Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Water (pathway vector)



Water (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Water (pathway vector)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Water (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity (2018)
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow)No direct evidence of dispersal by water, its occurrence along riparian zones suggests this Yes Coordinating Group Alien Pest Species (CGAPS) (2014)
Acacia decurrens (green wattle)Seeds may be dispersed by ants, wind and water Yes Henderson (2001); Weeds of Australia (2016)
Acacia glauca (wild dividivi) Yes
Acacia longifolia (golden wattle) Yes Wilgen et al. (2004)
Acacia mearnsii (black wattle)Seeds easily spread down rivers Yes ISSG (2007)
Acacia mellifera (blackthorn) Yes
Acacia saligna (coojong)Species grows along rivers, creeks and coastal dunes. Seeds mostly fall directly to the ground and may be transported further by water or people Yes Doran and Turnbull (1997); Flora of Australia (2001); Cronk and Fuller (1995)
Acanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns starfish) Yes Yes Timmers et al. (2011)
Acroceras zizanioides (oat grass) Yes Clayton and Renvoize (1982)
Adenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)Seeds Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Adenostoma fasciculatum (chamise) Yes
Adiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern) Yes Yes
Aegilops cylindrica Yes
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)
Agave americana (century plant)Seeds, bulbils and stem fragments Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed) Yes Baker (1965)
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed) Yes Johnson (1971)
Agrostis capillaris (common bent) Yes
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, seed Yes Yes Kowarik and Lippe (2011)
Albizia adinocephala (cream albizia) Yes Yes Rico Arce et al. (2008)
Albizia chinensis (Chinese albizia) Yes
Alectra vogelii (yellow witchweed)Seed in water run-off across fields Yes Parker and Riches (1993)
Alitta succinea (pile worm)Ocean currents Yes Yes
Alosa aestivalis (blueback herring)Migration through existing, interconnected, waterways. Yes Owens et al. (1998)
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger) Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)Rhizomes, seeds Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong (2005); Henderson (2001); Oppenheimer (2008)
Alternanthera halimifolia (hairy joyweed)Seeds Yes Yes
Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)Stem fragments or roots Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Alternaria japonica (pod spot of radish)rain-splash Yes Verma and Saharan (1994)
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)Species is known to grow in coastal areas and sandy beaches Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014); Quattrocchi (2012)
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort)Seeds dispersed by rain action Yes Liu et al. (2014)
Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)Seeds can be dispersed by water Yes Ward et al. (2013)
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)Seeds Yes Yes Waterhouse (1994)
Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp) Yes Costea et al. (2005)
Amatitlania nigrofasciata (convict cichlid) Yes
Ambloplites rupestris (rock bass) Yes Yes
Ambrosia confertiflora Yes
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)Seeds and roots Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes Yes
Ammophila arenaria (marram grass) Yes
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush) Yes Yes Blagojević et al. (2015)
Amphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle) Yes Yes Carlton et al. (2011)
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem) Yes PIER (2008)
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge) Yes
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Spores Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen (2008)
Anguina tritici (wheat seed gall nematode)Rehydrated galls, juveniles Yes
Annona glabra (pond apple) Yes Land Protection (2005)
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine) Yes
Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)Seeds float on water Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2011)
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy) Yes PROTA (2016); PROTA (2016)
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy) Yes Northern Territory Government (2015)
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)Dispersed in floodwaters Yes PIER (2016)
Arrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass) Yes Boedeltje et al. (2004)
Arthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass) Yes
Arundo donax (giant reed)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2014)
Ascidiella aspersa (European sea squirt) Yes
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Graham and Mitchell (1996)
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)Reported as colonizing areas near waterways. Yes NSW Weedwise (2018)
Aspius aspius (asp) Yes Yes
Asterias amurensis (northern Pacific seastar) Yes
Astronotus ocellatus (oscar)Within River Systems (e.g. Florida) Yes Yes USGS NAS (2014)
Atriplex semibaccata (Australian saltbush) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes
Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)Widely cultivated and freely escaping along rivers in China and Taiwan Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Axonopus fissifolius Yes
Bacopa monnieri (water hyssop)seed and stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA (2017)
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly)Fruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes Yes
Bambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Culm fragments, rhizomes Yes Yes O'Connor et al. (2000)
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)seeds Yes Smith (2002)
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)seeds Yes Francis (2004)
Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)Fruits Yes Yes Yaplito (2001)
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Possibly water dispersed as it grows near rivers and streams Yes PIER (2017)
Batis maritima (saltwort) Yes Yes
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Yes Johnson and Speare (2003)
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Seeds Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
Bauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)Seeds Yes Yes
Bergia capensis (white water fire)It is reported to occur along stream banks and irrigation channels Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2019)
Bidens frondosa (beggarticks) Yes Comes et al. (1978)
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Seeds Yes Yes ISSG (2018)
Blechnum appendiculatum (palm fern) Yes
Bocconia frutescens (plume poppy)Frequently encountered in gulches below infestation site - seeds washed down during heavy rains Yes Benitez and Saulibio (2007)
Bontia daphnoides (white alling)Fruits are dispersed by water Yes Yes Zona (1998)
Bothriocephalus acheilognathiWater may contain propagative stages such as eggs, and copepods infected with parasite larvae Yes Yes
Bothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)Presumed Yes
Botrylloides perspicuusLarvae Yes Yes
Botryosphaeria berengeriana f.sp. pyricola (Physalospora canker)rain-splash carries conidia Yes Koga and Ohkubo (1994)
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Fruits with wing-like structure Yes Yes McMullen (1999)
Brachidontes pharaonisConstant immersion Yes Yes
Brachypodium distachyon (purple false brome)B. distachyon is spread by waterways Yes Cal-IPC (California Invasive Plant Council) (2016)
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Likely. Commonly grows streamside Yes Yes
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Possible as it grows at river margins Yes Kell (2011)
Brassica tournefortii (African mustard)Seeds Yes Bangle et al. (2008)
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail) Yes Yes Säumel and Kowarik (2010)
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes Yes Jehlik and Slavik (1968)
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes GBIF (2008)
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)Grows along waterways and in floodplains Yes Yes Graveson (2012)
Calliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra) Yes
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant)Plants and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Calonectria pseudonaviculata (Buxus blight)Water-splash Yes Crous (2002)
Canna indica (canna lilly) Yes
Caprella muticaShort distance current driven dispersal Yes Ashton (2006)
Carassius carassius (crucian carp) Yes
Carcinus maenas (European shore crab)Larvae are dispersed by wind-driven surface currents Yes Yes
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Seeds Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2015)
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Fruits can float in seawater Yes Gildenhuys et al. (2013)
Cascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)Fruits dispersed by water Yes Yes Fallen (1986); Ridley (1930)
Cassytha filiformis (love-vine)Seeds are carried by ocean currents, rivers and streams Yes Yes Nelson (2008)
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree) Yes Binggelli (1999)
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass) Yes
Centaurea debeauxii (meadow knapweed) Yes
Ceratocephala testiculata (bur buttercup) Yes
Ceratocystis platani (canker stain of plane) Yes
Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) Yes
Ceratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)Can disperse through waterways by plant fragments or by production of plantlets Yes PROTA (2020)
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)Species may be transported by soil or water drained from areas where it is cultivated Yes Yes
Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass)Seeds Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2020)
Chloris virgata (feather finger grass)Seeds Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Chthamalus proteusPotential vector for larvae from established populations. Yes Yes Zabin (2005); Zabin et al. (2007)
Cichla ocellaris (peacock cichlid) Yes Yes Shafland (1999); Zaret and Paine (1973)
Cichlasoma urophthalmum (Mayan cichlid)Naturally dispersed through interconnected canal systems in south and central Florida Yes Yes Schofield et al. (2016)
Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon) Yes Firth (1979)
Cirsium mexicanum (Mexican thistle)Secondary dispersal of seeds Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Nzengue et al. (2016)
Clavibacter insidiosus (bacterial lucerne wilt) Yes
Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato) Yes
Clavibacter nebraskensis (Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight) Yes
Clavibacter sepedonicus (potato ring rot) Yes
Claviceps fusiformis (pearl millet ergot)Rain-splash Yes Chahal and Dhindsa (1985)
Clupeonella cultriventris (Black Sea kilka)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Kiyashko et al. (2006); Leppäkoski et al. (2002)
Cocos nucifera (coconut)Nuts can survive up to 120 days floating in the sea Yes Yes Chan and Elevitch (2006)
Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoidesFragments, erect plants and gametes Yes Yes Carlton and Scanlon (1985)
Codium parvulumAlong the Suez Canal Yes Israel et al. (2010); ISPRA (2018)
Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Seeds dispersed by waterways Yes Yes Technigro (2010)
Colocasia esculenta (taro)Corm and stem fragments can float on water Yes Yes Safo-Kantaka (2004)
Colubrina asiatica (latherleaf)Seeds dispersed by ocean currents Yes Yes McCormick (2007)
Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper) Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015); PIER (2015); Staples et al. (2000)
Coniothyrium glycines (red leaf blotch) Yes Hartman et al. (1987)
Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) Yes
Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)Alates, larvae or nymphs in wood and wooden structure Yes Yes Scheffrahn and Su (2000)
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes Prezant and Chalermwat (1984)
Corella eumyota (orange-tipped sea squirt)Larvae (tadpoles) Yes Yes Tatian and Lagger (2009)
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)Parts of plant transported by water Yes Kelly (1990)
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass) Yes
Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)Seeds Yes Yes Doran (1999)
Corynocarpus laevigatus (karaka)Dispersed short distances by white water Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)Dispersal by water is possible as species grows along riverbanks and coastal areas Yes Vascular Plants of Ecuador (2016)
Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)Seeds with silky pappus hairs Yes Denton (2004)
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Crassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop) Yes CAPM-CEH (2004)
Crepidula fornicata (American slipper limpet)The natural transport of mobile pelagic larva Yes
Crescentia cujete (calabash tree)Dispersed through ocean currents Yes Yes Flora of Panama (2020)
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Corms and rhizomes dispersed by watercourses Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine) Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusVirus can be detected in irrigation water and could move locally in this way Yes
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Larvae Yes Yes Dine (1904)
Cuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed) Yes Technigro (2011)
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Cyathea cooperi (australian tree fern)Spores are carried by water Yes Medeiros et al. (1992)
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Likely mode of spore dispersal Yes
Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass) Yes NARO (2004)
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Seeds Yes Kelly (2000)
Cyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Seeds and stem segments Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) Yes Yes
Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Yes Adamek (1998); Roberts and Ebner (1997)
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)Seeds Yes Yes Peterson and Raj Prasad (1998)
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Seeds Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Dalbergia sissoo Yes Morton (2007)
Daphnia lumholtziDaphnia can easily drft between lakes and reservoirs via connecting streams Yes Havel and Shurin (2004); Shurin and Havel (2003); Soeken-Gittinger et al. (2007); Stoeckel et al. (1996); Thorp et al. (1994)
Datura ferox (fierce thornapple) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes
Delonix regia (flamboyant) Yes PIER (2009)
Deparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)Potential propagule and spore distribution Yes Yes
Deroceras laeve (meadow slug)Flooding Yes AnimalBase (2015)
Derris elliptica (tuba root)Seed and stem fragments float on water Yes Yes Kaua’i Invasive Species Committee (2012)
Descurainia sophia (flixweed) Yes University of Alaska Anchorage (2011)
Dickeya solani (black leg disease of potato)Spread within a field in ground-water. Infested water can infect healthy plants Yes Toth et al. (2011)
Didymella fabae (leaf and pod spot)Rain-splashed conidia Yes Bond and Pope (1980); Hewett (1973)
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)Seeds, plant segments, rhizomes Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Digitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass) Yes PIER (2016)
Digitaria insularis (sourgrass) Yes
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Possible as it occurs near waterways. Yes HEAR (2020)
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Winged seeds dispersed by water Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel)Larvae dispersed by wind-driven and downstream water currents Yes Yes Orlova et al. (2005)
Drymaria arenarioides (alfombrilla)Reported as dispersed by water Yes Allison (1977)
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)Seeds Yes Yes Waterhouse (1994)
Echinochloa pyramidalis Yes
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) Yes Yes
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass) Yes Bossard et al. (2000)
Eichhornia paniculata (Brazilian water hyacinth) Yes Yes Husband and Barrett (1998)
Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) Yes Katz and Shafroth (2003)
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)Evident, but no supporting refs Yes
Elephantopus mollis (elephant's foot) Yes Queensland Government (2014)
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Oceanic crossings were probable for pre-human introductions to Bahamas and Cayman Islands Yes Yes Heinicke et al. (2011); Wilson and Porras (1983)
Elodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed) Yes Barrat-Segretain and Elger; 2004
Emex spinosa (spiny emex) Yes
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Seeds Yes Yes Davidse et al. (2018)
Emilia praetermissa (yellow thistle)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Seed dispersal Yes Yes Fern (2019)
Entada gigas (sea-bean)Seeds Yes Yes Black et al. (2006); Bridgewater (2012)
Eragrostis ciliaris (gophertail lovegrass)Seed Yes PIER (2018)
Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass) Yes Yes USDA Forest Service (2014)
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)Seed Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Eragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)Disperses via streams, rivers, flooding, irrigation Yes Yes Reis (1993)
Eriocheir hepuensis (Hepu mitten crab)Can travel large distances along rivers and coastsNaser et al. (2012); Herborg et al. (2005)
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab)Larvae disperse with water currents Yes Gollasch (2006)
