008). Females undergo three immature stages prior to reaching adulthood, whereas males undergo first-instar nymph, second-instar nymph, prepupal and pupal stages prior to adulthood. The period of development from crawler to adult is approximately 25-30 days, depending upon temperature and host quality (García Morales et al., 2016).

Nutrition

The mealybugs feed by extracting sap from phloem cells in leaves or stems. The sap contains water, soluble sugars, phenols, proteins and other potential nutrients. Mealybug-infested leaves produce high quantities of sugars and proteins compared to the amounts produced in uninfested leaves (Jagadish et al., 2009a). Conversely, Jagadish et al. (2009a) reported a decline in the phenol content in infested sunflower plants.

Environmental Requirements

Maximum temperature and sunshine hours have a positive influence on P. solenopsis, whereas high relative humidity and rainfall have a negative influence (Suresh and Kavitha, 2008b). The mealybugs are capable of surviving temperatures ranging from 0-45°C (Sharma, 2007). The location of the feeding site on the plant appears to be influenced by humidity, as Hodgson et al. (2008) concluded that P. solenopsis occurred more commonly on the roots, stems and foliage close to the soil line in very dry climates compared to settling on the upper foliage in more humid areas (Gerson, 2020).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Preferred < 860mm precipitation annually
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Tolerated Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Tolerated Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
42 31

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 0 45

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acerophagus gutierreziae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Aenasius Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Aenasius advena Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Aenasius arizonensis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Aenasius bambawalei Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Aenasius phenacocci Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Alamella flava Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Allotropa phenacocca Parasite Chena et al. (2011)
Anagyrus chrysos Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Anagyrus dactylopii Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Anagyrus kamali Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Anagyrus mirzai Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Anagyrus osmoi Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Anagyrus pseudococci Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Anthocoris muraleedharani Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific Tong et al. (2019)
Aprostocetus minutus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Blaptostethus pallescens Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific Tong et al. (2019)
Blepyrus insularis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Brumoides suturalis Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific Yonas and Umar (2019) Pakistan Cotton
Chalcaspis phenacocci Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Chartocerus dactylopii Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Chartocerus subaeneus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Cheiloneurus Hyperparasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific Tong et al. (2019)
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific Yonas and Umar (2019) Pakistan Cotton
Chrysoperla zastrowi Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific Tong et al. (2019)
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific Yonas and Umar (2019) Pakistan Cotton
Dicrodiplosis manihoti Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific Tong et al. (2019)
Gyranusoidea indica Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Harmonia dimidiata Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific Tong et al. (2019)
Harmonia octomaculata Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Hyperaspis maindroni Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Hypoaspis Predator Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Leptomastix dactylopii Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Marietta Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Nephus regularis Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Pachyneuron Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Paranathrix tachikawai Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Prochiloneurus aegyptiacus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Prochiloneurus dactylopii Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Noyes (2020)
Prochiloneurus nagasakiensis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific Tong et al. (2019)
Prochiloneurus stenopterus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae to species Noyes (2020)
Prochiloneurus uyguni Parasite Arthropods|Larvae to species Noyes (2020)
Promuscidea unfasciativentris Hyperparasite Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Rodolia fumida Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Scymnus coccivora Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific
Scymus Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

The solenopsis mealybug possesses a number of defence capabilities to protect itself from natural enemies. The waxy secretions that cover the body often protects it from attack by parasitoids and predators. This waxy covering may be the reason for the rare occurrence by pathogens and nematodes infesting the mealybug (Franco et al., 2009). Also, ants often attend the mealybugs for the honeydew they excrete and in return, often defend the mealybugs from natural enemies. The solenopsis mealybug was initially discovered in a nest of Solenopsis geminata (Tinsley, 1898a). More recently, P. solenopsis has been recorded in the nests of the southern fire ant (Taber, 2000) and associated with several other species of ants including Myrmicaria brunnea, Oecopylla smaragdina, Solenopsis invicta, and Tapinoma melanocephalum (Helms and Vinson, 2002; Jagadish et al., 2008, 2009b; Zhou et al., 2012).

Several parasitoids and predators have been documented attacking P. solenopsis. Three parasitic wasps (Chalcaspis arizonensis, Cheiloneurus sp., and Aprostocetus minutus) were discovered attacking the mealybug on cotton in Texas, USA (Fuchs et al., 1991). In India, an unidentified species of the solitary endoparasitoid genus Aenasius was reported to attack P. solenopsis (Sharma, 2007; Tanwar et al., 2008). Hayat (2009) described a new species of parasitoid from India, Aenasius bambawalei, associated with P. solenopsis, which has been documented as a very effective biological control agent. Parasitized mealybugs cease feeding and their exoskeletons turn into reddish-brown mummies (Pala Ram et al., 2009). This parasitoid has been reported to parasitize up to 72% of P. solenopsis on cotton in some districts in India (Muniappan, 2009; Pala Ram et al., 2009). Within one growing season, on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) parasitism of P. solenopsis by A. bambawalei reached 89% parasitism at harvest time (Sharma, 2007). In addition, Paranathrix tachikawai was recorded parasitizing 30-39% of the mealybugs on cotton in India (Bambawale, 2008). However, a hyperparasitoid, Promuscidea unfasciativentris, attacks A. bambawalei, which potentially may reduce the efficiency of this parasitoid as a biological control agent.

Several predator species are associated with P. solenopsis. Most predators require high populations of prey to complete their development. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri has been used to control several mealybug pest species. In India, two coccinellids (Brumoides suturalis and Hyperaspis maindroni) were identified to be associated with P. solenopsis (Patel et al., 2009). Most predators feed on the eggs or crawlers within the mealybug’s ovisac and reduce the number of mealybugs available to extract sap and weaken the plant. Other predators like the larvae of the lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea, were found to consume 30 mealybug eggs daily in developmental laboratory tests (Rabinder Kaur et al., 2008).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

First-instar nymphs are the primary dispersal stage of P. solenopsis but they are capable of crawling only about one metre. Local and regional movement of P. solenopsis is mainly passive, by wind, irrigation water and by attachment to passing insects, birds, people and agricultural machinery. The species may be dispersed over long distances by trade in infested plants in air or sea cargo.

The solenopsis mealybug is native to the southwestern USA; material from Central and South America is similar to specimens collected from West Africa (Hodgson et al., 2008), whereas specimens from Thailand, Taiwan and New Caledonia appear morphologically to be more similar to specimens from India and Pakistan. Hodgson et al. (2008) inferred that material found in Asia may have been accidentally introduced through international commerce.

Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

First-instar nymphs (crawlers) are the main active dispersal stage of P. solenopsis, walking short distances to locate suitable feeding sites on the leaves, stems, leaf petioles, and bracts. Generally the crawlers are not efficient at dispersing, so infestations develop into dense colonies that damage the host plant (Charleston and Murray, 2010). Wax strands covering the body may facilitate passive transport by wind or water; crawlers are commonly carried by wind across distances between a few metres and several kilometres (Arif et al., 2012).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Crawlers are also dispersed passively by passing animals (including humans) and agricultural machinery (Arif et al., 2012). The attendant ant Oecophylla smaragdina has been observed to move some of the mealybugs to other locations on the plant to feed (Jagadish et al., 2009b). The waxy test covering the body can adhere to passing animals or peoples’ clothes or agricultural machinery, allowing specimens to be transported long distances from the original infestation before becoming dislodged in new, previously uninfested areas. Infested host-plant material transported by people from one area to another is an important means of distribution for the mealybug over long distances.

Accidental Introduction

Commercial trade involving infested plants may often be the cause for spread of P. solenopsis over long distances. Movement of infested plants and contaminated agricultural equipment from an infested area to a non-infested area may also be involved in the accidental spread of the mealybug (Arif et al., 2012).

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx arthropods/adults; arthropods/nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Fruits (inc. pods) arthropods/adults; arthropods/nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves arthropods/adults; arthropods/nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots arthropods/adults; arthropods/nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches arthropods/adults; arthropods/nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope

Economic Impact

Top of page

P. solenopsis is an important plant pest worldwide (Williams and Granara de Willink, 1992; Hodgson et al., 2008); its feeding can cause leaves to turn yellow and results in premature defoliation, reduced plant growth or plant death. The mealybug can inflict significant damage to field crops (i.e. cotton and tobacco). This mealybug caused serious damage to cotton and other crops in Pakistan (Saeed et al., 2007; Dhawan et al., 2009a, b), India (Jhala et al., 2008; Bhosle et al., 2009), Israel (Spodek et al., 2018), China (Ahmed et al., 2015) and Australia (Charleston and Murray, 2010). It is a pest of commercial crops including a variety of vegetables, grapes (Vitis vinifera), jute (Corchorus spp.), mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus) and tobacco.

