Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Wind (pathway vector)



Wind (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Wind (pathway vector)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Wind (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Acacia glauca (wild dividivi) Yes
Acer rufinerve (grey snake-bark maple) Yes
Acmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)Seeds Yes Chung et al., 2007
Aculops fuchsiae (Fuchsia gall mite) Yes Koehler et al., 1985
Adiantum hispidulum (rosy maidenhair fern) Yes Yes
Adiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern) Yes Yes
Aecidium glycines Yes
African cassava mosaic virus (African cassava mosaic)Wind-aided dispersal of viruliferous whiteflies may contribute to field spread Yes Yes Legg, 2010
Agave americana (century plant)Seeds, bulbils and stem fragments Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed) Yes Baker, 1965
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed) Yes Johnson, 1971
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer) Yes
Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass) Yes Marlette and Anderson, 1986
Agrostis avenacea (Pacific bent grass)Seeds and vegetative parts. Yes Victorian Resources Online, 2015
Agrostis capillaris (common bent) Yes
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, seed Yes Yes Kowarik and Säumel, 2007
Albizia adinocephala (cream albizia) Yes Yes Roman et al., 2012
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)Seed dispersal in strong winds. Intact pods can be carried hundreds of metres Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007; Chung et al., 2007
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes Morales, 2014
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)Winged seeds Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)Seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal, 2019
Alternanthera halimifolia (hairy joyweed)Seeds Yes Yes
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Alternaria japonica (pod spot of radish)conidia Yes Tewari and Buchwaldt, 2007; Verma and Saharan, 1994
Alternaria triticina (leaf blight of wheat)conidia Yes Kumar and Arya, 1973a; Kumar and Arya, 1976
Alternaria yali-inficiens (chocolate spot of Ya Li Pear)Characteristic for Alternaria spores in general Yes Rotem, 1994
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes Yes Grubben, 2004
Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)Strong winds and hurricane dispersal of the seeds Yes Yes Menges, 1987
Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp) Yes Costea et al., 2005
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) Yes
Ambrosia confertiflora Yes
Ambrosia peruviana (Peruvian ragweed)Seeds Yes
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)Seeds and roots Yes Yes Montagnani et al., 2017
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) Yes
Amphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle) Yes Tarasov and Zevina, 1957
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem) Yes PIER, 2008; Chung et al., 2007
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge) Yes
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Spores Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
Apiognomonia erythrostoma (cherry leaf scorch)ejected ascospores are airborne Yes Hecht and Zinkernagel, 2006
Aproceros leucopoda (elm zigzag sawfly) Yes Yes Blank et al., 2010
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy) Yes Chung et al., 2007
Aristida ternipes (spidergrass)Seeds Yes Yes Allred, 2003
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)Seeds are winged, adapted for wind dispersal Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005
Arkoola nigra (black leaf blight of soybean)ascospores Yes Walker and Stovold, 1986
Armillaria novae-zelandiae Yes
Arrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass) Yes Albrecht et al., 2008
Artemisia biennis (biennial wormwood)Seeds Yes Kegode and Darbyshire, 2013
Arthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass) Yes
Arundo donax (giant reed)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) Yes Yes Bhowmik, 1982; Pleasants, 1991
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale) Yes
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)Spores Yes Yes Carnegie and Cooper, 2011; Grgurinovic et al., 2006
Avena barbata (slender oat)Seeds can be dispersed locally via wind. Yes
Axonopus fissifolius Yes
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato/potato psyllid) Yes
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)Adults Yes
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)Seeds Yes Yes Smith, 2010
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Seeds Yes Yes ISSG, 2018
Blechnum appendiculatum (palm fern) Yes Yes
Bothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Bothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem)Seeds Yes Texas Invasives, 2015
Bothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)Presumed Yes
Botryosphaeria berengeriana f.sp. pyricola (Physalospora canker)ascospores Yes
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Fruits with wing-like structure Yes Yes McMullen, 1999
Brassica tournefortii (African mustard)Seeds, plant fragments Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes
Bromus hordeaceus (soft brome) Yes Williams et al., 2011
