Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Water (pathway vector)



Water (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Water (pathway vector)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Water (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow)No direct evidence of dispersal by water, its occurrence along riparian zones suggests this Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Acacia glauca (wild dividivi) Yes
Acacia longifolia (golden wattle) Yes Wilgen et al., 2004
Acacia mearnsii (black wattle)Seeds easily spread down rivers Yes ISSG, 2007
Acacia mellifera (blackthorn) Yes
Acacia saligna (Port Jackson wattle)Along watercourses Yes Cronk and Fuller, 1995
Acanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns starfish) Yes Yes Timmers et al., 2011
Acroceras zizanioides (oat grass) Yes Clayton and Renvoize, 1982
Adenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)Seeds Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Adenostoma fasciculatum (chamise) Yes
Adiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern) Yes Yes
Aegilops cylindrica Yes
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
Agave americana (century plant)Seeds, bulbils and stem fragments Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed) Yes Baker, 1965
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed) Yes Johnson, 1971
Agrostis capillaris (common bent) Yes
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, seed Yes Yes Kowarik and Lippe, 2011
Albizia adinocephala (cream albizia) Yes Yes Rico Arce et al., 2008
Albizia chinensis (Chinese albizia) Yes
Alectra vogelii (yellow witchweed)Seed in water run-off across fields Yes Parker and Riches, 1993
Alitta succinea (pile worm)Ocean currents Yes Yes
Alosa aestivalis (blueback herring)Migration through existing, interconnected, waterways. Yes Owens et al., 1998
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger) Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)Rhizomes, seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018; Henderson, 2001; Oppenheimer, 2008
Alternanthera halimifolia (hairy joyweed)Seeds Yes Yes
Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)Stem fragments or roots Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Alternaria japonica (pod spot of radish)rain-splash Yes Verma and Saharan, 1994
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)Species is known to grow in coastal areas and sandy beaches Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Quattrocchi, 2012
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort)Seeds dispersed by rain action Yes Liu et al., 2014
Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)Seeds can be dispersed by water Yes Ward et al., 2013
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)Seeds Yes Yes Waterhouse, 1994
Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp) Yes Costea et al., 2005
Amatitlania nigrofasciata (convict cichlid) Yes
Ambloplites rupestris (rock bass) Yes Yes
Ambrosia confertiflora Yes
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)Seeds and roots Yes Yes Montagnani et al., 2017
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes Yes
Ammophila arenaria (marram grass) Yes
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush) Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Amphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle) Yes Yes Carlton et al., 2011
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem) Yes PIER, 2008
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge) Yes
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Spores Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
Anguina tritici (wheat seed gall nematode)Rehydrated galls, juveniles Yes
Annona glabra (pond apple) Yes Land Protection, 2005
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine) Yes
Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)Seeds float on water Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2011
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Yes Oidtmann et al., 2005
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy) Yes PROTA, 2016; PROTA, 2016
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy) Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)Dispersed in floodwaters Yes PIER, 2016
Arrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass) Yes Boedeltje et al., 2004
Arthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass) Yes
Arundo donax (giant reed)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Ascidiella aspersa (European sea squirt) Yes
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Graham and Mitchell, 1996
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)Reported as colonizing areas near waterways. Yes NSW Weedwise, 2018
Aspius aspius (asp) Yes Yes
Asterias amurensis (northern Pacific seastar) Yes
Astronotus ocellatus (oscar)Within River Systems (e.g. Florida) Yes Yes USGS NAS, 2014
Atriplex semibaccata (Australian saltbush) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes
Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)Widely cultivated and freely escaping along rivers in China and Taiwan Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Axonopus fissifolius Yes
Bacopa monnieri (water hyssop)seed and stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA, 2017
Bambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Culm fragments, rhizomes Yes Yes O'Connor et al., 2000
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)seeds Yes Smith, 2002
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)seeds Yes Francis, 2004
Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)Fruits Yes Yes Yaplito, 2001
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Possibly water dispersed as it grows near rivers and streams Yes PIER, 2017
Batis maritima (saltwort) Yes Yes
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Yes Johnson and Speare, 2003
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Bauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)Seeds Yes Yes
Bergia capensis (white water fire)It is reported to occur along stream banks and irrigation channels Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2019
Bidens frondosa (beggarticks) Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Seeds Yes Yes ISSG, 2018
Blechnum appendiculatum (palm fern) Yes
Bocconia frutescens (plume poppy)Frequently encountered in gulches below infestation site - seeds washed down during heavy rains Yes Benitez and Saulibio, 2007
Bontia daphnoides (white alling)Fruits are dispersed by water Yes Yes Zona, 1998
Bothriocephalus acheilognathiWater may contain propagative stages such as eggs, and copepods infected with parasite larvae Yes Yes
Bothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)Presumed Yes
Botrylloides perspicuusLarvae Yes Yes
Botryosphaeria berengeriana f.sp. pyricola (Physalospora canker)rain-splash carries conidia Yes Koga and Ohkubo, 1994
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Fruits with wing-like structure Yes Yes McMullen, 1999
Brachidontes pharaonisConstant immersion Yes Yes
Brachypodium distachyon (purple false brome)B. distachyon is spread by waterways Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Likely. Commonly grows streamside Yes Yes
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Possible as it grows at river margins Yes Kell, 2011
Brassica tournefortii (African mustard)Seeds Yes Bangle et al., 2008
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail) Yes Yes Säumel and Kowarik, 2010
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes Yes Jehlik and Slavik, 1968
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes GBIF, 2008
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)Grows along waterways and in floodplains Yes Yes Graveson, 2012
Calliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra) Yes
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant)Plants and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Calonectria pseudonaviculata (Buxus blight)Water-splash Yes Crous, 2002
Canna indica (canna lilly) Yes
Caprella muticaShort distance current driven dispersal Yes Ashton, 2006
Carassius carassius (crucian carp) Yes
Carcinus maenas (European shore crab)Larvae are dispersed by wind-driven surface currents Yes Yes
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Seeds Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2015
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Fruits can float in seawater Yes Gildenhuys et al., 2013
Cascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)Fruits dispersed by water Yes Yes Fallen, 1986; Ridley, 1930
Cassytha filiformis (love-vine) Yes Yes
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree) Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass) Yes
Centaurea debeauxii (meadow knapweed) Yes
Ceratocephala testiculata (bur buttercup) Yes
Ceratocystis platani (canker stain of plane) Yes
Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) Yes
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)Species may be transported by soil or water drained from areas where it is cultivated Yes Yes
Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass)Seeds Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2020
Chloris virgata (feather finger grass)Seeds Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Chthamalus proteusPotential vector for larvae from established populations. Yes Yes Zabin, 2005; India Biodiversity, 2018
Cichla ocellaris (peacock cichlid) Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018; Zaret and Paine, 1973
Cichlasoma urophthalmum (Mayan cichlid)Naturally dispersed through interconnected canal systems in south and central Florida Yes Yes Schofield et al., 2016
Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon) Yes Firth, 1979
Cirsium mexicanum (Mexican thistle)Secondary dispersal of seeds Yes Holm et al., 1997
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Nzengue et al., 2016
Claviceps fusiformis (pearl millet ergot)Rain-splash Yes Chahal and Dhindsa, 1985
Clupeonella cultriventris (Black Sea kilka)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Kiyashko et al., 2006; Leppäkoski et al., 2002
Cocos nucifera (coconut)Nuts can survive up to 120 days floating in the sea Yes Yes Chan and Elevitch, 2006
Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoidesFragments, erect plants and gametes Yes Yes Carlton and Scanlon, 1985
Codium parvulumAlong the Suez Canal Yes Israel et al., 2010; ISPRA, 2018
Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Seeds dispersed by waterways Yes Yes Technigro, 2010
Colocasia esculenta (taro)Corm and stem fragments can float on water Yes Yes Safo-Kantaka, 2004
Colubrina asiatica (latherleaf)Seeds dispersed by ocean currents Yes Yes McCormick, 2007
Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper) Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; PIER, 2015; Staples et al., 2000
Coniothyrium glycines (red leaf blotch) Yes Hartman et al., 1987
Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) Yes
Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)Alates, larvae or nymphs in wood and wooden structure Yes Yes Scheffrahn and Su, 2000