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)Rain, water Yes Thomson (2000)
Esox lucius (pike)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes
Eucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)Seed Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Euphorbia terracina (false caper) Yes
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed)Seed Yes Rutledge and McLendon (1996)
Fallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)Flood events Yes
Fallopia x bohemica Yes
Ficus elastica (rubber plant)Grows in coastal areas and could possibly be dispersed by water Yes Yes Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador (2014); Randall (2012)
Fimbristylis cymosa (tropical fimbry) Yes
Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Flemingia strobilifera (wild hops)Seeds Yes ISSG (2014)
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) Yes
Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) Yes
Fumaria muralis (common ramping-fumitory) Yes Western Australian Herbarium (1998)
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)It occurs along waterways and it is possible it is dispersed by water Yes Fleriag (2010)
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4) Yes
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. medicaginis (fusarium wilt of alfalfa) Yes Yes
Galega officinalis (goatsrue) Yes
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Seeds Yes Yes Damalas (2008)
Galphimia glauca (goldshower)Seeds Yes Yes Anderson (2007)
Gammarus tigrinusDispersal by water currents or through connected waterways Yes Yes van der Velde et al. (2000); Wooten et al. (2006)
Geophagus brasiliensis (pearl cichlid)Within rivers/tributaries Yes Yes Beatty et al. (2013)
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode) Yes Been and Schomaker (2006)
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Cysts Yes
Glyceria maxima (reed sweet-grass) Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton) Yes Yes PIER (2017)
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant) Yes Weeds CRC (2008)
Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood) Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim (2005)
Hakea sericea (silky hakea) Yes
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton) Yes Tilley et al. (2015)
Halophila stipulacea (halophila seagrass) Yes
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily)Seeds and rhizome fragments Yes
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes
Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke)Transported in winter floods Yes Yes
Helminthotheca echioides (bristly oxtongue)Seeds are transported via irrigation water Yes Tosso et al. (1986)
Hemichromis letourneuxi (African jewelfish)Dispersed in Florida by seasonal flooding, drainage canals and interconnected waterways Yes Loftus et al. (2006)
Hemigrapsus takanoi (brush-clawed shore crab)Natural dispersal following initial introductions occurs when pelagic larvae dispersed by currents Yes Dauvin and Dufossé (2011)
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Tiley et al. (1996)
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Very important natural factor, as H. sosnowskyi often grows along/near streams and rivers Yes Yes Kabuce (2006); Moravcová et al. (2007a)
Herichthys cyanoguttatus (Rio Grande cichlid)Flooding, natural dispersal, etc. Yes Lorenz (2008); Nico et al. (2015)
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes
Heterotheca grandiflora (telegraph weed) Yes DiTomaso and Healy (2007)
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)Seeds Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)Seeds Yes Yes Salazar and Soihet (2001)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood) Yes Yes
Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) Yes
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Yes USGS-NAS (2002)
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (floating pennywort) Yes
Hygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed) Yes DCR (2003)
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)Spread with water flow through natural and engineered waterways Yes Yes Australian Weeds Committee (2012)
Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort)Seeds Yes Yes
Hyptis alata (clustered bushmint)Seeds Yes Yes Harley (1983)
Hyptis suaveolens (pignut) Yes Cullen et al. (2012)
Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) Yes Yes
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Seeds Yes Yes van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam)seed Yes Beerling and Perrins (1993)
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam)Seed Yes Trepl (1984)
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Indigofera spicata (creeping indigo) Yes Brisbane City Council (2013)
Indigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo) Yes
Indigofera tinctoria (true indigo) Yes Yes
Ipomoea alba (white moonflower )Seeds and pieces of stems may be dispersed by water Yes Yes Queensland Government (2016)
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Weber (2003)
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Seeds dispersed by water Yes Al-Sodany (2016)
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Seeds and stem fragments can be dispersed by waterways and currents Yes Yes Csurches (2016)
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Seeds Yes PIER (2017)
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Ipomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)Seeds Yes Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants (2010)
Isatis tinctoria (dyer's woad)Suggested fruit adapted for water transport Yes Yes Farah et al. (1988)
Iva xanthiifolia (marsh-elder) Yes Froebe and Oesau (1969); Milanova and Valkova (2004)
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda) Yes Yes
Jatropha curcas (jatropha) Yes Pitt (1999)
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus effusus (common rush) Yes Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush) Yes NZPCN (New Zealand Plant Conservation Network) (2015)