Pakistan is the fourth largest cotton producing country and its economy is heavily dependent on the production of cotton for foreign income; cotton production accounts for 8.2% of the value added in agriculture and 2% of the GDP. The damage to cotton caused by P. solenopsis can significantly impact the economy, with an estimated 14% loss and a 44% reduction in seed-cotton yields in Pakistan in 2005 (Dhawan et al., 2009b). In Punjab, India there were significant losses in 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 (Anon., 2005; Hodgson et al., 2008; Dhawan et al., 2009a). The intense mealybug attack on Bt cotton caused significant economic losses to growers in the Punjab region (Dutt, 2007). In 2007, the number of hectares committed to growing cotton increased over the previous year, but cotton production declined significantly (Dutt, 2007). In some regions of India, field crop losses in cotton have ranged from 30-80% (Nalwar et al., 2009). However, the grower is required to implement chemical applications to save the crop, resulting in increased production costs as well as potential chemical contamination of soil and water. Similar problems are being caused by P. solenopsis in other countries where it has become established.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Due to its great reproductive capacity P. solenopsis has the potential to damage or kill native plant species, which could facilitate their displacement by other more aggressive species, so altering the ecological balance of the plant community. Wang et al. (2009) projected that P. solenopsis could infest regions within 17 provinces of China and posed a pest risk analysis score of 0.856 to the country.

Social Impact

Top of page

The impact of the mealybug on Bt cotton often requires numerous expensive pesticide applications to protect the crop. Because of reduced cotton yield and honeydew-fouled lint bringing lower prices, farmers in some areas consider cultivating other crops instead. The additional pest control requirements for growing Bt cotton subject to P. solenopsis infestation often result in a reduced profit margin that impacts the standard of living of producers and homeowners. P. solenopsis attacks and damages numerous ornamental plants, so it has can affect the aesthetic appearance of infested areas, impacting tourism in the region.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Interaction with other invasive species
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Diagnosis

Top of page

In life, body of female 2-5 mm long, oval, dusted with powdery white wax but often with 2 submedian lines of dark grey bare patches, with 3 conspicuous pairs of patches on anterior abdominal segments and often 1 or 2 less obvious pairs on thorax. Marginal wax filaments very short but longest at posterior end; a short, fluffy white ovisac secreted at maturity. Venter of abdmen with a dark circulus visible on midline. Adult male Phenacoccus mealybugs have 1 pair of wings and 2 pairs of long white wax tail filaments. Microscopic examination of the adult female is required to verify the species identity, or molecular analysis.

On a microscope slide, body of adult female oval, with 18 pairs of cerarii on margins, each cerarius containing 2 lanceolate setae. Quinquelocular pores absent, and antennae usually 9 segmented. Multilocular pores absent from dorsum, present ventrally at least around vulva and on posterior abdominal segments, medial area of abdominal segment VII with pores scattered across entire depth of segment from anterior edge to posterior edge. Translucent pores present on hind tibia; claw with a denticle. Dorsal setae short and lanceolate. Circulus usually oval and small, often slightly sclerotized, present between abdominal segments III and IV. Specimens living in hot conditions may have a few translucent pores near apex of hind femur, and small clusters of ventral multilocular disc pores on submargins of some or most abdominal segments.

Molecular characterisation of P. solenopsis was carried out by Tian et al. (2013) and its gene sequences are available on GenBank.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

Initiate field surveys to detect potential infestations early in the growing season, to provide maximum opportunities for spot treatments (either by hand picking or pesticidal sprays) to prevent spread and limit damage to commercial crops. Closely examine stems, leaves and flowers for small white oval insects without wings, each often with 2 broken grey submedian longitudinal stripes. In addition, check for infestation of the base of the plant several millimetres below the soil surface. The presence of sticky honeydew deposits and traces of sooty mould on the leaves may also indicate presence of an infestation. Sticky traps set out in the fields and around their borders can be used to detect the presence of the winged male mealybugs.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

P. solenopsis is closely related to P. solani (of which P. defectus is a junior synonym (Chatzidimitriou et al., 2016)). However, adult female P. solenopsis have (contrasting condition in P. solani): antenna usually 9 segmented (usually 8 segmented); ventral multilocular disc pores present as far forward as abdominal segment VI (as far forward as abdominal segment IV); multilocular disc pores on middle of segment VII present across entire depth of segment (present in distinct rows along anterior and/or posterior edges of segment VII, the pores sometimes very few); submargins of abdominal segments sometimes with small groups of multilocular pores (lacking submarginal multilocular pores); and distal end of hind femur sometimes with a few translucent pores (hind femur never with translucent pores; Zhao et al., 2014).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

SPS measures

Several countries require inspection of plant material imported from countries where P. solenopsis is known to occur. China has initiated a notice of inspection and quarantine for P. solenopsis (Ministry of Agriculture, 2009).

Early warning systems

Use of sticky traps placed throughout the field is an effective means to monitor for the presence and population density of P. solenopsis, by catching the winged males.

Control

Cultural control and sanitary measures

It is important to cut infested stems or branches from plants and destroy the infested plant material by burning or deep burial; infested prunings must not be left lying in the field, as the mealybugs will walk onto nearby plants. After harvest, crop residue and weeds left in infested fields should be gathered up and buried or burned, as mealybugs on plant material left in the field can survive to infest the next crop. Field borders should be inspected for alternative host plants for the mealybug; these should be removed to prevent the mealybugs from overwintering and infesting the next crop. Trap plants like Hibiscus rosa-sinensis may be planted, to initially attract the mealybugs; these serve to alert farmers to the presence of P. solenopsis in the field, and can then be treated to protect the primary crop.

Physical/mechanical control

Small populations of P. solenopsis can be controlled by regular inspection of plants, removing loose bark where mealybugs might be difficult to observe and hand-picking or crushing specimens from newly-infested plants.  

Movement control

When working in fields known to be infested with P. solenopsis, it is necessary to sanitize farm equipment and check clothing items before movement to uninfested fields, to prevent the transfer of the pest to new locations. Infested prunings should be destroyed on site, not transported elsewhere for disposal, as crawlers falling off transported material will infest plants along the route.

Biological control

The use of biological control agents provides a cost-effective, non-toxic, self-perpetuating means of suppressing invasive pest populations of exotic mealybugs. Several parasitoids and predators have been identified that attack P. solenopsis and can control pest populations at low densities. Established parasitoids have been recorded parasitizing over 70% of the cotton mealybug population (Pala Ram et al., 2009). Other tactics suggested to suppress populations of P. solenopsis include allowing the parasitoids to build up their numbers prior to applying chemical insecticides, and to use pesticides that minimise parasitoid fatalities; to attach plant parts bearing parasitoid-infested mealybugs (mummies) onto the host plant to be protected; mass-rearing and releasing parasitoids into mealybug-infested areas; and using a combination of several natural enemies to control the exotic pest (Pala Ram et al., 2009). Predators are used to control P. solenopsis on cotton in several countries. The commercially available predatory ladybeetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidaae), has been imported into India and released in cotton-infested fields to help to control P. solenopsis.

Several species of ants are often associated with honeydew-producing mealybugs, and protect them from attack by their natural enemies. To increase the chances of success in using biological control agents against P. solenopsis, attendant ants need to be eradicated if at all possible (Helms and Vinson, 2002; Tanwar et al., 2007).

Chemical control

It is often effective to spot treat small populations of the mealybug, detected during early monitoring, with soap solution. Before Bt cotton was introduced to Pakistan and India, P. solenopsis was considered to be a secondary pest of cotton, maintained at low population levels by chemical applications to control the primary pest, Helicoverpa armigera. With the cultivation of transgenic cotton with a reduced need for chemical applications, the mealybug emerged as a major pest requiring chemical applications to manage it. The use of insecticides is most effective against the mealybug when applications are timed to coincide with emergence of the vulnerable crawler stage. The use of ant baits to eliminate mealybug-attendant ants from the field is also beneficial. Dhawan et al. (2008; 2009a) evaluated the effectiveness of a variety of insecticides against P. solenopsis.

IPM

In India, a management strategem to control P.solenopsis that incorporates cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical control factors has been developed (Tanwar et al., 2007). This involves a pre-planting survey for P. solenopsis; targeting and spot treating small populations chemically; removal of alternate host plants and ant colonies; using recommended insecticides for optimal effectiveness on the plants and around their root systems; providing an attractive habitat for native and exotic natural enemies; and using a variety of sanitation methods to prevent spread of the pest to new fields.

