Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Wind (pathway vector)



Wind (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Wind (pathway vector)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Wind (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Acacia decurrens (green wattle)Seeds may be dispersed by ants, wind and water Yes Henderson (2001); Weeds of Australia (2016)
Acacia glauca (wild dividivi) Yes
Acer rufinerve (grey snake-bark maple) Yes
Acmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)Seeds Yes Chung et al. (2007)
Aculops fuchsiae (Fuchsia gall mite) Yes Koehler et al. (1985)
Adiantum hispidulum (rosy maidenhair fern) Yes Yes
Adiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern) Yes Yes
Aecidium glycines Yes
African cassava mosaic virus (African cassava mosaic)Wind-aided dispersal of viruliferous whiteflies may contribute to field spread Yes Yes Legg (2010)
Agave americana (century plant)Seeds, bulbils and stem fragments Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed) Yes Baker (1965)
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed) Yes Johnson (1971)
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer) Yes
Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass) Yes Marlette and Anderson (1986)
Agrostis avenacea (Pacific bent grass)Seeds and vegetative parts. Yes Victorian Resources Online (2015)
Agrostis capillaris (common bent) Yes
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, seed Yes Yes Kowarik and Säumel (2007)
Albizia adinocephala (cream albizia) Yes Yes Roman et al. (2012)
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)Seed dispersal in strong winds. Intact pods can be carried hundreds of metres Yes Yes `t Mannetje and Jones (1992); Lowry (1994)
Albizia procera (white siris)Seeds are dispersed by wind Yes Yes Parrotta (2004)
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes Morales (2014)
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)Winged seeds Yes Yes Francis (2000)
Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)Seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal (2019)
Alternanthera halimifolia (hairy joyweed)Seeds Yes Yes
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Alternaria japonica (pod spot of radish)conidia Yes Tewari and Buchwaldt (2007); Verma and Saharan (1994)
Alternaria triticina (leaf blight of wheat)conidia Yes Kumar and Arya (1973a); Kumar and Arya (1976)
Alternaria yali-inficiens (chocolate spot of Ya Li Pear)Characteristic for Alternaria spores in general Yes Rotem (1994)
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes Yes Grubben (2004)
Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)Strong winds and hurricane dispersal of the seeds Yes Yes Menges (1987)
Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp) Yes Costea et al. (2005)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) Yes
Ambrosia confertiflora Yes
Ambrosia peruviana (Peruvian ragweed)Seeds Yes
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)Seeds and roots Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) Yes
Amphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle) Yes Tarasov and Zevina (1957)
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem) Yes PIER (2008); Rojas and Chavez Vibrans (2010)
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge) Yes
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Spores Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen (2008)
Apiognomonia erythrostoma (cherry leaf scorch)ejected ascospores are airborne Yes Hecht and Zinkernagel (2006)
Aproceros leucopoda (elm zigzag sawfly) Yes Yes Blank et al. (2010)
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy) Yes Queensland Government (2015)
Aristida ternipes (spidergrass)Seeds Yes Yes Allred (2003)
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)Seeds are winged, adapted for wind dispersal Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
Arkoola nigra (black leaf blight of soybean)ascospores Yes Walker and Stovold (1986)
Armillaria novae-zelandiae Yes
Arrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass) Yes Albrecht et al. (2008)
Artemisia biennis (biennial wormwood)Seeds Yes Kegode and Darbyshire (2013)
Arthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass) Yes
Arundo donax (giant reed)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2014)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) Yes Yes Bhowmik (1982); Pleasants (1991)
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale) Yes
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)Spores Yes Yes Carnegie and Cooper (2011); Grgurinovic et al. (2006)
Avena barbata (slender oat)Seeds can be dispersed locally via wind. Yes
Axonopus fissifolius Yes
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato/potato psyllid) Yes
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)Adults Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly)Adult Yes Yes