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes Prezant and Chalermwat, 1984
Corella eumyota (orange-tipped sea squirt)Larvae (tadpoles) Yes Yes Tatian and Lagger, 2009
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)Parts of plant transported by water Yes Kelly, 1990
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass) Yes
Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)Seeds Yes Yes Doran, 1999
Corynocarpus laevigatus (karaka)Dispersed short distances by white water Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)Dispersal by water is possible as species grows along riverbanks and coastal areas Yes Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2016
Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)Seeds with silky pappus hairs Yes Denton, 2004
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Crassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop) Yes CAPM-CEH, 2004
Crepidula fornicata (American slipper limpet)The natural transport of mobile pelagic larva Yes
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Corms and rhizomes dispersed by watercourses Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine) Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusVirus can be detected in irrigation water and could move locally in this way Yes
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Larvae Yes Yes Dine, 1904
Cuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed) Yes Technigro, 2011
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Cyathea cooperi (australian tree fern)Spores are carried by water Yes Medeiros et al., 1992
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Likely mode of spore dispersal Yes
Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass) Yes NARO, 2004
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Seeds Yes Kelly, 2000
Cyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Seeds and stem segments Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) Yes Yes
Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Yes Adamek, 1998; Roberts and Ebner, 1997
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)Seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Seeds Yes Holm et al., 1977
Dalbergia sissoo Yes Morton, 2007
Daphnia lumholtziDaphnia can easily drft between lakes and reservoirs via connecting streams Yes Havel and Shurin, 2004; Shurin and Havel, 2003; Soeken-Gittinger et al., 2007; Stoeckel et al., 1996; Thorp et al., 1994
Datura ferox (fierce thornapple) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes
Delonix regia (flamboyant) Yes PIER, 2009
Deparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)Potential propagule and spore distribution Yes Yes
Deroceras laeve (meadow slug)Flooding Yes AnimalBase, 2015
Derris elliptica (tuba root)Seed and stem fragments float on water Yes Yes Kaua’i Invasive Species Committee, 2012
Descurainia sophia (flixweed) Yes University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011
Dickeya solani (black leg disease of potato)Spread within a field in ground-water. Infested water can infect healthy plants Yes Toth et al., 2011
Didymella fabae (leaf and pod spot)Rain-splashed conidia Yes Bond and Pope, 1980; Hewett, 1973
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)Seeds, plant segments, rhizomes Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Digitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass) Yes PIER, 2016
Digitaria insularis (sourgrass) Yes
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Possible as it occurs near waterways. Yes HEAR, 2020
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Winged seeds dispersed by water Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel)Larvae dispersed by wind-driven and downstream water currents Yes Yes Orlova et al., 2005
Drymaria arenarioides (alfombrilla)Reported as dispersed by water Yes Allison, 1977
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2013
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)Seeds Yes Yes Waterhouse, 1994
Echinochloa pyramidalis Yes
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) Yes Yes
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass) Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Eichhornia paniculata (Brazilian water hyacinth) Yes Yes Husband and Barrett, 1998
Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) Yes Katz and Shafroth, 2003
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)Evident, but no supporting refs Yes
Elephantopus mollis (elephant's foot) Yes Queensland Government, 2014
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Oceanic crossings were probable for pre-human introductions to Bahamas and Cayman Islands Yes Yes Heinicke et al., 2011; Wilson and Porras, 1983
Elodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed) Yes India Biodiversity, 2018; India Biodiversity, 2018
Emex spinosa (spiny emex) Yes
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Seeds Yes Yes Davidse et al., 2018
Emilia praetermissa (yellow thistle)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2020
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Seed dispersal Yes Yes Fern, 2019
Entada gigas (sea-bean)Seeds Yes Yes Black et al., 2006; Bridgewater, 2012
Eragrostis ciliaris (gophertail lovegrass)Seed Yes PIER, 2018
Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass) Yes Yes USDA Forest Service, 2014
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)Seed Yes Holm et al., 1997
Eragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)Disperses via streams, rivers, flooding, irrigation Yes Yes Reis, 1993