Monitoring and surveillance

The placing of sticky traps in the fields and around their borders, to catch P. solenopsis males, is useful in early detection of the mealybug in the area. Observations of plant stems, leaves and flowers aid in detecting the white, waxy masses produced by P. solenopsis.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

The biology, development and control of P. solenopsis need to be researched further to determine the biotic and abiotic factors that may impact its development and survival. Because the mealybug has a varied host range, studies on the preferred hosts could aid in developing and implementing effective control methods. Comprehensive studies need to be conducted on the parasitoids and predators associated with P. solenopsis, including their life histories, and a determination of the combinations of natural enemies that would be most effective in suppressing the pest populations in areas with different climatic conditions and altitudes. It is important that information is obtained and distributed regarding those risk factors that may be necessary to address in order to implement a successful control programme. Evaluation of the impact of crop damage or loss in reference to the use of chemical applications, compared to the time needed to develop established natural enemy populations to suppress P. solenopsis, need further study.

References

Top of page

Abbas G, Arif MJ, Saeed S, 2005. Systematic status of a new species of genus Phenacoccus cockerell (Pseudococcidae) a serious pest of cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. in Pakistan. Pakistan Entomologist, 27(1), 83-84.

Abbas G, Arif MJ, Saeed S, Karar H, 2009. A new invasive species of genus Phenacoccus cockerell attacking cotton in Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11(1), 54-58. http://www.fspublishers.org/

Abbas, G., Arif, M. J., Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Aslam, Shafqat Saeed, 2010. Host plants distribution and overwintering of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 12(3), 421-425. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/20.pdf

Abbas, G., Arif, M. J., Saeed, S., Karar, H., 2008. Increasing menace of a new mealybug, Phenacoccus gossypiphilous, to the economic crops of southern Asia. In: Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007 [Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007], [ed. by Branco, M., Franco, J. C., Hodgson, C. J.]. Lisbon, Portugal: ISA Press. 322 pp.

Abdul-Rassoul MS, Al-Malo IM, Hermiz FB, 2015. First record and host plants of solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, 1898 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Iraq. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES), 7(2):216-222. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/JBES-Vol7No2-p216-222.pdf

Ahmed, M. Z., Ma Jun, Qiu BaoLi, He RiRong, Wu MuTao, Liang Fan, Zhao JuPeng, Lin Li, Hu XueNan, Lv LiHua, Breinholt, J. W., Lu YongYue, 2015. Genetic record for a recent invasion of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Asia. Environmental Entomology, 44(3), 907-918. http://www.bioone.org/loi/enve

Akintola AJ, Ande AT, 2008. First record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Nigeria. Agricultural Journal, 3(1):1-3. http://www.medwelljournals.com/fulltext/aj/2008/1-3.pdf

Akintola AJ, Ande AT, 2009. Pest status and ecology of five mealy bugs (Family: Pseudococcidae) in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Journal of Entomological Research, 33(1):9-13. http://www.indianjournals.com

Anon., 2005. Weekly pest scouting reports. In: Weekly pest scouting reports Lahore, Pakistan: Directorate General, Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides.

Arif MI, Muhammad Rafiq, Abdul Ghaffar, 2009. Host plants of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis): a new menace to cotton agroecosystem of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11(2):163-167. http://www.fspublishers.org/

Arif MJ, Abbas G, Saeed S, 2007. Cotton in danger. DAWN, March., Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publication. http://www.dawn.com/weekly/science/archive/070324/science3.htm

Arif, M. I., Muhammad Rafiq, Shabana Wazir, Nasir Mehmood, Abdul Ghaffar, 2012. Studies on cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Pseudococcidae: Homoptera), and its natural enemies in Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 14(4), 557-562. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_14_NO_4/12.pdf

Asha T, Ramamurthy VV, 2008. On the problems in diagnostics of cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Entomon, 33(4):277-282

Ashutosh Sharma, Pati PK, 2013. First record of Ashwagandha as a new host to the invasive mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley) in India. Entomological News, 123(1):59-62. http://www.bioone.org/loi/entn

Assefa, Y., Dlamini, G., 2018. Phenacoccus solenopsis tinsley (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae): a new polyphagous invasive mealybug pest in highveld, lowveld and lubombo regions of Swaziland. African Entomology, 26(2), 536-542. doi: 10.4001/003.026.0536

Bambawale OM, 2008. Tackling mealybug menace in cotton: a new challenge. NCIPM Newsletter, 14(1). 1-2

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 686 pp

Beshr SM, Badr SA, Ahmad AA, Mohamed GH, 2016. New record of host plants of invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Tinsley, 1898), (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Alexandria and Behaira governorates. Journal of Entomology, 13(4):155-160. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=je.2016.155.160&org=10

Bhatt NA, 2010. Mealy bug [Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)] - a serious pest of tobacco in Gujarat. Insect Environment, 16(2):90-91

Bhosle BB, Sharma OP, More DG, 2009. Management of mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) in rainfed cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 79(3):199-202

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Phenacoccus solenopsis. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 761

Campos da Silva D, 2012. Occurrence of new species of mealybug on cotton fields in the states of Bahia and Paraíba, Brazil. Bragantia, 71(4), 467-470. doi: 10.1590/S0006-87052013005000005

Causton CE, Peck SB, Sinclair BJ, Roque-Albelo L, Hodgson CJ, Landry B, 2006. Alien insects: threats and implications for conservation of Galápagos Islands. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 99(1):121-143. http://docserver.esa.catchword.org/deliver/cw/pdf/esa/freepdfs/00138746/v99n1s14.pdf

Celepcİ, E., Uygur, S., Kaydan, M. B., Uygur, F. N., 2017. Mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species on weeds in Citrus (Rutaceae) plantations in Çukurova Plain, Turkey. Türkiye Entomoloji Bülteni, 7(1), 15-21. http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/315531

Charleston K, Murray D, 2010. Exotic mealybug species – a major new pest in cotton. Queensland, Australia: Queensland Government. The Beat Sheet.http://thebeatsheet.com.au/mealybugs/exotic-mealybug-species-a-major-new-pest-in-cotton/

Chatzidimitriou, E., Simonato, M., Watson, G. W., Martinez-Sañudo, I., Tanaka, H., Zhao Jing, Pellizzari, G., 2016. Are Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) distinct species?. Zootaxa, 4093(4), 539-551. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4093.4.5

Chena HY, Liua JX, Xua ZF, 2011. Description of a new platygastrid parasitoid Allotropa phenacocca (Hymenoptera) on Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Oriental Insects, 45(2/3):275-280. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00305316.2011.646825

Cockerell TDA, 1902. Two new mealy-bugs from New Mexico. The Canadian Entomologist, 34:315-316

Culik MP, Gullan PJ, 2005. A new pest of tomato and other records of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Espirito Santo, Brazil. Zootaxa, 964:1-8

Culik MP, Martins Ddos S, Ventura JA, Peronti ALBG, Gullan PJ, Kondo T, 2007. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 7(3):61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en

Culik, M. P., Martins, D. dos S., Zanuncio Junior, J. S., Fornazier, M. J., Ventura, J. A., Peronti, A. L. B. G., Zanuncio, J. C., 2013. The invasive hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its recent range expansion in Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 96(2), 638-640. doi: 10.1653/024.096.0234

Deshpande V, 2009. Mealybug species, the Bt cotton killer, is exotic. Indian Express, July. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/mealybug-species-the-bt-cotton-killer-is-exotic-experts/490540/

Dhawan AK, Kamaldeep Singh, Ravinder Singh, 2009. Evaluation of different chemicals for the management of mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley on Bt cotton. Journal of Cotton Research and Development, 23(2):289-294

Dhawan AK, Sarika Saini, 2009. First record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton in Punjab. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana), 22(3):309-310

Dhawan AK, Sarika Saini, Kamaldeep Singh, 2008. Evaluation of novel and conventional insecticides for management of mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in Punjab. Pesticide Research Journal, 20(2):214-216. http://www.spsindia.co.in

Dhawan AK, Singh J, Sidhu AS, 1980. Maconellicoccus spp. attacking arboretum cotton in Punjab. Science and Culture, 46:258

Dhawan AK, Singh K, Anand A, Sarika S, 2009. Distribution of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in cotton with relation to weather factors in South-Western districts of Punjab. Journal of Entomological Research, 33(1):59-63

Dutt U, 2007. Mealy Bug Infestation in Punjab: Bt. Cotton Falls Flat. Countercurrents.org. Kerala, India: Countercurrents.org. http://www.countercurrents.org/dutt210807.htm

El-Zahi ES, Aref SAE, Korish SKM, 2016. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as a new menace to cotton in Egypt and its chemical control. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 56(2):111-115. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jppr.2016.56.issue-2/jppr-2016-0017/jppr-2016-0017.xml?format=INT

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/

Fand, B. B., Suroshe, S. S., 2015. The invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, a threat to tropical and subtropical agricultural and horticultural production systems - a review. Crop Protection, 69, 34-43. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2014.12.001

Fernald ME, 1903. A Catalogue of the Coccidae of the World. Massachusettus Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 88