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)Seeds Yes Yes Smith (2010)
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Seeds Yes Yes ISSG (2018)
Blechnum appendiculatum (palm fern) Yes Yes
Bothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Bothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem)Seeds Yes Texas Invasives (2015)
Bothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)Presumed Yes
Botryosphaeria berengeriana f.sp. pyricola (Physalospora canker)ascospores Yes
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Fruits with wing-like structure Yes Yes McMullen (1999)
Brassica tournefortii (African mustard)Seeds, plant fragments Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes
Bromus hordeaceus (soft brome) Yes Williams et al. (2011)
Bromus secalinus (rye brome) Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail)Numerous tiny seeds are dispersed widely. Yes Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes
Caesalpinia violacea (brasiletto)Dehiscent legume Yes Barreto (1998)
Campylopus introflexusSpores over large distances, shoot tips over short distances Yes Yes
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Seeds Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2015)
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Seeds Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al. (2013)
Carduus pycnocephalus (Italian thistle) Yes
Cassytha filiformis (love-vine)Seeds and stem fragments may be spread by strong winds Yes Heide-Jørgensen (2008); Nelson (2008)
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Cavanillesia platanifolia (cuipo)Seeds adapted for wind dispersal Yes IPlantz (2019)
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass) Yes
Centaurea debeauxii (meadow knapweed) Yes
Centratherum punctatum (lark daisy)Achenes Yes Yes Woodson and Schery (1975)
Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass)Seeds Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2020)
Chloris virgata (feather finger grass)Seeds Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Chondrilla juncea (rush skeletonweed) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2015)
Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed)Main means of dispersal Yes
Chrysomyxa abietis (needle rust of fir)Basidiospores Yes Collins (1976a)
Chrysomyxa himalensis (needle rust of spruce)Basidiospores, aeciospores, urediniospores of most rusts Yes Alexopoulos et al. (1996)
Chrysomyxa rhododendri (European Rhododendron rust)Basidiospores, aeciospores, urediniospores Yes Bennell (1985)
Ciborinia allii (neck rot of onion)conidia Yes Lacy and Lorbeer (1995)
Cinchona pubescens (quinine tree)Winged seeds aid in naturalization and spread locally Yes Buddenhagen et al. (2004); Starr et al. (2003)
Cirsium mexicanum (Mexican thistle)Seeds with bristles Yes Yes Pruski (2012)
Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato) Yes
Clavibacter nebraskensis (Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight) Yes
Claviceps africana (ergot)conidia Yes CABI/EPPO (2006); Frederickson et al. (1993); Workneh and Rush (2002)
Claviceps fusiformis (pearl millet ergot)Conidia Yes Sharma and Chauhan (1982); Verma and Pathak (1986)
Claviceps gigantea (horse's tooth)Ascospores Yes Fuentes et al. (1964)
Claviceps sorghi (sorghum ergot) Yes Frederickson (1999)
Claviceps sorghicolamacroconidia Yes Tsukiboshi et al. (1999)
Clematis terniflora (sweet autumn clematis) Yes Yes Skibo (2006); Global Invasive Species Database (2010)
Colletotrichum coccodes (black dot of potato)Pathogen inoculum carried by blowing soil can infect potato leaves Yes Johnson and Miliczky (1993)
Combretum grandiflorum (showy combretum)Fruits are 5-winged and adapted for wind dispersal Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005); Midgley (1998)
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass) Yes
Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)Seeds Yes Yes Doran (1999)
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus
Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)Seeds with silky pappus hairs Yes Yes Denton (2004)
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes
Crassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop) Yes CAPM-CEH (2004)
Cronartium flaccidum (Scots pine blister rust)aeciospores, urediniospores Yes Yes Smith et al. (1988)
Crumenulopsis sororiaAscospores Yes Hayes (1975); Hayes (1980)
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine)Seeds Yes Yes PIER (2012)
Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress)Seeds Yes Yes
Cyathea cooperi (australian tree fern)Spores are carried by wind Yes Medeiros et al. (1992)
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Arrived on oceanic islands via spore dispersal Yes Holttum (1976)
Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass) Yes NARO (2004)
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (camel grass)Seeds Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Seeds Yes Kelly (2000)