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab)Larvae disperse with water currents Yes Gollasch, 2006
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)Rain, water Yes Thomson, 2000
Esox lucius (pike)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes
Eucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)Seed Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Euphorbia terracina (false caper) Yes
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed)Seed Yes Rutledge and McLendon, 1996
Fallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)Flood events Yes
Fallopia x bohemica Yes
Ficus elastica (rubber plant)Grows in coastal areas and could possibly be dispersed by water Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018; Randall, 2012
Fimbristylis cymosa (tropical fimbry) Yes
Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1977
Flemingia strobilifera (wild hops)Seeds Yes ISSG, 2014
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) Yes
Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) Yes
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)It occurs along waterways and it is possible it is dispersed by water Yes Fleriag, 2010
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense tropical race 4 (TR4) Yes
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. medicaginis (fusarium wilt of alfalfa) Yes Yes
Galega officinalis (goatsrue) Yes
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Seeds Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Galphimia glauca (goldshower)Seeds Yes Yes Anderson, 2007
Gammarus tigrinusDispersal by water currents or through connected waterways Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018; Wooten et al., 2006
Geophagus brasiliensis (pearl cichlid)Within rivers/tributaries Yes Yes Beatty et al., 2013
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode) Yes Been and Schomaker, 2006
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Cysts Yes
Glyceria maxima (reed sweet-grass) Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton) Yes Yes PIER, 2017
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant) Yes Weeds CRC, 2008
Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood) Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim, 2005
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton) Yes Tilley et al., 2015
Halophila stipulacea (halophila seagrass) Yes
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily)Seeds and rhizome fragments Yes
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes
Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke)Transported in winter floods Yes Yes
Helminthotheca echioides (bristly oxtongue)Seeds are transported via irrigation water Yes Tosso et al., 1986
Hemichromis letourneuxi (African jewelfish)Dispersed in Florida by seasonal flooding, drainage canals and interconnected waterways Yes Loftus et al., 2006
Hemigrapsus takanoi (brush-clawed shore crab)Natural dispersal following initial introductions occurs when pelagic larvae dispersed by currents Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Tiley et al., 1996
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Very important natural factor, as H. sosnowskyi often grows along/near streams and rivers Yes Yes Kabuce, 2006; Moravcová et al., 2007a
Herichthys cyanoguttatus (Rio Grande cichlid)Flooding, natural dispersal, etc. Yes Lorenz, 2008; Nico et al., 2015
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes
Heterotheca grandiflora (telegraph weed) Yes DiTomaso and Healy, 2007
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)Seeds Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)Seeds Yes Yes Salazar and Soihet, 2001
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood) Yes Yes
Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) Yes
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Yes USGS-NAS, 2002
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (floating pennywort) Yes
Hygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed) Yes DCR, 2003
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)Spread with water flow through natural and engineered waterways Yes Yes Australian Weeds Committee, 2012
Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort)Seeds Yes Yes
Hyptis alata (clustered bushmint)Seeds Yes Yes Harley, 1983
Hyptis suaveolens (pignut) Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) Yes Yes
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Seeds Yes Yes van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001
Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam)seed Yes Beerling and Perrins, 1993
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam)Seed Yes Trepl, 1984
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2018
Indigofera spicata (creeping indigo) Yes Brisbane City Council, 2013
Indigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo) Yes
Indigofera tinctoria (true indigo) Yes Yes
Ipomoea alba (white moonflower )Seeds and pieces of stems may be dispersed by water Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2016
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Weber, 2003
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Seeds dispersed by water Yes Al-Sodany, 2016
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Seeds and stem fragments can be dispersed by waterways and currents Yes Yes Csurches, 2016
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Seeds Yes PIER, 2017
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Ipomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)Seeds Yes Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2010