Juncus planifolius (broadleaf rush) Yes
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Seeds Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2011)
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga) Yes Yes MPI (2016)
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea) Yes Cronk and Fuller (1995)
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)Fruits float in the sea and can be dispersed by sea currents Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Lantana camara (lantana)Flash floods Yes
Lates niloticus (Nile perch) Yes
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)Seeds Yes Yes PFAF (2017)
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)Seeds Yes Yes Kilian (1997)
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Moved by water into nearby connected waterways Yes
Lemna minuta Yes Yes Landolt (1986)
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed)A. Mikulyuk, Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, USA, personal communcation, 2010 Yes
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Seeds Yes Yes eFloras (2014)
Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed) Yes
Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)River drainage systems Yes Yes USGS (2013)
Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill) Yes
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop) Yes
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes
Leuciscus idus (ide) Yes Nico and Fuller (2008)
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet) Yes
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)If ripe fruit enters rivers Yes
Limnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant) Yes Akers (2010)
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel)Larval stages in water; juveniles and adults Yes Darrigran (2002)
Limnoria lignorum (gribble)Dispersal of larva and adults with local water currents Yes Yes Cragg et al. (1999); Ryabchikov (1957); Thiel and Haye (2006)
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes
Lindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)seeds Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Lucania parva (rainwater killifish) Yes Hubbs and Miller (1965)
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes Okada et al. (2009); Ruaux et al. (2009)
Ludwigia palustris (marsh seedbox)Stem fragments, seeds Yes Yes NZPCN (2020)
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Yes Ruaux et al. (2009)
Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leaf lupin)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2017)
Lupinus plattensis (Nebraska lupine)Seeds Yes Yes Georgia (1914)
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Seeds Yes Yes Timmins and MacKenzie (1995)
Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern) Yes Yes Ferriter (2001)
Lygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern) Yes
Lysichiton americanus (American skunk cabbage) Yes
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) Yes Yes Thompson et al. (1987)
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree) Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)Spores Yes Yes
Magallana gigas (Pacific oyster)Pelagic larvae dispersed by water currents Yes Minchin and Gollasch (2008)
Malvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)Stem fragments may be dislodged and spread downstream during floods Yes Yes Weed Watch (2012)
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn) Yes
Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp) Yes Yes
Medicago lupulina (black medick)Seeds float in water for up to five days Yes Yes Turkington and Cavers (1979)
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree) Yes PIER (2007)
Melanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania) Yes
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)Most important means of seed dispersal Yes Klein (2011); USDA-NRCS (2017)
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Mansur (2001)
Mesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint) Yes Yes
Miconia calvescens (miconia)Fruits Yes
Micropterus dolomieu (smallmouth bass) Yes
Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) Yes Crossman (1991)
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mikania scandens Yes PIER (2013)
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes Francis (2004)
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Mimosa ceratonia (climbing mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Mimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant) Yes DAF (2016); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Mnemiopsis leidyi (sea walnut) Yes Yes Shiganova et al. (2001)
Molineria capitulata (palm-grass) Yes Flynn and Lorence (2002)
Monilinia fructigena (brown rot)rain-splash carries ascospores and conidia Yes Batra (1991); Byrde and Willetts (1977)
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)Dispersed by interconnected waterways and flooding Yes Yes Ali et al. (2018)
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Rare pathway Yes
Moraea (Cape tulip) Yes
Moraea collina (Cape tulip) Yes Yes
Moraea miniata (two-leaf Cape-tulip) Yes
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)Seeds floating in water Yes Yes Nelson (2006)
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree) Yes Csurhes and Navie (2016)
Murdannia nudiflora (doveweed) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2017)
Mycosphaerella gibsonii (needle blight of pine) Yes
Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather) Yes
Myriophyllum heterophyllum (broadleaf watermilfoil) Yes
Myriophyllum pinnatum (cutleaf watermilfoil)can disperse naturally through waterways Yes
Myriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil) Yes Yes
Mytilicola intestinalis (mussel red worm)Free living larvae dispersed via water movements Yes Davey and Gee (1976)
Mytilicola orientalis (oyster redworm)Free living larvae dispersed via water movements Yes Bernard (1969)
Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease agent)Both spore stages are disseminated naturally in water Yes Steinbach et al. (2009)