Ferris GF, 1950. Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America. (ser. 5): The Pseudococcidae (Part I). Palo Alto, USA: Stanford University Press, 278 pp

Franco JC, Zada A, Mendel Z, 2009. Novel approaches for the management of mealybug pests. In: Biorational Control of Arthropod Pests [ed. by Ishaaya, I. \Horowitz, A. R.]. London, UK: Springer, 233-278

Fuchs TW, Stewart JW, Minzenmayer R, Rose M, 1991. First record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in cultivated cotton in the United States. Southwestern Entomologist, 16(3):215-221

García Morales, M., Denno, B. D., Miller, D. R., Miller, G. L., Ben-Dov, Y., Hardy, N. B., 2016. ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. In: ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics . http://scalenet.info/

Gavrilovic, B. D., Curcic, S. B., 2017. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on scale insects (Homoptera: Coccinea) of Bali, Flores and New Guinea (Indonesia). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 65(1), 37-44. http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2013/65-1-037-044.pdf

Gavrilov-Zimin, I. A., 2013. New scale insects (Homoptera: Coccinea) from Sulawesi and New Guinea, with some other additions to the Indonesian fauna. Tropical Zoology, 26(2), 64-86. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/ttzo20/current

Gavrilov-Zimin, IA, Danzig, EM, 2015. Some additions to the mealybug fauna (Homoptera: Coccinea: Pseudococcidae) of the Canary Islands. Zoosystematica Rossica, 24(1), 94-98.

Germain JF, Sookar P, Buldawoo I, Permalloo S, Quilici S, 2014. Three species of potentially invasive scale insects new for Mauritius (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). (Trois espèces de Cochenilles potentiellement invasives nouvelles pour l'île Maurice (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae).) Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 119(1):27-29

Gerson U, 2020. Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. In: Plant pests of the Middle East, Jerusalem, Israel: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.http://www.agri.huji.ac.il/mepests/pest/Phenacoccus_solenopsis/

Goeden RD, Ricker DW, 1976. The phytophagous insect faunas of the ragweeds, Ambrosia chenopodiifolia, A. eriocentra, and A. ilicifolia, in southern California. Environmental Entomology, 5(5):923-930

Goeden, R. D., 1971. Insect ecology of silverleaf nightshade. Weed Science, 19(1), 45-51.

Gordh G, 1979. Family Encyrtidae. In: Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico Volume 1 [ed. by Kromkein, K. V.]. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Institute Press, 890-967

Granara de Willink, M. C., 2003. [English title not available]. (Nuevas citas y huéspedes de Phenacoccus para la Argentina (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)). Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica, Argentina, 62(3/4), 80-82.

Granara de Willink, M. C., Cristina, M., Szumik, C., 2007. Central and South American Phenacoccine (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae): Systematics and Phylogeny. (Phenacoccinae de Centro y Sudamérica (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae): Sistemática y Filogenia). Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica, Argentina, 66(1-2), 29-129.

Halbert SE, 1998. Tri-ology Technical Report, 37(1). Gainesville; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, USA: Division of Plant Industry, 3-6

Hanchinal, S. G., Patil, B. V., Basavanagoud, K., Nagangoud, A., Biradar, D. P., Janagoudar, B. S., 2011. Incidence of invasive mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley) on cotton. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 24(2), 143-145.

Hayat M, 2009. Description of a new species of Aenasius Walker (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoid of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in India. Biosystematica, 3:21-26

Helms KR, Vinson SB, 2002. Widespread association of the invasive ant Solenopsis invicta with an invasive mealybug. Ecology, 83(9):2425-2438. http://www.esajournals.org/esaonline/?request=get-abstract&issn=0012-9658&volume=083&issue=09&page=2425

Hodges A, Hodges G, Buss L, Osborne L, 2008. Mealybugs & Mealybug Look-Alikes of the Southeastern United States. North Central IPM Center., USA: USDA-CSREES Integrated Pest Management Centers, 113 pp. www.ncipmc.org/alerts/phmb/mealybugs.pdf

Hodgson CJ, Abbas G, Arif MJ, Saeed S, Karar H, 2008. Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), an invasive mealybug damaging cotton in Pakistan and India, with a discussion on seasonal morphological variation. Zootaxa, 1913:1-35

Ibrahim SS, Moharum FA, El-Ghany NMA, 2015. The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as a new insect pest on tomato plants in Egypt. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 55(1):48-51. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jppr.2015.55.issue-1/jppr-2015-0007/jppr-2015-0007.xml?format=INT

IPPC, 2010. Solenopsis mealybug in parts of central and northern Queensland. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. AUS-36/1, AUS-36/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

IPPC, 2018. (Primer reporte oficial de Phenacoccus solenopsis). IPPC Official Pest Report, No. NIC-18/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Ismail, M, Ejaz, M, Abbas, N, Shad, SA, Shahzad Afzal, MB, 2017. Resistance risk assessment to chlorpyrifos and cross-resistance to other insecticides in a field strain of Phenacocus solenopsis Tinsley. Crop Protection, 94, 38-43.

Jagadish KS, Shadhanaikural A, Chandru R, Shadakshari Y, 2009. Biochemical and morphological changes due to mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) infestation on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Insect Environment, 15(1):28-30

Jagadish KS, Shankaramurthy M, Kalleshwaraswamy CM, Viraktamath CA, Shadakshari YG, 2009. Ecology of the mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hymenoptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting sunflower and its parasitization by Aenasius sp. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Insect Environment, 15(1):27-28

Jagadish KS, Shankaramurthy Y, Jagannatha D, Karuna K, Geetha K, Puttarangaswamy K, 2008. Role of ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) fauna in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In: Memorial National Symposium on Plant Protection, UAS, Bangalore, December 4-6 [ed. by Coleman, L.]. unpaginated

Jansen MG, 2004. An updated list of scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea) from imported interceptions and greenhouses in the Netherlands. In: Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, 19th-23rd April 2004. 147-165 pp

Jhala RC, Bharpoda TM, Patel MG, 2008. Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), the mealy bug species recorded first time on cotton and its alternate host plants in Gujarat, India. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology, 28(3):403-406

Jhala RC, Solanki RF, Bharpoda TM, Patel MG, 2009. Occurrence of hymenopterous parasitoids, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat and Promuscidea unfaciativentris Girault on cotton mealy bugs, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in Gujarat. Insect Environment, 14(4):164-165

Kaydan MB, Çaliskan AF, Ulusoy MR, 2013. New record of invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Turkey. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 43(1):169-171. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338

Khuhro, S. N., Kalroo, A. M., Mahmood, R., 2011. Present status of mealy bug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) on cotton and other plants in Sindh (Pakistan). In: World Cotton Research Conference-5, Mumbai, India, 7-11 November 2011 [World Cotton Research Conference-5, Mumbai, India, 7-11 November 2011], [ed. by Kranthi, K. R., Venugopalan, M. V., Balasubramanya, R. H., Kranthi, S., Singh, S., Blaise.]. New Delhi, India: Excel India Publishers. 268-271. http://icac.org/meetings/wcrc/wcrc5/Proceedings.pdf

Kondo T, Ramos Portilla AA, Vergara Navarro EV, 2008. Updated list of mealybugs and putoids from Colombia (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae). Boletín del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad del Valle (BHEUV), 9(1):29-53. http://entomologia.univalle.edu.co/boletin/boletin.htm

Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale insects of northeastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History, vii + 650 pp.; 34 pp. of ref

Larrain SP, 2002. [English title not available]. (Incidencia de insectos y acaros plagas en pepino dulce (Solanum muricatum Ait.) cultivado en la IV Region, Chile.) Agricultura Técnica, Chile, 62(1):15-26

Lu Y, Zeng L, Wang L, Xu Y, Chen K, 2008. Guard against a dangerous invasion of China Phenacoccus. Precaution of solenopsis mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. Journal of Environmental Insects, 4:1

Maes JM, 2009. Entomological fauna of Nicaragua: family Pseudococcidae. Entomological Fauna of Nicaragua: Family Pseudococcidae. unpaginated. http://www.bio-nica.info/Ento/Homop/homoptera.htm

Martins, D. S., Fornazier, M. J., Culik, M. P., Ventura, J. A., Ferreira, P. S. F., Zanuncio, J. C., 2015. Scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) pests of papaya (Carica papaya) in Brazil. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 108(1), 35-42. doi: 10.1093/aesa/sau010

Maruthadurai R, Singh NP, 2015. First report of invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley infesting cashew from Goa, India. Phytoparasitica, 43(1):121-124. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12600-014-0421-6

Matienzo Y, Ramos B, Rijo E, 2003. A bibliographic revision of Lantana camara L., a threat to livestock. (Revisión bibliográfica sobre Lantana camara L. una amenaza para la ganadería.) Fitosanidad, 7(4):45-55

Matile-Ferrero, D., Étienne, J., 2006. [English title not available]. (Cochenilles des Antilles Francaises et de quelques autres iles Caraibes (Hemiptera, Coccoidea)). Revue Française d'Entomologie, 28(4), 161-190.