Bromus secalinus (rye brome) Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail)Numerous tiny seeds are dispersed widely. Yes Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes
Caesalpinia violacea (brasiletto)Dehiscent legume Yes Barreto, 1998
Campylopus introflexusSpores over large distances, shoot tips over short distances Yes Yes
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Seeds Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2015
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Seeds Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al., 2013
Carduus pycnocephalus (Italian thistle) Yes
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
Cavanillesia platanifolia (cuipo)Seeds adapted for wind dispersal Yes IPlantz, 2019
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass) Yes
Centaurea debeauxii (meadow knapweed) Yes
Centratherum punctatum (lark daisy)Achenes Yes Yes Woodson and Schery, 1975
Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass)Seeds Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2020
Chloris virgata (feather finger grass)Seeds Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Chondrilla juncea (rush skeletonweed) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2015
Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed)Main means of dispersal Yes
Chrysomyxa abietis (needle rust of fir)Basidiospores Yes Collins, 1976a
Chrysomyxa himalensis (needle rust of spruce)Basidiospores, aeciospores, urediniospores of most rusts Yes Alexopoulos et al., 1996
Chrysomyxa rhododendri (European Rhododendron rust)Basidiospores, aeciospores, urediniospores Yes Bennell, 1985
Ciborinia allii (neck rot of onion)conidia Yes Lacy and Lorbeer, 1995
Cinchona pubescens (quinine tree)Winged seeds aid in naturalization and spread locally Yes Buddenhagen et al., 2004; Starr et al., 2003
Cirsium mexicanum (Mexican thistle)Seeds with bristles Yes Yes Pruski, 2012
Claviceps africana (ergot)conidia Yes CABI/EPPO, 2006; Frederickson et al., 1993; Workneh and Rush, 2002
Claviceps fusiformis (pearl millet ergot)Conidia Yes Sharma and Chauhan, 1982; Verma and Pathak, 1986
Claviceps gigantea (horse's tooth)Ascospores Yes Fuentes et al., 1964
Claviceps sorghi (sorghum ergot) Yes Frederickson, 1999
Claviceps sorghicolamacroconidia Yes Tsukiboshi et al., 1999
Clematis terniflora (sweet autumn clematis) Yes Yes Skibo, 2006; Global Invasive Species Database, 2010
Colletotrichum coccodes (black dot of potato)Pathogen inoculum carried by blowing soil can infect potato leaves Yes Johnson and Miliczky, 1993
Combretum grandiflorum (showy combretum)Fruits are 5-winged and adapted for wind dispersal Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Midgley, 1998
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass) Yes
Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)Seeds Yes Yes Doran, 1999
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (African cotton leaf curl begomovirus)
Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)Seeds with silky pappus hairs Yes Yes Denton, 2004
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes
Crassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop) Yes CAPM-CEH, 2004
Cronartium flaccidum (Scots pine blister rust)aeciospores, urediniospores Yes Yes Smith et al., 1988
Crumenulopsis sororiaAscospores Yes Hayes, 1975; Hayes, 1980
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine)Seeds Yes Yes PIER, 2012
Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress)Seeds Yes Yes
Cyathea cooperi (australian tree fern)Spores are carried by wind Yes Medeiros et al., 1992
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Arrived on oceanic islands via spore dispersal Yes Holttum, 1976
Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass) Yes NARO, 2004
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (camel grass)Seeds Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2019
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Seeds Yes Kelly, 2000
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) Yes Yes
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom) Yes Chung et al., 2007
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Seeds Yes Holm et al., 1977
Dalbergia sissoo Yes Morton, 2007
Daphnia lumholtziWind and atmospheric transport is likely to be a frequent mode of local and long distance dispersal Yes Yes Cáceres and Soluk, 2002; Cohen and Shurin, 2003; Havel and Shurin, 2004
Daucus carota (carrot) Yes Umehara et al., 2005
Dendrocalamus strictus (male bamboo)Seeds are wind-dispersed Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
Deparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)Spore distribution Yes Yes Shinohara et al., 2006
Descurainia sophia (flixweed) Yes University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011
Dichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2011
Dichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)Seeds are wind dispersed Yes Cook et al., 2005
Dichanthium caricosum (nadi blue grass)Seeds Yes
Dickeya solani (black leg disease of potato)Likely to spread by wind-blown rain from heavily infected growing plants Yes Toth et al., 2011
Didymella fabae (leaf and pod spot)Ascospores. Possibly long distance also Yes Jellis and Punithalingam, 1991
Digitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass) Yes Catasús Guerra, 2015