Isatis tinctoria (dyer's woad)Suggested fruit adapted for water transport Yes Yes Farah et al., 1988
Iva xanthiifolia (marsh-elder) Yes Froebe and Oesau, 1969; Milanova and Valkova, 2004
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda) Yes Yes
Jatropha curcas (jatropha) Yes Pitt, 1999
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus effusus (common rush) Yes Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush) Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Juncus planifolius (broadleaf rush) Yes
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Seeds Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga) Yes Yes MPI, 2016
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea) Yes Cronk and Fuller, 1995
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)Fruits float in the sea and can be dispersed by sea currents Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Lantana camara (lantana)Flash floods Yes
Lates niloticus (Nile perch) Yes
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)Seeds Yes Yes PFAF, 2017
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)Seeds Yes Yes Kilian, 1997
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Moved by water into nearby connected waterways Yes
Lemna minuta Yes Yes Landolt, 1986
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed)A. Mikulyuk, Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, USA, personal communcation, 2010 Yes
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed) Yes
Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)River drainage systems Yes Yes USGS, 2013
Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill) Yes
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop) Yes
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes
Leuciscus idus (ide) Yes Nico and Fuller, 2008
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet) Yes
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)If ripe fruit enters rivers Yes
Limnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant) Yes Akers, 2010
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel)Larval stages in water; juveniles and adults Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Limnoria lignorum (gribble)Dispersal of larva and adults with local water currents Yes Yes Cragg et al., 1999; Ryabchikov, 1957; Thiel and Haye, 2006
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes
Lindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)seeds Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Lucania parva (rainwater killifish) Yes Hubbs and Miller, 1965
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes Okada et al., 2009; Ruaux et al., 2009
Ludwigia palustris (marsh seedbox)Stem fragments, seeds Yes Yes NZPCN, 2020
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Yes Ruaux et al., 2009
Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leaf lupin)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Lupinus plattensis (Nebraska lupine)Seeds Yes Yes Georgia, 1914
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Seeds Yes Yes Timmins and MacKenzie, 1995
Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern) Yes Yes Ferriter, 2001
Lygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern) Yes
Lysichiton americanus (American skunk cabbage) Yes
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) Yes Yes Thompson et al., 1987
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree) Yes Starr et al., 2003
Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)Spores Yes Yes
Magallana gigas (Pacific oyster)Pelagic larvae dispersed by water currents Yes Minchin and Gollasch, 2008
Malvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)Stem fragments may be dislodged and spread downstream during floods Yes Yes Weed Watch, 2012
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn) Yes
Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp) Yes Yes
Medicago lupulina (black medick)Seeds float in water for up to five days Yes Yes Turkington and Cavers, 1979
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree) Yes PIER, 2007
Melanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania) Yes
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)Most important means of seed dispersal Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
Mesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint) Yes Yes
Miconia calvescens (miconia)Fruits Yes
Micropterus dolomieu (smallmouth bass) Yes
Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) Yes Crossman, 1991
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mikania scandens Yes PIER, 2013
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes Francis, 2004
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Mimosa ceratonia (climbing mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Mimosa diplotricha (creeping sensitive plant) Yes DAF, 2016; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Mnemiopsis leidyi (sea walnut) Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Monilinia fructigena (brown rot)rain-splash carries ascospores and conidia Yes Batra, 1991; Byrde and Willetts, 1977
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)Dispersed by interconnected waterways and flooding Yes Yes Ali et al., 2018
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Rare pathway Yes
Moraea (Cape tulip) Yes
Moraea collina (Cape tulip) Yes Yes
Moraea miniata (two-leaf Cape-tulip) Yes
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)Seeds floating in water Yes Yes Nelson, 2006
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree) Yes Csurhes and Navie, 2016