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) Yes Yes
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom) Yes Peterson and Raj Prasad (1998)
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Seeds Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Dalbergia sissoo Yes Morton (2007)
Daphnia lumholtziWind and atmospheric transport is likely to be a frequent mode of local and long distance dispersal Yes Yes Cáceres and Soluk (2002); Cohen and Shurin (2003); Havel and Shurin (2004)
Daucus carota (carrot) Yes Umehara et al. (2005)
Dendrocalamus strictus (male bamboo)Seeds are wind-dispersed Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Deparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)Spore distribution Yes Yes Shinohara et al. (2006)
Descurainia sophia (flixweed) Yes University of Alaska Anchorage (2011)
Diaporthe gulyae (Phomopsis stem canker of sunflower)Possible ascospore and infected stubble dispersal Yes Yes Ghimire et al. (2018)
Dichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2011)
Dichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)Seeds are wind dispersed Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Dichanthium caricosum (nadi blue grass)Seeds Yes
Dickeya solani (black leg disease of potato)Likely to spread by wind-blown rain from heavily infected growing plants Yes Toth et al. (2011)
Didymella fabae (leaf and pod spot)Ascospores. Possibly long distance also Yes Jellis and Punithalingam (1991)
Digitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass) Yes Catasús Guerra (2015)
Digitaria insularis (sourgrass) Yes
Dimorphotheca sinuata (Cape marigold)Winged achenes adapted for wind dispersal Yes Yes De Waal (2015)
Dioscorea alata (white yam)Winged seeds Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato)Seeds Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Spores are dispersed by wind. Yes HEAR (2020)
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Winged seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila) Yes
Drymaria arenarioides (alfombrilla)Reported as dispersed by wind Yes Allison (1977)
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)Seeds Yes Yes Waterhouse (1994)
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass) Yes Bossard et al. (2000)
Elephantopus mollis (elephant's foot) Yes Queensland Government (2014)
Emex spinosa (spiny emex) Yes
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Seeds Yes Yes Davidse et al. (2018)
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2011)
Emilia praetermissa (yellow thistle)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Seed dispersal Yes Yes Fern (2019)
Epidendrum radicans (crucifix orchid) Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Epilobium ciliatum (northern willowherb) Yes
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)Seeds Yes PIER (2018)
Eragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes PIER (2016)
Eragrostis ciliaris (gophertail lovegrass)Seed Yes PIER (2018)
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes PIER (2016)
Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass) Yes USDA Forest Service (2014)
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)Seed Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Eragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)Seeds carried by wind Yes Yes Reis (1993)
Erechtites glomerata (fireweed) Yes Yes
Erechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed)Hairy pappus on seeds aids wind dispersal Yes Yes Darbyshire et al. (2012)
Erechtites valerianifolius (tropical burnweed)Seeds Yes Schwirkowski (2013)
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita)Tiny achenes Yes Yes Nagata (1995)
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane)Spreads quickly due to its efficient anemochorous dissemination system Yes Triolo (2005)
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight) Yes
Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum) Yes
Eucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)Seeds wind-dispersed Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Euschistus heros (Neotropical brown stink bug)Dispersed by strong winds. Yes Aldrich (1990)
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed) Yes Rutledge and McLendon (1996)
Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug) Yes
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) Yes Australian Government Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (2008)
Fimbristylis cymosa (tropical fimbry) Yes
Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Flemingia lineata (wild hops)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Flora of China (2016)
Flemingia strobilifera (wild hops)Seeds Yes ISSG (2014)
Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) Yes
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)Seeds are adapted for wind dispersal Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2018)