McDaniel B, 1975. The mealybugs of Texas (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) Part II. The Texas Journal of Science:19-51

McKenzie HL, 1961. Second taxonomic study of California mealybugs, with descriptions of new species (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Hilgardia, 31:1-52

McKenzie HL, 1967. Mealybugs of California, with taxonomy, biology, and control of North American species (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). viii+526 pp

Miller DR, 2005. Selected scale insect groups (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in the Southern Region of the United States. Florida Entomologist, 88(4):482-501

Miller DR, Kosztarab M, 1979. Recent advances in the study of scale insects. Annual Review of Entomology. Volume 24 [ed. by Mittler, T. E.\Radovsky, F. J.\Resh, V. H.]. Palo Alto, California, USA: Annual Reviews Inc., 1-27

Ministry of Agriculture, 2009. With regard to the hibiscus plant, Phenacoccus included in the notice of quarantine pests. Ministry of Agriculture, the State General Administration of Quality Supervision Bulletin 2009, 1147. http://www.chinagb.org/Article/standardCommodity/zhijiangonggao/200902/44969.html

Ministry of Agriculture, 2010. Announcement 1380. Gazette of the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China

Moghaddam, M., Bagheri, A. N., 2010. A new record of mealybug pest in the south of Iran, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 30(1), En67-En69.

Muniappan R, 2009. A parasitoid to tackle the menace of the mealybug pest of cotton in India. IAPPS Newsletter, December(XII). http://www.plantprotection.org/news/NewsDec09.htm

Muniappan R, Shepard BM, Watson GW, Carner GR, Rauf A, Sartiami D, Hidayat P, Afun JVK, Goergen G, Ziaur Rahman AKM, 2011. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 26(4) . 167-174.

Muniappan, R., Shepard, B. M., Watson, G. W., Carner, G. R., Rauf, A., Sartiami, D., Hidayat, P., Afun, J. V. K., Goergen, G., Rahman, A. K. M. Z., 2009. New records of invasive insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) in Southeast Asia and West Africa. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 26(4), 167-174. http://scentsoc.org/Volumes/JAUE/26/2640167.pdf

Muniappan, R., Watson, G. W., Vaughan, L., Gilbertson, R., Noussourou, M., 2012. New records of mealybugs, scale insects, and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) from Mali and Senegal. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 28(1), 1-7. doi: 10.3954/1523-5475-28.1.1

Muralidharan CM, Badaya SN, 2000. Mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus) outbreak on herbaceum cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) in Wagad cotton belt of Kachch. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 70:705-706

Nagrare VS, Kranthi S, Biradar VK, Zade NN, Sangode V, Kakde G, Shukla RM, Shivare D, Khadi BM, Kranthi KR, 2009. Widespread infestation of the exotic mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on cotton in India. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 99(5):537-541. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=6191524&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0007485308006573

Nalwar YS, Sayyed MA, Mokle SS, Zanwar PR, Vibhute YB, 2009. Synthesis and insect antifeedant activity of some new chalcones against Phenacoccus solenopsis. World Journal of Chemistry, 4(2):123-126

Newton, J. S., Glasier, J., Maw, H. E. L., Proctor, H. C., Foottit, R. G., 2011. Ants and subterranean Sternorrhyncha in a native grassland in east-central Alberta, Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 143(5), 518-523. http://pubs.esc-sec.ca/doi/abs/10.4039/n11-034

Nguyen TC, Huynh TMC, 2008. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley damage on ornamental plants at HCM city and surrounding areas. BVTV, 37(3):3-4

Noyes JS, 2020. Universal Chalcicoidea Database. World Wide Web electronic publication. London, UK: Natural History Museum.http://www.nhm.ac.uk/chalcidoids

Pala Ram, Saini RK, Vijaya, 2009. Preliminary studies on field parasitization and biology of solenopsis mealybug parasitoid, Aenasius bambawalei Hay at (Encyrtidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Cotton Research and Development, 23(2):313-315

Patel HP, Patel AD, Bhatt NA, 2009. Record of coccinellids predating on mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Gujarat. Insect Environment, 14(4):179

Perez-Gelabert DE, 2008. Arthropods of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti): a checklist and bibliography. Zootaxa, 1831:1-530

Pinto JD, Frommer SI, 1980. A survey of the arthropods on jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). Environmental Entomology, 9(1):137-143

Portilla AR, Cardona JS, 2004. [English title not available]. (Coccoidea de Colombia, con énfasis en las cochinillas harinosas (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).) Revista Facultad nacional de Agronomia, Medellin, 57(2)

Prishanthini M, Vinobaba ML, 2009. Phenacoccus solenopsis. Daily News, Sri Lanka's National Newspaper, July., Sri Lanka: The Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Ltd. http://www.dailynews.lk/2009/07/01/fea30.asp

Rabinder Kaur, Ramandeep Kaur, Brar KS, 2008. Development and predation efficacy of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) under laboratory conditions. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana), 21(1):93-95

Ravlin FW, 1995. Caribbean region annual report: an overview. Virginia, USA: Office of International Research, Education, and Development. http://www.oired.vt.edu/ipmcrsp/communications/annrepts/annrep96/annrpt96car.html

Resende ALS, Silva EE, Silva VB, Ribeiro RLD, Guerra JGM, Aguiar-Menezes EL, 2006. First record of Lipaphis pseudobrassicae Davis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its association with predator insects, parasitoids and ants in kale (Cruciferae) in Brazil. (Primeiro registro de Lipaphis pseudobrassicae Davis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) e sua associação com insetos predadores, parasitóides e formigas em couve (Cruciferae) no Brasil.) Neotropical Entomology, 35(4):551-555. http://www.scielo.br/ne

Rodriguez EB, Perez I, Castro V, Rodriguez Castro A, Rodriguez Castro V, 2003. Report of pseudococcids of Cuba. Results of period 2001-2002. Fitosanidad, 7(2):31-36

Saeed S, Ahmad M, Ahmad M, Kwon YJ, 2007. Insecticidal control of the mealy bug, Phenacoccus gossypiphilous (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a new pest of cotton in Pakistan. Entomological Research, 37:76-80

Santos, R. S., Peronti, A. L. B. G., 2017. Occurrence of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in okra in Acre state, Brazil. (Ocorrência de Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) em quiabeiro no estado do Acre). EntomoBrasilis, 10(2), 135-138. https://periodico.ebras.bio.br/ojs/index.php/ebras/article/view/ebrasilis.v10i2.684/436

Sartiami D, Watson GW, Mohamad Roff MN, Idris AB, 2016. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records. In: AIP Conference Proceedings : AIP Publishing.

Sharma SS, 2007. Aenasius sp. nov. effective parasitoid of mealy bug (Phenacoccus solenopsis) on okra. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 36(3/4):412

Siam Insect-Zoo and Museum, 2007. Siam Insect-Zoo and Museum. Siam Insect-Zoo and Museum. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Siam Insect-Zoo and Museum. http://www.malaeng.com/blog/index.php

Silva, V. C. P. da, Kaydan, M. B., Silva-Torres, C. S. A. da, Torres, J. B., 2019. Mealybug species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) on soursop and sugar apple (Annonaceae) in North-East Brazil, with description of a new species of Pseudococcus Westwood. Zootaxa, 4604(3), 525-538. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4604.3.8

Spodek, M., Ben-Dov, Y., Mondaca, L., Protasov, A., Erel, E., Mendel, Z., 2018. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Israel: pest status, host plants and natural enemies. Phytoparasitica, 46(1), 45-55. doi: 10.1007/s12600-018-0642-1

Suh SooJung, Bombay, K., 2015. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) found on dracaena and ficus plants (Asparagales: Asparagaceae, Rosales: Moraceae) from southeastern Asia. Insecta Mundi, (No.0448), 1-10. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2015

Suresh S, Jothimani R, Sivasubrmanian P, Karuppuchamy P, Samiyappan R, Jonathan EI, 2010. Invasive mealybugs of Tamil Nadu and their management. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 23(1):6-9. http://203.129.218.157/ojs/index.php/kjas/article/viewFile/1266/1210

Suresh S, Kavitha P, 2008. New records of Coccoidea in India. In: Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007 [ed. by Branco, M. \Franco, J. C. \Hodgson, C. J.]. Lisbon, Portugal: ISA Press, 155

Suresh S, Kavitha P, 2008. Seasonal incidence of economically important coccid pests in Tamil Nadu. In: Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007 [ed. by Branco, M. \Franco, J. C. \Hodgson, C. J.]. Lisbon, Portugal: ISA Press, 285-291