Murdannia nudiflora (doveweed) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Mycosphaerella gibsonii (needle blight of pine) Yes
Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather) Yes
Myriophyllum heterophyllum (broadleaf watermilfoil) Yes
Myriophyllum pinnatum (cutleaf watermilfoil)can disperse naturally through waterways Yes
Myriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil) Yes Yes
Mytilicola intestinalis (mussel red worm)Free living larvae dispersed via water movements Yes Davey and Gee, 1976
Mytilicola orientalis (oyster redworm)Free living larvae dispersed via water movements Yes Bernard, 1969
Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease agent)Both spore stages are disseminated naturally in water Yes Steinbach et al., 2009
Nandina domestica (Nandina) Yes Stone, 2009
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Seeds Yes Daniel, 2001
Neonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)Pods and seeds may be carried by water Yes Queensland Government, 2013
Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco)Seeds are primarily dispersed by water Yes Florentine and Westbrooke, 2005
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco) Yes Yes
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)Tiny, numerous seeds easily dispersed by rainwater and flooding Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Noronhia emarginata (Madagascar olive)Fruit dispersed via water Yes Rohwer, 1995
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus) Yes
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes USGS-NAS, 2007
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Stems and roots may be transported by steams Yes Yes Francis, 2005
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Seeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)Seeds Yes Yes Pringle, 1982
Onopordum illyricum (Illyrian thistle) Yes
Opuntia aurantiaca (jointed cactus)Along river systems Yes
Opuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia monacantha (common prickly pear)Along river systems Yes Yes
Opuntia stricta (erect prickly pear)In floods, rain, etc. Yes
Orobanche cernua (nodding broomrape) Yes
Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) Yes
Oryza barthii Yes
Pachira aquatica (pachira nut)Seeds disperse by water Yes Yes Lopez, 2001; Infante-Mata et al., 2014
Pacifastacus leniusculus (American signal crayfish)Natural migration Yes Johnsen and Taugbøl, 2010
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes Yes
Papuana huebneri (taro beetle) Yes Yes
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Crawlers on water in irrigation channels Yes Tanwar et al., 2010
Parkia biglobosa (néré) Yes
Parmentiera aculeata (cucumber tree)Seeds can be dispersed by water Yes Queensland Government, 2018
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes PAG, 2000
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass) Yes PIER, 2017
Paspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)Seeds Yes Yes Más and Garcia-Molinari, 2006
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass) Yes
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) Yes
Pastinaca sativa (parsnip)Infrequent short distance dispersal of seeds Yes Cain et al., 2010
Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia) Yes SE-EPPC, 2003
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Pelagia noctiluca (mauve stinger) Yes Yes
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Pelargonium spp.genus can disperse their small seeds by wind, water, and soil. Yes Dixon, 2011; Western Australian Herbarium, 2014
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium)Members of the Pelargonium genus can disperse their small seeds by wind, water, and soil. Yes Yes Dixon, 2011; Western Australian Herbarium, 2014
Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass) Yes
Pennisetum polystachion (mission grass) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Seeds Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Perca fluviatilis (perch)Swimming to new areas within a water body Yes ISSG, 2011
Peromyscus fraterculus (Northern Baja deermouse) Yes Hafner et al., 2001
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Philippine downy mildew of maize)One of the common agents responsible for the spread of P. philippinensis is rain Yes Yes USDA, 2013
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) Yes
Pethia conchoniusWithin river systems - supposition by author Yes
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Seeds can be water dispersed Yes Monaco Nature Encyclopedia, 2019
Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey)Adults. Migrated through Erie canal, Welland and St Lawrence canal systems into Great lakes Yes Fuller et al., 2008
Phakopsora meibomiae (soybean rust)Urediniospores Yes Stavely and Pastor-Corrales, 2005
Phalaris aquatica (bulbous canarygrass) Yes
Phalloceros caudimaculatus (dusky millions fish)Dispersal by flooding, etc. Yes Maddern, 2007b
Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm) Yes DiTomaso and Healy, 2006
Phoma tracheiphila (mal secco)Rain splash, surface flow Yes Punithalingam and Holliday, 1973; Solel and Salerno, 2000
Phomopsis vexans (Phomopsis blight of eggplant)rain splash Yes Edgerton and Moreland, 1921
Phragmites australis (common reed) Yes
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Potential to spread by water Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo)Rhizome spread by water Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Physalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry) Yes
Phytophthora alni species complex (alder Phytophthora)Along watercourses Yes Gibbs et al., 1999; Jung and Blaschke, 2004
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)In rivers and irrigation water Yes Broembsen, 1984; MacDonald et al., 1994
Phytophthora kernoviaeRain splash disseminates pathogen propagules Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Yes Hansen et al., 2000; Jules et al., 2002
Pinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)Larvae dispersed by water currents Yes DAISIE, 2009
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage)Occurs near coastal areas Yes Yes Roux, 2003; Wagner and Lorence, 2014
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus) Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014b; Wagner et al., 1999
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)Secondary dispersal of seeds by water Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua, 2020
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Seed Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Poecilia latipinna (sailfin molly)Dispersal by flooding Yes Corfield et al., 2008
Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed)rain splash Yes Hook, 2013
Polypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass) Yes
Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail) Yes
Pomacea maculataHatchlings, juveniles and adults Yes Yes
Pontogammarus robustoidesNatural Distribution via waterways Yes Yes Panov et al., 2009
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Portunus segnisLarvae stages Yes Yes
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes
Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite)During rains and floods Yes Solbrig and Cantino, 1975
Prosopis juliflora (mesquite)Seeds spread by rivers, ocean currents, floods etc. Yes Pasiecznik et al., 2001
Pseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Rain splash Yes Kuate, 1998
Pseudochattonella verruculosa Yes
Pseudodiaptomus marinusWith water currents Yes Brylinski et al., 2012
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes Copp et al., 2005b
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) Yes
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Possibly dispersed by water Yes UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Pterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)Seeds floating in waterways and rivers Yes Yes
Pterolepis glomerata (false meadowbeauty)Propagules are dispersed by water Yes PIER, 2015
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes
Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Yes
Rauvolfia caffra (quinine tree )Seeds dispersed by watercourses Yes Yes Mnxati, 2011
Rhamphicarpa fistulosaUncontrolled floods can transport seeds into waterways that could transport seeds over long distance Yes
Rhinella marina (cane toad) Yes
Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) Yes Yes
Rhopilema nomadica (nomad jellyfish)medusoid life stage Yes Yes Galil et al., 1990
Rivina humilis (bloodberry) Yes
Rocio octofasciata (Jack Dempsey)Dispersed by flooding Yes Corfield et al., 2007; Escalera-Vázquez and Zambrano, 2010
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose)To Norway and along coast Yes Yes Fremstad, 1997
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass) Yes Holm et al., 1977
Roystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm) Yes
Rubus alceifolius (giant bramble)Seeds Yes Baret et al., 2005
Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry)Seeds Yes Ensley, 2015
Rutilus rutilus (roach) Yes Stokes et al., 2006
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes
Salix cinerea (grey sallow) Yes Harman, 2004
Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes
Salvelinus namaycush (lake trout)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG, 2009
Salvinia minima Yes ISSG, 2006
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed) Yes McFarland et al., 2004
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Stem fragments often spread by flowing water Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Sander lucioperca (pike-perch)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes
Scaevola taccada (beach naupaka)Fruits may float for up to one year Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)Minor importance Yes Ferriter and Clark, 1997
Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum)Eggs, fry and fingerlings; chill water to 18 degrees C Yes Yes
Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae (brown stripe downy mildew of maize) Yes Singh and Renfro, 1971
Senna alata (candle bush) Yes PIER, 2016
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna)Carried in floods Yes
Senna italica (Senegal senna)Seeds Yes Yes Okeyo and Bosch, 2007
Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)In water flow over the soil surface Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Senna spectabilis (whitebark senna)Plant can grow in coastal areas. Seeds easily dispersed by water. Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; PIER, 2014
Sesbania grandiflora (sesbania) Yes
Sesbania sericea (silky sesban)Seeds Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes
Setaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail) Yes Mollard et al., 2007
Sicyos angulatus (burcucumber)Seed Yes Kil et al., 2006
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Pettit and Froend, 2001
Sida repens (Javanese fanpetals)Seeds Yes Yes Raju and Rani, 2016
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry) Yes Yes Levin et al., 2005
Solanum erianthum (potato tree)Grows along riverbanks in Taiwan Yes India Biodiversity, 2018; Roe, 1979
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Bulky seeds may be dispersed by drain water after a rainstorm Yes Yes Chiarini and Barboza, 2007; Chiarini and Barboza, 2009; Nee, 1979; Nee, 1991; Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade)Species fruit and plant parts can float on water Yes Yes CSU, 2010
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Seeds Yes Yes Gallagher et al., 2010
Solenopsis richteri (black imported fire ant)Flooding, floating colonies Yes Hays, 1959
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)Seeds float on water - oceanic dispersal Yes Yes Orava and Drake, 1997; Lonard et al., 2015
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Seeds Yes Yes Hutchinson et al., 1984
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)Seeds Yes Holm et al., 1977
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) Yes
Spartina densifloraDispersal via tidal currents is feasible Yes California Invasive Plant Council, 2016
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom)Seeds Yes Yes Nilsen et al., 1993; Zouhar, 2005
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet)Seeds Yes Yes
Sporobolus africanus (rat’s tail grass) Yes
Sporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass) Yes Yes
Stachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed) Yes Smith, 2002
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)Seeds float and are transported by water currents Yes Yes PIER, 2019
Striga asiatica (witch weed) Yes
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (New York aster) Yes
Syzygium cumini (black plum) Yes
Syzygium grande (sea apple)Water dispersal is possible as species grows along coastal edge forests Yes Henderson, 1949; National University of Singapore, 2015; PIER, 2015; Wyatt Smith, 1953
Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) Yes
Tephrosia candida (white tephrosia) Yes
Teredo navalis (naval shipworm)Larvae with currents Yes Yes Scheltema, 1971; India Biodiversity, 2018
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)Fruits float- dispersed by sea-currents Yes Yes Thomson and Evans, 2006
Terminalia muelleri (Australian almond)Seeds float on water Yes Yes Atlas of Living Australia, 2020
Thecaphora solani (potato smut)irrigation water Yes Torres, 2001
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Spores Yes
Thespesia populnea (portia tree) Yes Yes
Thorichthys meeki (firemouth cichlid)Natural dispersal by flooding, etc. Species migrates to seasonal water bodies during wet season in n Yes Artigas Azas, 2011
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan) Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)Seeds, stem fragments, roots, dumped garden waste Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)Seeds Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Seeds Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2018
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tomato brown rugose fruit virus)Other tobamoviruses have been detected in irrigation water Yes
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Seeds Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes GBIF, 2008
Trichopodus trichopterus (three spot gourami)Dispersal by flooding Yes Corfield et al., 2007
Turbina corymbosa (Christmas vine)Indehiscent fruits float in water Yes
Typha domingensis (southern cattail)Achenes with hairs, rhizomes. Yes Grace and Harrison, 1986; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes Grace and Harrison, 1986
Typha x glauca (hybrid cattail)Fruits, rhizomes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Ulex europaeus (gorse) Yes Clements et al., 2001
Ulva ohnoiAll life stages Yes Hiraoka et al., 2004b
Umbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow)All transport in water Yes Verreycken et al., 2010
Urena lobata (caesar weed)Seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Streams, rivers, flooding, irrigation Yes Yes New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries, 2015
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes Smith, 2002
Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)Seeds Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal, 2018
Urocystis agropyri (flag smut of wheat) Yes Vánky and Shivas, 2008
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) Yes Yes
Utricularia gibba Yes NZPCN, 2010
Vallisneria spiralis (eelweed)Seed, runners, plant fragments Yes
Ventenata dubia (North Africa grass)When seeds are present and water flowing Yes
Vigna marina (beach bean) Yes Yes Padulosi and Ng, 1993
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Seeds Yes Miller et al., 2010
Xanthium spinosum (bathurst burr) Yes PIER, 2013
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (bacterial leaf streak of rice)Irrigation water Yes Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (bacterial leaf streak of barley) Yes
Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum (bacterial leaf streak of corn) Yes Sivitis, 2017
Xenohaliotis californiensis Yes
Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) Yes
Xiphophorus helleriiDispersal by flooding Yes McKay, 1978
Xiphophorus maculatus (southern platyfish)Dispersal by flooding Yes
Xyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass) Yes
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Possible as it occurs at margins of rivers, wetlands and lagoons Yes India Biodiversity, 2018
Zingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger)Habitat includes riverbanks, streams and wetlands Yes Yes Chirangini and Sharma, 2005; Ravindran and Babu, 2005; Wolff et al., 1999
Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger) Yes Yes