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. medicaginis (fusarium wilt of alfalfa) Yes Yes
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (Fusarium wilt of watermelon)possible, chlamydospores in dust Yes Nishimura; 1971; Wang et al.; 1993
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)Seeds are wind-dispersed Yes Yes Turner and Whalen (1975)
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Seeds Yes Yes Damalas (2008)
Galphimia glauca (goldshower)Seeds Yes Yes Anderson (2007)
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode) Yes Been and Schomaker (2006)
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode) Yes
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Seeds Yes Yes Motooka et al. (2003)
Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth) Yes Staples et al. (2000)
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton) Yes Yes PIER (2017)
Grevillea robusta (silky oak)Seeds are wind-dispersed Yes Yes Smith (1998)
Gymnosporangium miyabei Yes Yamada and Miyake (1908)
Gypsophila paniculata (baby’s breath) Yes Yes Darwent (1975)
Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood) Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim (2005)
Hakea sericea (silky hakea) Yes
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton) Yes Tilley et al. (2015)
Helenium amarum (bitterweed) Yes Tomley and Panetta (2002)
Heliocarpus americanus (white moho) Yes Smith (1985)
Heliocarpus donnellsmithii (majagua)Wind dispersed fruits Yes Yes Vázquez‐Yanes and Orozco‐Segovia (1982)
Heliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)Seeds, root fragments Yes Yes Hegazy et al. (1994)
Helminthotheca echioides (bristly oxtongue) Yes New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (2016)
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Tiley et al. (1996)
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Seeds can be blown particularly over frozen or snow-covered land Yes Kabuce (2006)
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes Yes
Heterotheca grandiflora (telegraph weed) Yes DiTomaso and Healy (2007)
Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf) Yes Fatanmi et al. (2013)
Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)Seeds Yes Yes Salazar and Soihet (2001)
Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage) Yes PIER (2007)
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard) Yes South East Natural Resources Management Board (2009)
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Yes Catling et al. (2003)
Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (ash dieback)ascospores Yes Kowalski and Holdenrieder (2009a)
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)Seeds Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort)Small seeds readily carried by wind Yes TISDALE et al. (1959)
Hypogeococcus pungens (cactus mealybug) Yes McFadyen (1979)
Hyptis alata (clustered bushmint)SeedsHarley (1983)
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Seeds Yes Yes van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes
Indian cassava mosaic virus (Indian cassava mosaic)Spread may occur via movement of wind-aided viruliferous whiteflies. Yes Yes
Indigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo) Yes
Inula britannica (british yellowhead) Yes
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)Seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Al-Sodany (2016)
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Iris yellow spot virus (iris yellow spot)Wind can spread thrips to new cropping areas Yes Yes
Isatis tinctoria (dyer's woad)Suggested as important under snow conditions Yes Yes Farah et al. (1988)
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda) Yes
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)Cyclones Yes
Juncus planifolius (broadleaf rush) Yes
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (devil's backbone)Seeds Yes Yes Herrera and Nassar (2009)
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Seeds Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2011)
Kuehneola uredinis (Cane and leaf rust) Yes Yes Shands et al. (2018)
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga) Yes MPI (2016)
Lachnellula willkommii (European larch canker) Yes Sinclair and Lyon (2005)
Lactuca floridana (woodland lettuce) Yes
Laelia rubescens (flor de la concepción) Yes Arditti and Ghani (2000)
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)Seeds are wind-dispersed Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Seeds are wind-dispersed Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)Seeds Yes Yes PFAF (2017)
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)Seeds Yes Yes Kilian (1997)
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Could be blown by wind into nearby areas Yes Mkandawire and Dudel (2007)
Lemna minuta Yes Armstrong (2009)
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Seeds Yes Yes eFloras (2014)
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)Individual seedpods or entire racemes can be carried away by wind. Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2016)
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid) Yes
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes
Limnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant) Yes Akers (2010)
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes
Lindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)seeds Yes Yes ISSG (2016)
Lupinus plattensis (Nebraska lupine)Seeds Yes Yes Georgia (1914)
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)No information available but it could be a possibility as it is used as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)
Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern) Yes Yes Ferriter (2001)
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree) Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)Larvae blown about - an important means of movement locally Yes Yes Kairo (1997); Harman (in press)
Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)Spores Yes Yes
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree) Yes PIER (2007)
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass) Yes Yes
Melinis repens (natal redtop)Seeds Yes Yes Stokes et al. (2011)
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Mansur (2001)
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (crystalline iceplant) Yes The Arizona Wildland Invasive Plant Working Group (AZ-WIPWG) (2005)
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mikania scandens Yes PIER (2013)
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes Francis (2004)
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)Seed wind dispersal in USA Yes Meyer (2003)
Monilinia fructigena (brown rot)ascospores and conidia Yes Batra (1991); Byrde and Willetts (1977)
Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot)Dominant natural means of dispersal Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Common pathway Yes
Moraea (Cape tulip) Yes
Moraea collina (Cape tulip) Yes Yes
Moraea miniata (two-leaf Cape-tulip) Yes
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Seeds are winged and disperse over short distances Yes Csurhes and Navie (2016)
Murdannia nudiflora (doveweed) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2017)
Mycosphaerella gibsonii (needle blight of pine) Yes
Myroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam) Yes
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Seeds Yes Daniel (2001)
Neolecanium cornuparvum (magnolia scale) Yes
Nephrolepis hirsutula (sword fern)Possible as spores in ferns are small and easily carried by wind Yes
Nerium oleander (oleander)Seeds are wind dispersed Yes Herrera (1991)
Neyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed) Yes
Oracella acuta (loblolly pine mealybug)Immature forms transported by wind Yes
Orbea variegata (carrion-flower) Yes Dunbar and Facelli (1999)
Orobanche cernua (nodding broomrape) Yes
Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) Yes
Orobanche ramosa (branched broomrape) Yes
Paederia foetida (skunkvine) Yes Puff and Werbowsky (1991)
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Passive transport of crawlers Yes Yes
Parentucellia viscosa (yellow glandweed) Yes
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes Navie et al. (1996); Taye (2002)
Paspalum botterii (rusty-seed crown grass) Yes Hitchcock (1936)
Paspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)Seeds Yes Yes Más and Garcia-Molinari (2006)
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass) Yes Hitchcock (1936); FAO (2012b); Catasús Guerra (2015)
Pastinaca sativa (parsnip)Frequent short distance dispersal of seeds by wind Yes Cain et al. (2010)
Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia) Yes SE-EPPC (2003)
Pelagia noctiluca (mauve stinger) Yes Yes
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Pelargonium spp. can disperse their small seeds by wind, water, and soil. Yes Dixon (2011); Western Australian Herbarium (2014)
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium)Members of the Pelargonium genus can disperse their small seeds by wind, water, and soil. Yes Yes Dixon (2011); Western Australian Herbarium (2014)
Pennisetum polystachion (mission grass) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)Seeds Yes Yes Duke (1983)
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Seeds Yes Rahlao et al. (2010a)
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Philippine downy mildew of maize)Wind dispersal of P. philippinensis to adjacent fields is mostly localized Yes USDA (2006)
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) Yes
Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)Seeds Yes Yes Alegre and Clavo (2007)
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Seeds can be wind dispersed Yes Monaco Nature Encyclopedia (2019)