Taber SW, 2000. Fire Ants. College Station, Texas, USA: Texas A&M University Press, 308 pp

Tanaka H, Tabata J, 2014. A new record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, 1898 from Kyushu district, Japan. Japanese Journal of Entomology, 17(3):119-120

Tanaka H, Uesato T, 2012. New records of some potential pest mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 47(4):413-419. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13355-012-0134-6/fulltext.html

Tanwar R, Bhamare V, Ramamurthy V, Hayat M, Jeukumar P, Singh A, Bambawale O, 2008. Record of new parasitoid on mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis. Indian Journal of Entomology, 70(4):404-405

Tanwar RK, Jeyakumar P, Monga D, 2007. Mealybugs and their management. National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi, Technical Bulletin, 19:1-16

Tian Hu, Li XiaoFeng, Wan FangHao, Zhang GuiFen, Zhang JinLiang, 2013. Identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) with species-specific COI (SS-COI) primers. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 56(6), 689-696. http://www.insect.org.cn/EN/volumn/current.shtml

Tinsley JD, 1898. An ants'-nest coccid from New Mexico. The Canadian Entomologist, 30:47-48

Tinsley JD, 1898. Notes on Coccidae, with descriptions of new species. The Canadian Entomologist, 30:317-320

Tong HaoJie, Ao Yan, Li ZiHao, Wang Ying, Jiang MingXing, 2019. Invasion biology of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley: current knowledge and future directions. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 18(4), 758-770. doi: 10.1016/S2095-3119(18)61972-0

Vidya, C. V., Haseena Bhaskar, 2017. Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) associated with major sucking pests of Kerala. Journal of Biological Control, 31(4), 212-216. doi: 10.18311/jbc/2017/18618

Wang YanPing, Watson, G. W., Zhang RunZhi, 2010. The potential distribution of an invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis and its threat to cotton in Asia. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 12(4), 403-416. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2010.00490.x

Wang YP, Wu SA, Zhang RZ, 2009. Pest risk analysis of a new invasive pest, Phenacoccus solenopsis, to China. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology, 46(1):101-106

Williams, D. J., Willink, M. C. G. de, 1992. Mealybugs of Central and South America, Wallingford, UK: CAB International.635 pp.

Wu SA, Zhang RZ, 2009. A new invasive pest, Phenacoccus solenopsis threatening seriously to cotton production. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology, 46(1):159-162

Yonas MW, Umar K, 2019. Biological control of cotton mealy bug (Phenacoccus solenopsis) in Pakistan. Pakistan: Agrihunt.https://agrihunt.com/articles/pesticide-industry/biological-control-of-cotton-mealy-bug-phenacoccus-solenopsis-in-pakistan/

Zhao Jing, Watson, G. W., Sun Yang, Tan YonGan, Xiao Liu, Bai LiXin, 2014. Phenotypic variation and identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China. Zootaxa, 3802(1), 109-121. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3802.1.9

Zhou AiMing, Lu YongYue, Zeng Ling, Xu YiJuan, Liang GuangWen, 2012. Does mutualism drive the invasion of two alien species? The case of Solenopsis invicta and Phenacoccus solenopsis. PLoS ONE, 7(7):e41856. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0041856

Zhou Wan, Lin YunBiao, Xu FengXian, Yan Tie, Wang XiuHua, Liang XianHe, Shi ZuHua, 2010. Investigation of distribution and damage of Phenacoccus solenopsis in Zhejiang Province. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology, 47(6):1231-1235. http://www.ilib.cn/P-kczs.html

Distribution References

Abbas G, Arif M J, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Aslam, Shafqat Saeed, 2010. Host plants distribution and overwintering of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 12 (3), 421-425. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_3/20.pdf

Abbas G, Arif M J, Saeed S, 2005. Systematic status of a new species of genus Phenacoccus cockerell (Pseudococcidae) a serious pest of cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. in Pakistan. Pakistan Entomologist. 27 (1), 83-84.

Abbas G, Arif M J, Saeed S, Karar H, 2008. Increasing menace of a new mealybug, Phenacoccus gossypiphilous, to the economic crops of southern Asia. In: Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007 [Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007], [ed. by Branco M, Franco J C, Hodgson C J]. Lisbon, Portugal: ISA Press. 322 pp.

Abbas G, Arif M J, Saeed S, Karar H, 2009. A new invasive species of genus Phenacoccus cockerell attacking cotton in Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 11 (1), 54-58. http://www.fspublishers.org/

Abdul-Rassoul M S, Al-Malo I M, Hermiz F B, 2015. First record and host plants of solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, 1898 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Iraq. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES). 7 (2), 216-222. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/JBES-Vol7No2-p216-222.pdf

Ahmed M Z, Ma Jun, Qiu BaoLi, He RiRong, Wu MuTao, Liang Fan, Zhao JuPeng, Lin Li, Hu XueNan, Lv LiHua, Breinholt J W, Lu YongYue, 2015. Genetic record for a recent invasion of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Asia. Environmental Entomology. 44 (3), 907-918. http://www.bioone.org/loi/enve

Akintola A J, Ande A T, 2008. First record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Nigeria. Agricultural Journal. 3 (1), 1-3. http://www.medwelljournals.com/fulltext/aj/2008/1-3.pdf DOI:10.3923/ijar.2008.1.26

Alemu Z, Taye W, 2020. Survey of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) insect pest at afar region of Ethiopia. International Journal of Agriculture and Biosciences. 9 (4), 194-198. http://www.ijagbio.com/pdf-files/volume-9-no-4-2020/194-198.pdf

Anon, 2004. Phenacoccus solenopsis. In: ScaleNet, [ed. by Ben-Dov Y, Miller D R, Gibson G A P]. http://198.77.169.79/catalogs/pseudoco/Phenacoccussolenopsis.htm

Anon, 2009. Entomological Fauna of Nicaragua: family Pseudococcidae. In: Entomological Fauna of Nicaragua: Family Pseudococcidae, [ed. by Maes J M]. unpaginated. http://www.bio-nica.info/Ento/Homop/homoptera.htm

Arif M I, Muhammad Rafiq, Abdul Ghaffar, 2009. Host plants of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis): a new menace to cotton agroecosystem of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 11 (2), 163-167. http://www.fspublishers.org/

Arif M J, Abbas G, Saeed S, 2007. Cotton in danger. In: DAWN (Internet edition), Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publication. http://www.dawn.com/weekly/science/archive/070324/science3.htm

Aroua K, Kadan MB, Ercan C, Biche M, 2020. First record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) in Algeria. Entomological News. 129 (63-66), 1.

Aroua K, Kaydan M B, Ercan C, Biche M, 2020a. First record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) in Algeria. Entomological News. 129 (1), 63-66. DOI:10.3157/021.129.0109

Assefa Y, Dlamini G, 2018. Phenacoccus solenopsis tinsley (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae): a new polyphagous invasive mealybug pest in highveld, lowveld and lubombo regions of Swaziland. African Entomology. 26 (2), 536-542. DOI:10.4001/003.026.0536

Bader A K, Al-Jboory I J, 2020. First record of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley 1898 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), from Saudi Arabia. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 50 (3), 557-560. DOI:10.1111/epp.12674

Ben-Dov Y, 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. In: A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited. 686 pp.

Beshr S M, Badr S A, Ahmad A A, Mohamed G H, 2016. New record of host plants of invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Tinsley, 1898), (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Alexandria and Behaira governorates. Journal of Entomology. 13 (4), 155-160. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=je.2016.155.160&org=10

Bhatt N A, 2010. Mealy bug [Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)] - a serious pest of tobacco in Gujarat. Insect Environment. 16 (2), 90-91.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI/EPPO, 2012. Phenacoccus solenopsis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 761. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20123252650

Causton C E, Peck S B, Sinclair B J, Roque-Albelo L, Hodgson C J, Landry B, 2006. Alien insects: threats and implications for conservation of Galápagos Islands. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 99 (1), 121-143. http://docserver.esa.catchword.org/deliver/cw/pdf/esa/freepdfs/00138746/v99n1s14.pdf DOI:10.1603/0013-8746(2006)099[0121:AITAIF]2.0.CO;2

Celepcİ E, Uygur S, Kaydan M B, Uygur F N, 2017. Mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species on weeds in Citrus (Rutaceae) plantations in Çukurova Plain, Turkey. Türkiye Entomoloji Bülteni. 7 (1), 15-21. http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/315531

Culik M P, Gullan P J, 2005. A new pest of tomato and other records of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Espirito Santo, Brazil. Zootaxa. 1-8.