Nandina domestica (Nandina) Yes Stone (2009)
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Seeds Yes Daniel (2001)
Neonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)Pods and seeds may be carried by water Yes Queensland Government (2013)
Nerium oleander (oleander)Seeds dispersed through water after heavy rainfall Yes Herrera (1991)
Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco)Seeds are primarily dispersed by water Yes Florentine and Westbrooke (2005)
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco) Yes Yes
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)Tiny, numerous seeds easily dispersed by rainwater and flooding Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Noronhia emarginata (Madagascar olive)Fruit dispersed via water Yes Rohwer (1995)
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus) Yes
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes USGS-NAS (2007)
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Stems and roots may be transported by steams Yes Yes Francis (2005)
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Seeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)Seeds Yes Yes Pringle (1982)
Onopordum illyricum (Illyrian thistle) Yes
Opuntia aurantiaca (jointed cactus)Along river systems Yes
Opuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia monacantha (common prickly pear)Along river systems Yes Yes
Opuntia stricta (erect prickly pear)In floods, rain, etc. Yes
Orbea variegata (carrion-flower) Yes NSW Department of Primary Industries (2020)
Orobanche cernua (nodding broomrape) Yes
Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) Yes
Oryza barthii Yes
Pachira aquatica (pachira nut)Seeds disperse by water Yes Yes Lopez (2001); Infante-Mata et al. (2014)
Pacifastacus leniusculus (American signal crayfish)Natural migration Yes Johnsen and Taugbøl (2010)
Pandanus dubius (bakong)Pandanus seeds are reported as being water-dispersed Yes Gallaher et al. (2015)
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes Yes
Pandanus utilis (common screw pine) Yes Cox (1990)
Papuana huebneri (taro beetle) Yes Yes
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Crawlers on water in irrigation channels Yes Tanwar et al. (2010)
Parkia biglobosa (néré) Yes
Parmentiera aculeata (cucumber tree)Seeds can be dispersed by water Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes PAG (2000)
Paspalum botterii (rusty-seed crown grass) Yes Hitchcock (1936)
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass) Yes PIER (2017)
Paspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)Seeds Yes Yes Más and Garcia-Molinari (2006)
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass) Yes Hitchcock (1936); FAO (2012b); Catasús Guerra (2015)
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) Yes
Pastinaca sativa (parsnip)Infrequent short distance dispersal of seeds Yes Cain et al. (2010)
Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia) Yes SE-EPPC (2003)
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Pelagia noctiluca (mauve stinger) Yes Yes
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Pelargonium spp.genus can disperse their small seeds by wind, water, and soil. Yes Dixon (2011); Western Australian Herbarium (2014)
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium)Members of the Pelargonium genus can disperse their small seeds by wind, water, and soil. Yes Yes Dixon (2011); Western Australian Herbarium (2014)
Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass) Yes
Pennisetum polystachion (mission grass) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Seeds Yes Rahlao et al. (2010a)
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Perca fluviatilis (perch)Swimming to new areas within a water body Yes ISSG (2011)
Peromyscus fraterculus (Northern Baja deermouse) Yes Hafner et al. (2001)
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Philippine downy mildew of maize)One of the common agents responsible for the spread of P. philippinensis is rain Yes Yes USDA (2013)
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) Yes
Pethia conchoniusWithin river systems - supposition by author Yes
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Seeds can be water dispersed Yes Monaco Nature Encyclopedia (2019)
Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey)Adults. Migrated through Erie canal, Welland and St Lawrence canal systems into Great lakes Yes Fuller et al. (2008)
Phakopsora meibomiae (soybean rust)Urediniospores Yes Stavely and Pastor-Corrales (2005)
Phalaris aquatica (bulbous canarygrass) Yes
Phalloceros caudimaculatus (dusky millions fish)Dispersal by flooding, etc. Yes Maddern (2007b)
Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm) Yes DiTomaso and Healy (2006)
Phoma tracheiphila (mal secco)Rain splash, surface flow Yes Punithalingam and Holliday (1973); Solel and Salerno (2000)
Phomopsis vexans (Phomopsis blight of eggplant)rain splash Yes Edgerton and Moreland (1921)
Phragmites australis (common reed) Yes
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Potential to spread by water Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo)Rhizome spread by water Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Physalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry) Yes
Phytophthora alni species complex (alder Phytophthora)Along watercourses Yes Gibbs et al. (1999); Jung and Blaschke (2004)
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)In rivers and irrigation water Yes Broembsen (1984); MacDonald et al. (1994)
Phytophthora kernoviaeRain splash disseminates pathogen propagules Yes Anon. (2016)
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Yes Hansen et al. (2000); Jules et al. (2002)
Pinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)Larvae dispersed by water currents Yes DAISIE (2009)
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage)Occurs near coastal areas Yes Yes Roux (2003); Wagner and Lorence (2014)