Phakopsora ampelopsidis (Ampelopsis rust fungus)Urediniospores, basidiospores Yes Yes Alexopoulos et al. (1996)
Phakopsora euvitis (grape rust fungus) Yes Yes Alexopoulos et al. (1996)
Phakopsora meibomiae (soybean rust)Urediniospores Yes Yes Stavely and Pastor-Corrales (2005)
Phleum pratense (timothy grass) Yes
Phoma tracheiphila (mal secco) Yes Balmas et al. (2005); Laviola and Scarito (1989)
Phomopsis vexans (Phomopsis blight of eggplant) Yes Edgerton and Moreland (1921)
Phragmites australis (common reed) Yes
Phyllachora maydis (black spot of maize)Ascospores Yes Hock et al. (1995); Liu (1973)
Phytophthora kernoviaeTransport of diseased abscised leaves Yes Benson et al. (2010); Dick and Parke (2012)
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Robin et al. (2011); Trione and Roth (1957)
Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)Seeds Yes Yes Oteng-Amoako and Brink (2008)
Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine)Up to 8 km dispersal recorded Yes Langdon et al. (2010); Ledgard (2001)
Pinus elliottii (slash pine) Yes Cooper (1957); Queensland Government (2011)
Pinus pinaster (maritime pine) Yes Cronk and Fuller (1995)
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) Yes Gerson (2016)
Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed)Natural dispersion of seed Yes
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua (2020)
Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth)Adults Yes Yes Chapman et al. (2002)
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Seed Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Podranea ricasoliana (pink trumpet vine)Propagules adapted to wind dispersal with seed wings nearly 1cm wide Yes Webb et al. (1988)
Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed) Yes Hook (2013)
Polypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass) Yes
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Prunus serotina (black cherry)The bulk of the fruits, i.e., up to 95 %, fall within the first 5–10 m of the seed tree in forests Yes Hoppes (1988)
Pseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.) Yes Yes Kuate (1998)
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)Growing season; first-instar crawlers blown away Yes
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Seeds Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Pteris multifida (spider brake)Spores are wind-dispersed Yes Yes PIER (2018)
Pteris tripartita (giant brake)Spores are wind-dispersed Yes Morton (1957)
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Spores are easily transported by wind Yes Yes UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2019)
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)Seeds floating in waterways and rivers Yes Yes Thomson (2006)
Pterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes
Puccinia buxiBasidiospores Yes Alexopoulos et al. (1996)
Puccinia gladiolispores Yes Wise et al. (2004)
Puccinia pittieriana (common rust of potato)basidiospores Yes EPPO (1988)
Pucciniastrum coryli Yes
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)Adults are not long distance flyers – can move from tree to tree Yes Yes
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp) Yes
Raoiella indica (red palm mite)Thought to aid dispersal locally or between islands in the Caribbean Yes Yes Hoy et al. (2006)
Rhamphicarpa fistulosaSeeds are tiny and could be transported by wind Yes
Rhaponticum repens (Russian knapweed) Yes
Rubus parviflorus (thimbleberry)Seeds Yes Haeussler et al. (1990)
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG (2009)
Schismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)Seeds are wind dispersed Yes Yes Esque and Schwalbe (2002)
Schizolobium parahyba (Brazilian fern tree)Fruits wind-dispersed Yes Turchetto-Zolet et al. (2012)
Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae (brown stripe downy mildew of maize) Yes Singh and Renfro (1971)
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes
Senecio inaequidens (South African ragwort) Yes Monty et al. (2008)
Senna multijuga (November shower)Seed is adapted for wind dispersal Yes PIER (2014)
Sesbania sericea (silky sesban)Seeds Yes Yes Francis (2000)
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes
Sida repens (Javanese fanpetals)Seeds Yes Yes Raju and Rani (2016)
Silene latifolia subsp. alba (white campion)Natural seed dispersal Yes Jongejans and Schippers (1999)
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry) Yes Levin et al. (2005)
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade)Species is a tumbleweed Yes Yes CSU (2010)
Solenopsis richteri (black imported fire ant)Newly mated queens Yes Taber (2000)
Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) Yes Werner et al. (1980)
Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod) Yes Weber and Jakobs (2005)
Solidago nemoralis (grey goldenrod)Hypothetical Yes
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Seeds Yes Yes Hutchinson et al. (1984)
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) Yes
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom)Seeds Yes Yes Nilsen et al. (1993); Zouhar (2005)
Spathodea campanulata (African tulip tree) Yes ICRAF (2008)
Spathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)Seeds Yes Yes
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)Outbreaks recorded after the passage of a hurricane Yes Torres (1992)
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) Yes Yes Johnson (1987)
Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar)Adult moth Yes
Sporisorium pulverulentum (Sporisorium smut of wild Saccharum) Yes
Sporisorium sacchari (Asian sugarcane smut)spores Yes Lee-Lovick (1978)
Sporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass) Yes
Sporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)Seeds are small and wind dispersed Yes Yes Catasús Guerra (1997)
Striga asiatica (witch weed) Yes
Tabebuia heterophylla (pink trumpet tree)Up to or over 100m Yes Weaver (1990)
Tabebuia rosea (pink poui)Seeds are wind dispersed Yes PROTA (2016)
Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) Yes
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)Winged seeds Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug)Adults Yes Nadel et al. (2010)
Thecaphora frezii (peanut smut)Spores can be transported by wind from infested plots to healthy plots. Peanut processing plants are a major source of aerial spores Yes Cazón (2015); Rago et al. (2016); Rago et al. (2017)
Thekopsora areolata (cherry spruce rust)Basidiospores, aeciospores, urediniospores Yes Alexopoulos et al. (1996)
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Spores Yes
Thymophylla tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy)Seeds are wind-dispersed Yes Dave's Garden (2019)
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)Seeds Yes Yes Roothaert and Paterson (1997)
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Seeds Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2018)
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus) Yes Yes
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl) Yes Yes Cohen et al. (1988)
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Seeds Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Seeds carried by wind Yes Yes Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (2011)
Tragus racemosus (stalker bur grass)Although adapted for animal dispersal, there is a report of the species being wind dispersed Yes Catasús Guerra (2015)
Trichoconiella padwickii (stackburn disease)conidia Yes Sreeramulu and Vittal (1966)
Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) Yes
Triplaris americana (ant tree) Yes Yes Pires et al. (2015)
Turbina corymbosa (Christmas vine) Yes
Typha angustifolia (lesser bulrush) Yes
Typha domingensis (southern cattail)Achenes with hairs. Yes Yes Krattinger (1975)
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes Grace and Harrison (1986)
Typha x glauca (hybrid cattail)Fruits with hairs Yes Yes Krattinger (1975)
Ulex europaeus (gorse) Yes Hill et al. (1996)
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer) Yes Yes
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)Seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal (2018)
Urocystis agropyri (flag smut of wheat) Yes Vánky and Shivas (2008)
Uromycladium spp. that cause gall rusts (Acacia gall rusts)Teliospores readily dispersed by wind Yes Yes
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) Yes Yes
Verbena officinalis (vervain)Reported as wind dispersed, but without further information Yes India Biodiversity Portal (2020)
Verbesina encelioides (golden crownbeard) Yes Kaul and Mangal (1987)
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes
Viguiera dentata (sunflower goldeneye)Seeds Yes Schilling (2006)
Wheat streak mosaic virus (wheat streak)The vector is carried by winds for up to 4 km. Yes Coutts et al. (2008); Stillwell (2009)
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. alfalfae (bacterial leaf spot of lucerne) Yes
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. euvesicatoria (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. perforans (bacterial spot of tomato) Yes
Xanthomonas hortorum pv. gardneri (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis (bacterial leaf streak of grasses) Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (bacterial leaf streak of barley) Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (bacterial leaf streak of wheat and barley) Yes
Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum (bacterial leaf streak of corn) Yes Sivitis (2017)
Xanthomonas vesicatoria (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Seeds carried by wind over long distances Yes Yes Chau and Siu (1998)
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia)Seeds adapted for wind dispersal Yes PlantPono (2014)
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube) Yes Yes Saied et al. (2008)