Culik M P, Martins D dos S, Ventura J A, Peronti A L B G, Gullan P J, Kondo T, 2007. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica. 7 (3), 61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en DOI:10.1590/S1676-06032007000300006

Culik M P, Martins D dos S, Zanuncio Junior J S, Fornazier M J, Ventura J A, Peronti A L B G, Zanuncio J C, 2013. The invasive hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its recent range expansion in Brazil. Florida Entomologist. 96 (2), 638-640. DOI:10.1653/024.096.0234

Dhawan A K, Kamaldeep Singh, Ravinder Singh, 2009. Evaluation of different chemicals for the management of mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley on Bt cotton. Journal of Cotton Research and Development. 23 (2), 289-294.

Dhawan A K, Sarika Saini, 2009. First record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton in Punjab. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana). 22 (3), 309-310.

El-Aalaoui M, Sbaghi M, 2021. First record of the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its seven parasitoids and five predators in Morocco. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 51 (2), 299-304. DOI:10.1111/epp.12745

El-Zahi E S, Aref S A E, Korish S K M, 2016. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as a new menace to cotton in Egypt and its chemical control. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 56 (2), 111-115. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jppr.2016.56.issue-2/jppr-2016-0017/jppr-2016-0017.xml?format=INT

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Fand B B, Suroshe S S, 2015. The invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, a threat to tropical and subtropical agricultural and horticultural production systems - a review. Crop Protection. 34-43. DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2014.12.001

Fuchs T W, Stewart J W, Minzenmayer R, Rose M, 1991. First record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in cultivated cotton in the United States. Southwestern Entomologist. 16 (3), 215-221.

Gavrilovic B D, Curcic S B, 2017. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on scale insects (Homoptera: Coccinea) of Bali, Flores and New Guinea (Indonesia). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 65 (1), 37-44. http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2013/65-1-037-044.pdf

Gavrilov-Zimin IA, Danzig EM, 2015. Some additions to the mealybug fauna (Homoptera: Coccinea: Pseudococcidae) of the Canary Islands. Zoosystematica Rossica. 24 (1), 94-98.

Germain J F, Sookar P, Buldawoo I, Permalloo S, Quilici S, 2014. Three species of potentially invasive scale insects new for Mauritius (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). (Trois espèces de Cochenilles potentiellement invasives nouvelles pour l'île Maurice (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae).). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 119 (1), 27-29.

Goeden R D, 1971. Insect ecology of silverleaf nightshade. Weed Science. 19 (1), 45-51.

Gordh G, 1979. Family Encyrtidae. In: Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico, Volume 1. [ed. by Kromkein K V]. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Institute Press. 890-967.

Granara de Willink M C, Szumik C, 2007. Central and South American Phenacoccine (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae): Systematics and Phylogeny. (Phenacoccinae de Centro y Sudamérica (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae): Sistemática y Filogenia). Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica, Argentina. 66 (1-2), 29-129.

Halbert S E, 1998. Tri-ology Technical Report. 37 (1) Gainesville; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, USA: Division of Plant Industry. 3-6.

Hanchinal S G, Patil B V, Basavanagoud K, Nagangoud A, Biradar D P, Janagoudar B S, 2011. Incidence of invasive mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley) on cotton. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 24 (2), 143-145.

Hemba M, Mulatu B, Lemma H, 2012. Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae): a newly introduced pest threatening cotton production in Ethiopia. Pest Management Journal of Ethiopia. 60-67.

Hodges A, Hodges G, Buss L, Osborne L, 2008. Mealybugs & Mealybug Look-Alikes of the Southeastern United States. In: Mealybugs & Mealybug Look-Alikes of the Southeastern United States. USA: USDA-CSREES Integrated Pest Management Centers. 113 pp. www.ncipmc.org/alerts/phmb/mealybugs.pdf

Hodgson C J, Abbas G, Arif M J, Saeed S, Karar H, 2008. Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), an invasive mealybug damaging cotton in Pakistan and India, with a discussion on seasonal morphological variation. Zootaxa. 1-35.

Ibrahim S S, Moharum F A, El-Ghany N M A, 2015. The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as a new insect pest on tomato plants in Egypt. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 55 (1), 48-51. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jppr.2015.55.issue-1/jppr-2015-0007/jppr-2015-0007.xml?format=INT DOI:10.1515/jppr-2015-0007

IPPC, 2018. (Primer reporte oficial de Phenacoccus solenopsis). In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Ismail M, Ejaz M, Abbas N, Shad SA, Shahzad Afzal MB, 2017. Resistance risk assessment to chlorpyrifos and cross-resistance to other insecticides in a field strain of Phenacocus solenopsis Tinsley. Crop Protection. 38-43.

Jagadish K S, Shankaramurthy M, Kalleshwaraswamy C M, Viraktamath C A, Shadakshari Y G, 2009. Ecology of the mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hymenoptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting sunflower and its parasitization by Aenasius sp. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Insect Environment. 15 (1), 27-28.

Jansen M G, 2004. An updated list of scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea) from imported interceptions and greenhouses in the Netherlands. In: Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, 19th-23rd April 2004 [Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, 19th-23rd April 2004.], 147-165.

Jhala R C, Bharpoda T M, Patel M G, 2008. Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), the mealy bug species recorded first time on cotton and its alternate host plants in Gujarat, India. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology. 28 (3), 403-406.

Jhala R C, Solanki R F, Bharpoda T M, Patel M G, 2009. Occurrence of hymenopterous parasitoids, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat and Promuscidea unfaciativentris Girault on cotton mealy bugs, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in Gujarat. Insect Environment. 14 (4), 164-165.

Kaydan M B, Çalıșkan A F, Ulusoy M R, 2013. New record of invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Turkey. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 43 (1), 169-171. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338 DOI:10.1111/epp.12015

Khuhro S N, Kalroo A M, Mahmood R, 2011. Present status of mealy bug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) on cotton and other plants in Sindh (Pakistan). In: World Cotton Research Conference-5, Mumbai, India, 7-11 November 2011 [World Cotton Research Conference-5, Mumbai, India, 7-11 November 2011.], [ed. by Kranthi K R, Venugopalan M V, Balasubramanya R H, Kranthi S, Singh S, Blaise]. New Delhi, India: Excel India Publishers. 268-271. http://icac.org/meetings/wcrc/wcrc5/Proceedings.pdf

Kondo T, Ramos Portilla A A, Vergara Navarro E V, 2008. Updated list of mealybugs and putoids from Colombia (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae). Boletín del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad del Valle. 9 (1), 29-53. http://entomologia.univalle.edu.co/boletin/boletin.htm

Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale insects of northeastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History. vii + 650 pp.

Larrain S P, 2002. [English title not available]. (Incidencia de insectos y acaros plagas en pepino dulce (Solanum muricatum Ait.) cultivado en la IV Region, Chile). Agricultura Técnica, Chile. 62 (1), 15-26.

Lopes F S C, Oliveira J V de, Oliveira J E de M, Oliveira M D de, Souza A M de, 2019. Host plants for mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in grapevine crops. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical. DOI:10.1590/1983-40632019v4954421

Macharia I, Kibwage P, Heya H M, Makathima F, Olubayo D, Guantai M, Kinuthia W, Ouvrard D, Watson G W, 2021. New records of scale insects and mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) in Kenya. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 51 (3), 639-647. DOI:10.1111/epp.12786

Martins D S, Fornazier M J, Culik M P, Ventura J A, Ferreira P S F, Zanuncio J C, 2015. Scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) pests of papaya (Carica papaya) in Brazil. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 108 (1), 35-42. DOI:10.1093/aesa/sau010

Maruthadurai R, Singh N P, 2015. First report of invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley infesting cashew from Goa, India. Phytoparasitica. 43 (1), 121-124. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12600-014-0421-6 DOI:10.1007/s12600-014-0421-6

Matienzo Y, Ramos B, Rijo E, 2003. A bibliographic revision of Lantana camara L., a threat to livestock. (Revisión bibliográfica sobre Lantana camara L. una amenaza para la ganadería.). Fitosanidad. 7 (4), 45-55.

Matile-Ferrero D, Étienne J, 2006. Scale insects from the French Antilles and some other Caribbean islands [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. (Cochenilles des antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles des caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea].). Revue Française d'Entomologie. 28 (4), 161-190.

McDaniel B, 1975. The mealybugs of Texas (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) Part II. Texas Journal of Science. 19-51.

McKENZiE H L, 1967. Mealybugs of California, with taxonomy, biology, and control of North American species (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). viii+526 pp.