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus) Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014); Missouri Botanical Garden (2014b); Wagner et al. (1999)
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)Secondary dispersal of seeds by water Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua (2020)
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Seed Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Poecilia latipinna (sailfin molly)Dispersal by flooding Yes Corfield et al. (2008)
Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed)rain splash Yes Hook (2013)
Polypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass) Yes
Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail) Yes
Pomacea maculataHatchlings, juveniles and adults Yes Yes
Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech) Yes Morton (1976)
Pontogammarus robustoidesNatural Distribution via waterways Yes Yes Panov et al. (2009)
Poranopsis paniculata (bridal bouquet)Low frequency Yes PIER (2018)
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Portunus segnisLarvae stages Yes Yes
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes
Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite)During rains and floods Yes Solbrig and Cantino (1975)
Prosopis juliflora (mesquite)Seeds spread by rivers, ocean currents, floods etc. Yes Pasiecznik et al. (2001)
Pseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Rain splash Yes Kuate (1998)
Pseudochattonella verruculosa Yes
Pseudodiaptomus marinusWith water currents Yes Brylinski et al. (2012)
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes Copp et al. (2005b)
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) Yes
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Possibly dispersed by water Yes UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2019)
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Pterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)Seeds floating in waterways and rivers Yes Yes
Pterolepis glomerata (false meadowbeauty)Propagules are dispersed by water Yes PIER (2015)
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes
Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Yes
Rauvolfia caffra (quinine tree )Seeds dispersed by watercourses Yes Yes Mnxati (2011)
Rhamphicarpa fistulosaUncontrolled floods can transport seeds into waterways that could transport seeds over long distance Yes
Rhinella marina (cane toad) Yes
Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) Yes Yes
Rhopilema nomadica (nomad jellyfish)medusoid life stage Yes Yes Galil et al. (1990)
Rivina humilis (bloodberry) Yes
Rocio octofasciata (Jack Dempsey)Dispersed by flooding Yes Corfield et al. (2007); Escalera-Vázquez and Zambrano (2010)
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose)To Norway and along coast Yes Yes Fremstad (1997)
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass) Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Roystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm) Yes
Rubus alceifolius (giant bramble)Seeds Yes Baret et al. (2005)
Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry)Seeds Yes Ensley (2015)
Rutilus rutilus (roach) Yes Stokes et al. (2006)
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes
Salix cinerea (grey sallow) Yes Harman (2004)
Salix humboldtiana (pencil willow) Yes Cremer et al. (1999)
Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes
Salvelinus namaycush (lake trout)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG (2009)
Salvinia biloba (giant salvinia)Vegetatively dispersed through water Yes de la Sota and Cassa de Pazos (1992); Invasive (2020)
Salvinia minima Yes ISSG (2006)
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed) Yes McFarland et al. (2004)
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Stem fragments often spread by flowing water Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Sander lucioperca (pike-perch)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes
Scaevola taccada (beach naupaka)Fruits may float for up to one year Yes Yes ISSG (2012)
Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)Minor importance Yes Ferriter and Clark (1997)
Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum)Eggs, fry and fingerlings; chill water to 18 degrees C Yes Yes
Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae (brown stripe downy mildew of maize) Yes Singh and Renfro (1971)
Senna aculeata (senna)Seeds dispersed by water. Plants often grows in flooded areas and near watercourses Yes Yes Silva et al. (2018)
Senna alata (candle bush) Yes PIER (2016)
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna)Carried in floods Yes
Senna italica (Senegal senna)Seeds Yes Yes Okeyo and Bosch (2007)
Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)In water flow over the soil surface Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Senna spectabilis (whitebark senna)Plant can grow in coastal areas. Seeds easily dispersed by water. Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2014); PIER (2014)
Sesbania grandiflora (sesbania) Yes
Sesbania sericea (silky sesban)Seeds Yes Yes Francis (2000)
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes
Setaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail) Yes Mollard et al. (2007)
Sicyos angulatus (burcucumber)Seed Yes Kil et al. (2006)
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Pettit and Froend (2001)
Sida repens (Javanese fanpetals)Seeds Yes Yes Raju and Rani (2016)
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry) Yes Yes Levin et al. (2005)
Solanum erianthum (potato tree)Grows along riverbanks in Taiwan Yes Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee (2014); Roe (1979)
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Bulky seeds may be dispersed by drain water after a rainstorm Yes Yes Chiarini and Barboza (2007); Chiarini and Barboza (2009); Nee (1979); Nee (1991); Vascular Plants of Ecuador (2014)
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade)Species fruit and plant parts can float on water Yes Yes CSU (2010)
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Seeds Yes Yes Gallagher et al. (2010)
Solenopsis richteri (black imported fire ant)Flooding, floating colonies Yes Hays (1959)
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)Seeds float on water - oceanic dispersal Yes Yes Orava and Drake (1997); Lonard et al. (2015)
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Seeds Yes Yes Hutchinson et al. (1984)
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)Seeds Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) Yes
Spartina densifloraDispersal via tidal currents is feasible Yes California Invasive Plant Council (2016)
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom)Seeds Yes Yes Nilsen et al. (1993); Zouhar (2005)
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet)Seeds Yes Yes
Spirodela polyrrhiza (giant duckweed)The species main dispersion is through water Yes Les (2020)
Sporobolus africanus (rat’s tail grass) Yes
Sporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass) Yes Yes
Stachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed) Yes Smith (2002)
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)Seeds float and are transported by water currents Yes Yes PIER (2019)
Striga asiatica (witch weed) Yes
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (New York aster) Yes
Syzygium cumini (black plum) Yes
Syzygium grande (sea apple)Water dispersal is possible as species grows along coastal edge forests Yes Henderson (1949); National University of Singapore (2015); PIER (2015); Wyatt Smith (1953)
Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) Yes
Tephrosia candida (white tephrosia) Yes
Teredo navalis (naval shipworm)Larvae with currents Yes Yes Scheltema (1971); Paalvast and van der Velde (2011a)
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)Fruits float- dispersed by sea-currents Yes Yes Thomson and Evans (2006)
Terminalia muelleri (Australian almond)Seeds float on water Yes Yes Atlas of Living Australia (2020)
Thecaphora solani (potato smut)irrigation water Yes Torres (2001)
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Spores Yes
Thespesia populnea (portia tree) Yes Yes
Thorichthys meeki (firemouth cichlid)Natural dispersal by flooding, etc. Species migrates to seasonal water bodies during wet season in n Yes Artigas Azas (2011)
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan) Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)Seeds, stem fragments, roots, dumped garden waste Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)Seeds Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Seeds Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2018)
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tomato brown rugose fruit virus)Other tobamoviruses have been detected in irrigation water Yes
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Seeds Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes GBIF (2008)
Trichopodus trichopterus (three spot gourami)Dispersal by flooding Yes Corfield et al. (2007)
Turbina corymbosa (Christmas vine)Indehiscent fruits float in water Yes
Typha domingensis (southern cattail)Achenes with hairs, rhizomes. Yes Grace and Harrison (1986); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes Grace and Harrison (1986)
Typha x glauca (hybrid cattail)Fruits, rhizomes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Ulex europaeus (gorse) Yes Clements et al. (2001)
Ulva ohnoiAll life stages Yes Hiraoka et al. (2004b)
Umbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow)All transport in water Yes Verreycken et al. (2010)
Urena lobata (caesar weed)Seeds Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Streams, rivers, flooding, irrigation Yes Yes New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries (2015)
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes Smith (2002)
Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)Seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal (2018)
Urocystis agropyri (flag smut of wheat) Yes Vánky and Shivas (2008)
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) Yes Yes
Utricularia gibba Yes NZPCN (2010)
Vallisneria spiralis (eelweed)Seed, runners, plant fragments Yes
Ventenata dubia (North Africa grass)When seeds are present and water flowing Yes
Vigna marina (beach bean) Yes Yes Padulosi and Ng (1993)
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Seeds Yes Miller et al. (2010)
Xanthium spinosum (bathurst burr) Yes PIER (2013)
Xanthomonas citri pv. punicae (bacterial blight of pomegranate) Yes
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. alfalfae (bacterial leaf spot of lucerne) Yes
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. euvesicatoria (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. perforans (bacterial spot of tomato) Yes
Xanthomonas hortorum pv. gardneri (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (bacterial leaf streak of rice)Irrigation water Yes Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis (bacterial leaf streak of grasses) Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (bacterial leaf streak of barley) Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (bacterial leaf streak of wheat and barley) Yes
Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum (bacterial leaf streak of corn) Yes Sivitis (2017)
Xanthomonas vesicatoria (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes
Xenohaliotis californiensis Yes
Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) Yes
Xiphophorus helleriiDispersal by flooding Yes McKay (1978)
Xiphophorus maculatus (southern platyfish)Dispersal by flooding Yes
Xyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass) Yes
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Possible as it occurs at margins of rivers, wetlands and lagoons Yes
Zingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger)Habitat includes riverbanks, streams and wetlands Yes Yes Chirangini and Sharma (2005); Ravindran and Babu (2005); Wolff et al. (1999)
Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger) Yes Yes