Digitaria insularis (sourgrass) Yes
Dimorphotheca sinuata (Cape marigold)Winged achenes adapted for wind dispersal Yes Yes De Waal, 2015
Dioscorea alata (white yam)Winged seeds Yes Chung et al., 2007
Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato)Seeds Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Spores are dispersed by wind. Yes HEAR, 2020
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Winged seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila) Yes
Drymaria arenarioides (alfombrilla)Reported as dispersed by wind Yes Allison, 1977
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2013
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)Seeds Yes Yes Waterhouse, 1994
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass) Yes Chung et al., 2007
Elephantopus mollis (elephant's foot) Yes Queensland Government, 2014
Emex spinosa (spiny emex) Yes
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Seeds Yes Yes Davidse et al., 2018
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2011
Emilia praetermissa (yellow thistle)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2020
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Seed dispersal Yes Yes Fern, 2019
Epidendrum radicans (crucifix orchid) Yes Yes POWO, 2020
Epilobium ciliatum (northern willowherb) Yes
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)Seeds Yes PIER, 2018
Eragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes PIER, 2016
Eragrostis ciliaris (gophertail lovegrass)Seed Yes PIER, 2018
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes PIER, 2016
Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass) Yes USDA Forest Service, 2014
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)Seed Yes Holm et al., 1997
Eragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)Seeds carried by wind Yes Yes Reis, 1993
Erechtites glomerata (fireweed) Yes Yes
Erechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed)Hairy pappus on seeds aids wind dispersal Yes Yes Darbyshire et al., 2012
Erechtites valerianifolius (tropical burnweed)Seeds Yes Schwirkowski, 2013
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita)Tiny achenes Yes Yes Nagata, 1995
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane)Spreads quickly due to its efficient anemochorous dissemination system Yes Triolo, 2005
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight) Yes
Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum) Yes
Eucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)Seeds wind-dispersed Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Euschistus heros (Neotropical brown stink bug)Dispersed by strong winds. Yes Aldrich, 1990
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed) Yes Rutledge and McLendon, 1996
Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug) Yes
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) Yes Australian Government Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008
Fimbristylis cymosa (tropical fimbry) Yes
Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1977
Flemingia lineata (wild hops)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Flora of China, 2016
Flemingia strobilifera (wild hops)Seeds Yes ISSG, 2014
Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) Yes
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)Seeds are adapted for wind dispersal Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2018
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. medicaginis (fusarium wilt of alfalfa) Yes Yes
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (Fusarium wilt of watermelon)possible, chlamydospores in dust Yes Chung et al., 2007; Chung et al., 2007; Chung et al., 2007
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)Seeds are wind-dispersed Yes Yes Turner and Whalen, 1975
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Seeds Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Galphimia glauca (goldshower)Seeds Yes Yes Anderson, 2007
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode) Yes Been and Schomaker, 2006
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode) Yes
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Seeds Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth) Yes Staples et al., 2000
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton) Yes Yes PIER, 2017
Grevillea robusta (silky oak)Seeds are wind-dispersed Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007
Gymnosporangium miyabei Yes Yamada and Miyake, 1908
Gypsophila paniculata (baby’s breath) Yes Yes Darwent, 1975
Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood) Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim, 2005
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton) Yes Tilley et al., 2015
Helenium amarum (bitterweed) Yes Tomley and Panetta, 2002
Heliocarpus americanus (white moho) Yes Smith, 1985
Heliocarpus donnellsmithii (majagua)Wind dispersed fruits Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007
Heliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)Seeds, root fragments Yes Yes Hegazy et al., 1994
Helminthotheca echioides (bristly oxtongue) Yes New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, 2016
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Tiley et al., 1996
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Seeds can be blown particularly over frozen or snow-covered land Yes Kabuce, 2006
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes Yes
Heterotheca grandiflora (telegraph weed) Yes DiTomaso and Healy, 2007
Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)Seeds Yes Yes Salazar and Soihet, 2001
Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage) Yes PIER, 2007
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard) Yes South East Natural Resources Management Board, 2009
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Yes Catling et al., 2003
Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (ash dieback)ascospores Yes Kowalski and Holdenrieder, 2009a
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)Seeds Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort)Small seeds readily carried by wind Yes TISDALE et al., 1959
Hypogeococcus pungens (cactus mealybug) Yes McFadyen, 1979
Hyptis alata (clustered bushmint)SeedsHarley, 1983
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Seeds Yes Yes van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2018
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes
Indian cassava mosaic virus (Indian cassava mosaic)Spread may occur via movement of wind-aided viruliferous whiteflies. Yes Yes
Indigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo) Yes
Inula britannica (british yellowhead) Yes
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)Seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2018
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Al-Sodany, 2016
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Iris yellow spot virus (iris yellow spot)Wind can spread thrips to new cropping areas Yes Yes
Isatis tinctoria (dyer's woad)Suggested as important under snow conditions Yes Yes Farah et al., 1988
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda) Yes
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)Cyclones Yes
Juncus planifolius (broadleaf rush) Yes
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (devil's backbone)Seeds Yes Yes Herrera and Nassar, 2009
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Seeds Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
Kuehneola uredinis (Cane and leaf rust) Yes Yes Shands et al., 2018
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga) Yes MPI, 2016
Lachnellula willkommii (European larch canker) Yes Sinclair and Lyon, 2005
Lactuca floridana (woodland lettuce) Yes
Laelia rubescens (flor de la concepción) Yes Arditti and Ghani, 2000
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)Seeds are wind-dispersed Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Seeds are wind-dispersed Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)Seeds Yes Yes PFAF, 2017
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)Seeds Yes Yes Kilian, 1997
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Could be blown by wind into nearby areas Yes Mkandawire and Dudel, 2007
Lemna minuta Yes Armstrong, 2009
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Seeds Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)Individual seedpods or entire racemes can be carried away by wind. Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2016
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid) Yes
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes
Limnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant) Yes Akers, 2010
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes
Lindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)seeds Yes Yes ISSG, 2016
Lupinus plattensis (Nebraska lupine)Seeds Yes Yes Georgia, 1914
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)No information available but it could be a possibility as it is used as an ornamental Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007
Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern) Yes Yes Ferriter, 2001
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree) Yes Starr et al., 2003
Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)Spores Yes Yes
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree) Yes PIER, 2007
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass) Yes Yes
Melinis repens (natal redtop)Seeds Yes Yes Stokes et al., 2011
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (crystalline iceplant) Yes Chung et al., 2007
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mikania scandens Yes PIER, 2013
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes Francis, 2004
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)Seed wind dispersal in USA Yes Meyer, 2003
Monilinia fructigena (brown rot)ascospores and conidia Yes Batra, 1991; Byrde and Willetts, 1977
Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot)Dominant natural means of dispersal Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Common pathway Yes
Moraea (Cape tulip) Yes
Moraea collina (Cape tulip) Yes Yes
Moraea miniata (two-leaf Cape-tulip) Yes
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Seeds are winged and disperse over short distances Yes Csurhes and Navie, 2016
Murdannia nudiflora (doveweed) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Mycosphaerella gibsonii (needle blight of pine) Yes
Myroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam) Yes
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Seeds Yes Daniel, 2001
Neolecanium cornuparvum (magnolia scale) Yes
Nephrolepis hirsutula (sword fern)Possible as spores in ferns are small and easily carried by wind Yes
Neyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed) Yes
Oracella acuta (loblolly pine mealybug)Immature forms transported by wind Yes
Orobanche cernua (nodding broomrape) Yes
Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) Yes
Orobanche ramosa (branched broomrape) Yes
Paederia foetida (skunkvine) Yes Puff and Werbowsky, 1991
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Passive transport of crawlers Yes Yes
Parentucellia viscosa (yellow glandweed) Yes
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes Navie et al., 1996; Taye, 2002
Paspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)Seeds Yes Yes Más and Garcia-Molinari, 2006
Pastinaca sativa (parsnip)Frequent short distance dispersal of seeds by wind Yes Cain et al., 2010
Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia) Yes SE-EPPC, 2003
Pelagia noctiluca (mauve stinger) Yes Yes
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Pelargonium spp. can disperse their small seeds by wind, water, and soil. Yes Dixon, 2011; Western Australian Herbarium, 2014
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium)Members of the Pelargonium genus can disperse their small seeds by wind, water, and soil. Yes Yes Dixon, 2011; Western Australian Herbarium, 2014
Pennisetum polystachion (mission grass) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)Seeds Yes Yes Duke, 1983
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Seeds Yes Chung et al., 2007
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Philippine downy mildew of maize)Wind dispersal of P. philippinensis to adjacent fields is mostly localized Yes USDA, 2006
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) Yes
Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)Seeds Yes Yes Alegre and Clavo, 2007
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Seeds can be wind dispersed Yes Monaco Nature Encyclopedia, 2019
Phakopsora ampelopsidis (Ampelopsis rust fungus)Urediniospores, basidiospores Yes Yes Alexopoulos et al., 1996
Phakopsora euvitis (grape rust fungus) Yes Yes Alexopoulos et al., 1996
Phakopsora meibomiae (soybean rust)Urediniospores Yes Yes Stavely and Pastor-Corrales, 2005
Phleum pratense (timothy grass) Yes
Phoma tracheiphila (mal secco) Yes Balmas et al., 2005; Laviola and Scarito, 1989
Phomopsis vexans (Phomopsis blight of eggplant) Yes Edgerton and Moreland, 1921
Phragmites australis (common reed) Yes
Phyllachora maydis (black spot of maize)Ascospores Yes Hock et al., 1995; Liu, 1973
Phytophthora kernoviaeTransport of diseased abscised leaves Yes Benson et al., 2010; Dick and Parke, 2012
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Robin et al., 2011; Trione and Roth, 1957
Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)Seeds Yes Yes Oteng-Amoako and Brink, 2008
Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine)Up to 8 km dispersal recorded Yes Langdon et al., 2010; Ledgard, 2001
Pinus elliottii (slash pine) Yes Cooper, 1957; Queensland Government, 2011
Pinus pinaster (maritime pine) Yes Cronk and Fuller, 1995
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) Yes Gerson, 2016
Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed)Natural dispersion of seed Yes
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua, 2020
Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth)Adults Yes Yes Chapman et al., 2002
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Seed Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed) Yes Hook, 2013
Polypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass) Yes
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Prunus serotina (black cherry)The bulk of the fruits, i.e., up to 95 %, fall within the first 5–10 m of the seed tree in forests Yes Hoppes, 1988
Pseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.) Yes Yes Kuate, 1998
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)Growing season; first-instar crawlers blown away Yes
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Seeds Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Pteris multifida (spider brake)Spores are wind-dispersed Yes Yes PIER, 2018
Pteris tripartita (giant brake)Spores are wind-dispersed Yes Morton, 1957
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Spores are easily transported by wind Yes Yes UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)Seeds floating in waterways and rivers Yes Yes Thomson, 2006
Pterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes
Puccinia buxiBasidiospores Yes Alexopoulos et al., 1996
Puccinia gladiolispores Yes Wise et al., 2004
Puccinia pittieriana (common rust of potato)basidiospores Yes EPPO, 1988
Pucciniastrum coryli Yes
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)Adults are not long distance flyers – can move from tree to tree Yes Yes
Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp) Yes
Raoiella indica (red palm mite)Thought to aid dispersal locally or between islands in the Caribbean Yes Yes Hoy et al., 2006
Rhamphicarpa fistulosaSeeds are tiny and could be transported by wind Yes
Rhaponticum repens (Russian knapweed) Yes
Rubus parviflorus (thimbleberry)Seeds Yes Haeussler et al., 1990
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG, 2009
Schismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)Seeds are wind dispersed Yes Yes Esque and Schwalbe, 2002
Schizolobium parahyba (Brazilian fern tree)Fruits wind-dispersed Yes Turchetto-Zolet et al., 2012
Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae (brown stripe downy mildew of maize) Yes Singh and Renfro, 1971
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes
Senecio inaequidens (South African ragwort) Yes Monty et al., 2008
Senna multijuga (November shower)Seed is adapted for wind dispersal Yes PIER, 2014
Sesbania sericea (silky sesban)Seeds Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes
Sida repens (Javanese fanpetals)Seeds Yes Yes Raju and Rani, 2016
Silene latifolia subsp. alba (white campion)Natural seed dispersal Yes Jongejans and Schippers, 1999
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry) Yes Levin et al., 2005
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade)Species is a tumbleweed Yes Yes CSU, 2010
Solenopsis richteri (black imported fire ant)Newly mated queens Yes Taber, 2000
Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) Yes Werner et al., 1980
Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod) Yes Weber and Jakobs, 2005
Solidago nemoralis (grey goldenrod)Hypothetical Yes
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Seeds Yes Yes Hutchinson et al., 1984
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) Yes
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom)Seeds Yes Yes Nilsen et al., 1993; Zouhar, 2005
Spathodea campanulata (African tulip tree) Yes ICRAF, 2008
Spathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)Seeds Yes Yes
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)Outbreaks recorded after the passage of a hurricane Yes Torres, 1992
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) Yes Yes Johnson, 1987
Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar)Adult moth Yes
Sporisorium pulverulentum (Sporisorium smut of wild Saccharum) Yes
Sporisorium sacchari (Asian sugarcane smut)spores Yes Lee-Lovick, 1978
Sporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass) Yes
Sporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)Seeds are small and wind dispersed Yes Yes Catasús Guerra, 1997
Striga asiatica (witch weed) Yes
Tabebuia heterophylla (pink trumpet tree)Up to or over 100m Yes Weaver, 1990
Tabebuia rosea (pink poui)Seeds are wind dispersed Yes PROTA, 2016
Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) Yes
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)Winged seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug)Adults Yes Nadel et al., 2010
Thecaphora frezii (peanut smut)Spores can be transported by wind from infested plots to healthy plots. Peanut processing plants are a major source of aerial spores Yes Cazón, 2015; Rago et al., 2016; Rago et al., 2017
Thekopsora areolata (cherry spruce rust)Basidiospores, aeciospores, urediniospores Yes Alexopoulos et al., 1996
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Spores Yes
Thymophylla tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy)Seeds are wind-dispersed Yes Chung et al., 2007
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)Seeds Yes Yes Roothaert and Paterson, 1997
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Seeds Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2018
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus) Yes Yes
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl) Yes Yes Cohen et al., 1988
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Seeds Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Seeds carried by wind Yes Yes Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011
Trichoconiella padwickii (stackburn disease)conidia Yes Sreeramulu and Vittal, 1966
Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) Yes
Triplaris americana (ant tree) Yes Yes Pires et al., 2015
Turbina corymbosa (Christmas vine) Yes
Typha angustifolia (lesser bulrush) Yes
Typha domingensis (southern cattail)Achenes with hairs. Yes Yes Krattinger, 1975
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes Grace and Harrison, 1986
Typha x glauca (hybrid cattail)Fruits with hairs Yes Yes Krattinger, 1975
Ulex europaeus (gorse) Yes Hill et al., 1996
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer) Yes Yes
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)Seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal, 2018
Urocystis agropyri (flag smut of wheat) Yes Vánky and Shivas, 2008
Uromycladium spp. that cause gall rusts (Acacia gall rusts)Teliospores readily dispersed by wind Yes Yes
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) Yes Yes
Verbesina encelioides (golden crownbeard) Yes Kaul and Mangal, 1987
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes
Viguiera dentata (sunflower goldeneye)Seeds Yes Schilling, 2006
Wheat streak mosaic virus (wheat streak)The vector is carried by winds for up to 4 km. Yes Coutts et al., 2008
Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (bacterial leaf streak of barley) Yes
Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum (bacterial leaf streak of corn) Yes Sivitis, 2017
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Seeds carried by wind over long distances Yes Yes Chau and Siu, 1998
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia)Seeds adapted for wind dispersal Yes PlantPono, 2014
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube) Yes Yes Saied et al., 2008