Miller D R, 2005. Selected scale insect groups (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in the Southern Region of the United States. Florida Entomologist. 88 (4), 482-501. DOI:10.1653/0015-4040(2005)88[482:SSIGHC]2.0.CO;2

Ministry of Agriculture, 2010. Announcement 1380. Gazette of the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China.,

Muniappan R, 2009. A parasitoid to tackle the menace of the mealybug pest of cotton in India. In: IAPPS Newsletter, unpaginated. http://www.plantprotection.org/news/NewsDec09.htm

Muniappan R, Shepard B M, Watson G W, Carner G R, Rauf A, Sartiami D, Hidayat P, Afun J V K, Goergen G, Rahman A K M Z, 2009. New records of invasive insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) in Southeast Asia and West Africa. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology. 26 (4), 167-174. http://scentsoc.org/Volumes/JAUE/26/2640167.pdf

Muniappan R, Watson G W, Vaughan L, Gilbertson R, Noussourou M, 2012. New records of mealybugs, scale insects, and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) from Mali and Senegal. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology. 28 (1), 1-7. DOI:10.3954/1523-5475-28.1.1

Muralidharan C M, Badaya S N, 2000. Mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus) outbreak on herbaceum cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) in Wagad cotton belt of Kachch. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science. 705-706.

Nagrare V S, Kranthi S, Biradar V K, Zade N N, Sangode V, Kakde G, Shukla R M, Shivare D, Khadi B M, Kranthi K R, 2009. Widespread infestation of the exotic mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on cotton in India. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 99 (5), 537-541. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=6191524&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0007485308006573 DOI:10.1017/S0007485308006573

Nguyen T C, Huynh T M C, 2008. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley damage on ornamental plants at HCM city and surrounding areas. BVTV. 37 (3), 3-4.

Pala Ram, Saini R K, Vijaya, 2009. Preliminary studies on field parasitization and biology of solenopsis mealybug parasitoid, Aenasius bambawalei Hay at (Encyrtidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Cotton Research and Development. 23 (2), 313-315.

Perez-Gelabert D E, 2008. Arthropods of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti): a checklist and bibliography. Zootaxa. 1-530.

Pinto J D, Frommer S I, 1980. A survey of the arthropods on jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). Environmental Entomology. 9 (1), 137-143. DOI:10.1093/ee/9.1.137

Porcelli F, Pellizzari G, 2019. New data on the distribution of scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 124 (2), 183-188.

Portilla A R, Cardona J S, 2004. [English title not available]. (Coccoidea de Colombia, con énfasis en las cochinillas harinosas (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)). Revista Facultad nacional de Agronomia, Medellin. 57 (2),

Prishanthini M, Vinobaba M L, 2009. Phenacoccus solenopsis. In: Daily News, Sri Lanka's National Newspaper, Sri Lanka: The Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Ltd. http://www.dailynews.lk/2009/07/01/fea30.asp

Rania S A, Demiana H K, Suzan A B, 2020. First record of the cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) as a novel pest on new host plants in Alexandria, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Plant Protection Research Institute. 3 (3), 883-887. http://www.ejppri.eg.net/pdf/v3n3/8.pdf

Ransom L, 2010. Solenopsis mealybug in parts of central and northern Queensland. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Ravlin F W, 1996. IPM CRSP. Caribbean region 1995-1996 annual report: an overview. Virginia, USA: Office of International Research, Education, and Development. http://www.oired.vt.edu/ipmcrsp/communications/annrepts/annrep96/annrpt96car.html

Resende A L S, Silva E E, Silva V B, Ribeiro R L D, Guerra J G M, Aguiar-Menezes E L, 2006. First record of Lipaphis pseudobrassicae Davis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its association with predator insects, parasitoids and ants in kale (Cruciferae) in Brazil. (Primeiro registro de Lipaphis pseudobrassicae Davis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) e sua associação com insetos predadores, parasitóides e formigas em couve (Cruciferae) no Brasil.). Neotropical Entomology. 35 (4), 551-555. http://www.scielo.br/ne DOI:10.1590/S1519-566X2006000400019

Ricupero M, Biondi A, Russo A, Zappalà L, Mazzeo G, 2021. The cotton mealybug is spreading along the Mediterranean: first pest detection in Italian tomatoes. Insects. 12 (8), DOI:10.3390/insects12080675

Rodriguez E B, Perez I, Castro V, Rodriguez Castro A, Rodriguez Castro V, 2003. Report of pseudococcids of Cuba. Results of period 2001-2002. Fitosanidad. 7 (2), 31-36.

Saeed S, Ahmad M, Ahmad M, Kwon Y J, 2007. Insecticidal control of the mealy bug, Phenacoccus gossypiphilous (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a new pest of cotton in Pakistan. Entomological Research. 76-80.

Santos R S, Peronti A L B G, 2017. Occurrence of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in okra in Acre state, Brazil. (Ocorrência de Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) em quiabeiro no estado do Acre.). EntomoBrasilis. 10 (2), 135-138. https://periodico.ebras.bio.br/ojs/index.php/ebras/article/view/ebrasilis.v10i2.684/436

Sartiami D, Watson GW, Mohamad Roff MN, Idris AB, 2016. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records. In: AIP Conference Proceedings [The 2016 UKM FST Postgraduate Colloquium], AIP Publishing.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Silva C A D da, 2012. Occurrence of new species of mealybug on cotton fields in the states of Bahia and Paraíba, Brazil. Bragantia. 71 (4), 467-470. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052012000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en DOI:10.1590/S0006-87052013005000005

Silva V C P da, Kaydan M B, Silva-Torres C S A da, Torres J B, 2019. Mealybug species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) on soursop and sugar apple (Annonaceae) in North-East Brazil, with description of a new species of Pseudococcus Westwood. Zootaxa. 4604 (3), 525-538. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4604.3.8

Suh SooJung, Bombay K, 2015. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) found on dracaena and ficus plants (Asparagales: Asparagaceae, Rosales: Moraceae) from southeastern Asia. Insecta Mundi. 1-10. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2015

Sunil Joshi, Sangma R H Ch, 2015. Natural enemies associated with aphids and coccids from Sikkim, India. Journal of Biological Control. 29 (1), 3-7. http://journalofbiologicalcontrol.com/index.php/jbc/article/view/75778/59026

Suresh S, Jothimani R, Sivasubrmanian P, Karuppuchamy P, Samiyappan R, Jonathan E I, 2010. Invasive mealybugs of Tamil Nadu and their management. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 23 (1), 6-9.

Suresh S, Kavitha P, 2008. Seasonal incidence of economically important coccid pests in Tamil Nadu. In: Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007 [Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007], [ed. by Branco M, Franco J C, Hodgson C J]. Lisbon, Portugal: ISA Press. 285-291.

Suresh S, Kavitha P, 2008a. New records of Coccoidea in India. In: Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007 [Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007], [ed. by Branco M, Franco J C, Hodgson C J]. Lisbon, Portugal: ISA Press. 155.

Tanaka H, Tabata J, 2014. A new record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, 1898 from Kyushu district, Japan. Japanese Journal of Entomology. 17 (3), 119-120.

Tanaka H, Uesato T, 2012. New records of some potential pest mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 47 (4), 413-419. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13355-012-0134-6/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s13355-012-0134-6

Tanwar R K, Jeyakumar P, Monga D, 2007. Mealybugs and their management. In: National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi, Technical Bulletin. 19 1-16.

Tinsley J D, 1898. An ants'-nest coccid from New Mexico. Canadian Entomologist. 47-48.

Vidya C V, Haseena Bhaskar, 2017. Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) associated with major sucking pests of Kerala. Journal of Biological Control. 31 (4), 212-216. DOI:10.18311/jbc/2017/18618

Wang Y P, Wu S A, Zhang R Z, 2009. Pest risk analysis of a new invasive pest, Phenacoccus solenopsis, to China. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology. 46 (1), 101-106.

Williams D J, Granara de Willink M C, 1992. Mealybugs of Central and South America. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 635 pp.

Wu S A, Zhang R Z, 2009. A new invasive pest, Phenacoccus solenopsis threatening seriously to cotton production. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology. 46 (1), 159-162.

Zhao Jing, Watson G W, Sun Yang, Tan YonGan, Xiao Liu, Bai LiXin, 2014. Phenotypic variation and identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China. Zootaxa. 3802 (1), 109-121. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.3802.1.9

Zhou Wan, Lin YunBiao, Xu FengXian, Yan Tie, Wang XiuHua, Liang XianHe, Shi ZuHua, 2010. Investigation of distribution and damage of Phenacoccus solenopsis in Zhejiang Province. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology. 47 (6), 1231-1235. http://www.ilib.cn/P-kczs.html

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Mealybugshttp://www.mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/Mealybugs.htm
Mealybugs & Mealybug Look-Alikes of the Southeastern United Stateshttp://www.ncipmc.org/alerts/phmb/mealybugs.pdf
Scalenethttp://scalenet.info

Contributors

Top of page

11/12/09 Original text by:

Paris Lambdin, Department of Entomology, Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Tennessee, PO Box 1071, Knoxville, TN 37901, USA

13/01/20 Updated by:

Gillian Watson, Consultant, UK

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: