Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Land vehicles (pathway vector)

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Datasheet

Land vehicles (pathway vector)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Land vehicles (pathway vector)

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Land vehicles (pathway vector); grass seeds (and other potential soil contaminents) trapped in tyre treads.
TitleLand vehicles (pathway vector)
CaptionLand vehicles (pathway vector); grass seeds (and other potential soil contaminents) trapped in tyre treads.
Copyright©Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Land vehicles (pathway vector); grass seeds (and other potential soil contaminents) trapped in tyre treads.
Land vehicles (pathway vector)Land vehicles (pathway vector); grass seeds (and other potential soil contaminents) trapped in tyre treads.©Karan A. Rawlins, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Land vehicles (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Acacia glauca (wild dividivi) Yes
Acanthiophilus helianthi (fly, capsule)Transport of cut flowers or safflower for oil production. Yes
Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur) Yes
Acanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur)In ship ballast water, also associated with road- and railsides Yes
Acarapis woodi (honeybee mite) Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail) Yes
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) Yes Barros and Pickering, 2014
Acridotheres tristis (common myna) Yes
Acrolepiopsis assectella (leek moth) Yes
Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid) Yes
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) Yes Yes
Aegilops cylindrica Yes Yes
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
Agave americana (century plant)Seeds, bulbils and stem fragments Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Ageratina adenophora (Croftonweed)In mud on agricultural machinery Yes
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed) Yes Cornell Garden-Based Learning, 2016
Agrostis avenacea (Pacific bent grass)Seeds can be transported long distances, especially via railway. Yes Yes Victorian Resources Online, 2015
Agrostis capillaris (common bent) Yes
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, seed Yes Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011; Kowarik and Lippe, 2011
Alburnus alburnus (bleak)Movement by trucks etc. Yes Welcomme, 1988
Alhagi maurorum (camelthorn)Shipment Yes
Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass)Farm equipment, grain transport. Seed along roadsides Yes Lass and Prather, 2007
Alphitobius diaperinus (lesser mealworm)Transported in national and international grain trade Yes
Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)Agricultural and excavation machinery, tyres Yes Yes
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)Species cultivated in agricultural settings thus possibly spread by machinery and vehicle tires Yes Yes Duke, 1981; Hanelt et al., 2001
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort) Yes Yes Olliff et al., 2001
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)Seeds Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)Railway freight, dock cargo, agricultural vehicles Yes
Ambrosia peruviana (Peruvian ragweed)Seeds Yes
Ambrosia psilostachya (perennial ragweed)Railway freight, dock cargo, agricultural vehicles Yes
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)Seeds and roots Yes Yes Montagnani et al., 2017
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed)Harvest machinery and grain trucks Yes
Anagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel) Yes
Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)Aeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Anastrepha obliqua (West Indian fruit fly)Aeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Anastrepha striata (guava fruit fly)Aeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge) Yes Yes
Anguina agrostis (nematode, bentgrass) Yes
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant) Yes Yes
Aonidomytilus albus (tapioca scale)Vehicles that have recently carried infested cassava. Yes
Aphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode) Yes
Aphelenchoides fragariae (strawberry crimp nematode) Yes
Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Chrysanthemum foliar eelworm) Yes
Apiognomonia errabunda (anthracnose) Yes
Aproceros leucopoda (elm zigzag sawfly) Yes Yes Blank et al., 2010
Arthurdendyus triangulatus (New Zealand flatworm)Could be moved on soil attached to farm equipment Yes
Arundo donax (giant reed)Seeds, plant fragments Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes
Avena fatua (wild oat) Yes
Avocado sunblotch viroid (avocado sun blotch) Yes
Bactrocera carambolae (carambola fruit fly)Aeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera cucumis (cucumber fruit fly)Lorries, planes, possibly ships with fruit cargo Yes
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)Less frequently pupae Yes Yes
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)Fruits infested with eggs, larvae and/or pupae Yes
Bactrocera facialisAeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera frauenfeldi (mango fruit fly)Lorries, aeroplanes and perhaps ships, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera jarvisi (Jarvis' fruit fly)Lories, aeroplanes and perhaps ships, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera kirkiAeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera latifrons (Solanum fruit fly)Aeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera melanotusAeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera minax (Chinese citrus fly)Lorries, planes, possibly ships with fruit cargo Yes
Bactrocera neohumeralisLorries, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera occipitalisAeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly)Aeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera psidii (South Sea guava fruit fly)Aeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera tauAeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly)Aeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera tsuneonis (Japanese orange fly)Lorries, planes, possibly ships carrying fruit cargo Yes
Bactrocera umbrosaAeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera xanthodes (Pacific fruit fly)Lorries, planes, possibly ships with fruit cargo Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly)Fruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes Yes
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Seeds Yes Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)Unintentional transport of seeds Yes
Boiga irregularis (brown tree snake) Yes Yes
Bothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem)Seeds Yes Hilty, 2014
Bothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)Seeds, plant fragments Yes
Brachypodium distachyon (purple false brome)Florets can be dispersed by vehicle tyres Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome) Yes Yes
Brassica nigra (black mustard)Via seed, soiled tyres Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Possible from its cultivation Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Brassica tournefortii (African mustard)Seeds, plant fragments Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes
Bromus tectorum (downy brome)All Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wilt nematode) Yes
Cadra cautella (dried currant moth)Transported in national and international grain Yes
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant)Plants and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Calotropis procera (apple of sodom) Yes
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer)Railway wagons, TIR (international road transport) vehicles Yes
Campylopus introflexusSpores/Shoot tips Yes
Capsicum baccatum (pepper) Yes Yes Basu and De, 2003
Carduus pycnocephalus (Italian thistle) Yes
Carpophilus (dried-fruit beetles)Transported in national and international grain trade Yes
Cassia grandis (pink shower) Yes Yes ICRAF, 2014
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass) Yes Yes
Centaurea debeauxii (meadow knapweed) Yes
Centaurea diffusa (diffuse knapweed)automobiles, farm vehicles Yes
Centaurea iberica (Iberian starthistle) Yes
Centaurea melitensis (Maltese starthistle) Yes DiTomaso and Healy, 2007; Hubbert, 2007
Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle)Construction Yes
Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos (spotted knapweed)Logging, off road vehicles Yes
Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly)Aeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly)Lorries carrying cargo Yes
Ceratitis punctata (cacao fruit fly)Lorries, planes, possibly ships with fruit cargo Yes
Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail)On wheels, tracks or in attached mud etc. of excavation vehicles Yes
Chionaspis pinifoliae (pine leaf scale) Yes
Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass)Seeds attached to vehicles and machinery Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2020
Chromatomyia horticola (pea leaf miner)Road transport/air/sea as commercial flowers/crops. Yes
Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed)Military vehicles and equipment Yes Yes McFadyen, 2002
Chrysanthemoides monilifera (boneseed)Ship's ballast Yes
Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle)Farm vehicles Yes
Cirsium mexicanum (Mexican thistle)Seed Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Cirsium vulgare (spear thistle)Transport vehicles and farm machines Yes
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato)Risk of soil on wheels. Yes
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Potato ring rot)Soil on machinery. Yes
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban) Yes Yes
Clerodendrum speciosissimum (Java glory bower)Rhizome fragments may be accidentally transported in soil stuck to machinery, vehicles, etc Yes Yes
Cochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Very low risk, but possible Yes
Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) Yes
Coptotermes formosanus (Formosan subterranean termite)Wooden boats, street-cars Yes
Cornu aspersum (common garden snail) Yes Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)Dispersal by vehicles is possible as species is commonly found on roadsides Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (African cotton leaf curl begomovirus)
Cowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)
Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) Yes Alverson and Sigg, 2008
Crocidosema plebejana (cotton tipworm) Yes
Cromileptes altivelis (humpback grouper)Juveniles and adults, for short distance transportation, e.g. from airport or port to the farm Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011; Woodward and Quinn, 2011; Sadovy et al., 2007
Cronartium ribicola (white pine blister rust)Aeciospores Yes
Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)Seeds as contaminant in agricultural equipment Yes Yes Maddox et al., 2011
Cryptostegia grandiflora (rubber vine)Farm machinery Yes
Cryptotermes brevis (powderpost termite)Ships, boats Yes
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusVehicles which have been on infected properties could transmit virus to properties subsequently visited Yes
Cuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed) Yes Technigro, 2011
Cuscuta japonica (Japanese dodder) Yes
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Likely mode of spore dispersal Yes Yes
Cylindropuntia fulgida (jumping cholla)As shown for other Cylindropuntia species Yes Deltoro et al., 2014
Cylindropuntia rosea (hudson pear)As shown for other Cylindropuntia species Yes Deltoro et al., 2014
Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass) Yes NARO, 2004
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Seeds Yes Yes Kelly, 2000
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Cynodon plectostachyus (African stargrass)Seeds and stolons Yes Cook et al., 2005
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)Seeds Yes Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1977
Dacus ciliatus (lesser pumpkin fly)infested fruit Yes
Dalea scandens (low prairie clover)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2015
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes
Daucus carota (carrot)Seed can adhere via mud to underside of vehicles Yes Yes Schmidt, 1989
Deanolis albizonalis (mango seed borer)Wood material through edible fruits carriage. Yes
Dendroctonus pseudotsugae (Douglas-fir beetle)Ships, trucks Yes
Dendroctonus valens (red turpentine beetle) Yes
Dendrolimus superans sibiricus (Siberian silk moth) Yes
Dendrolimus tabulaeformis (Chinese pine caterpillar)Adults in vehicles. Yes
Desmodium incanum (creeping beggerweed)Sticky seeds could attach to vehicles Yes Yes Mori and Brown, 1998
Desmostachya bipinnata (halfa grass) Yes
Diabrotica undecimpunctata (spotted cucumber beetle) Yes
Dichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2011
Digitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)Might be carried unintentionally in agricultural machinery Yes
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)Seeds, plant segments, rhizomes Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Digitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)Might be carried unintentionally in agricultural machinery Yes
Digitaria insularis (sourgrass) Yes
Dinoderus minutus (bamboo borer) Yes
Diprion similis (white pine sawfly) Yes
Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly, common)If rotten fruit not cleared. Yes
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2013
Echium plantagineum (Paterson's curse) Yes
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) Yes USDA-NRCS, 2016
Elodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed)On wheels, tracks or in attached mud etc. Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011; Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Emex australis (Doublegee)Car rubber tyres Yes
Emex spinosa (spiny emex)Car tyres Yes
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Seeds Yes Yes Davidse et al., 2018
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2011
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Seed dispersal Yes Yes Fern, 2019
Ephestia kuehniella (Mediterranean flour moth) Yes
Epidiaspis leperii (European pear scale) Yes
Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass)Species is common on roadsides and trails, seeds adhere to vehicles Yes Yes
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)Seed Yes NDFF, 2018
Eragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)Common on roadsides and trails, adheres to vehicles Yes Yes Reis, 1993
Eremochloa ophiuroides (centipedegrass)Seeds and stolons Yes Yes Brosnan and Deputy, 2008
Erionota thrax (banana skipper) Yes
Eucheuma spp.Live vegetative stage Yes Ask and Azanza, 2002
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)Potted plants transported to nurseries and homes Yes ISSG, 2013
Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge)Agricultural equipment and vehicles. Yes
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)Small fragments of rhizome Yes
Fallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)Earch moving equipment Yes
Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1977
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)Seeds as a contaminant Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
Genista monspessulana (Montpellier broom) Yes
Gilpinia hercyniae (spruce sawfly) Yes
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)Cysts Yes Yes Been and Schomaker, 2006
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Cysts as contamination, juveniles Yes Yes
Globodera tabacum (tobacco cyst nematode)Cysts in soil Yes
Glycaspis brimblecombei (red gum lerp psyllid)Trucks and cars. Yes
Glyceria maxima (reed sweet-grass) Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Gnathotrichus sulcatus (western hemlock wood stainer)Ships Yes
Golovinomyces cichoracearum (powdery mildew) Yes
Golovinomyces orontii (powdery mildew) Yes
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Fruits, seeds, and stem fragments Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Gonipterus gibberus (snout beetle, eucalyptus)Hitchhikers Yes
Gonipterus scutellatus (eucalyptus snout beetle)Hitchhikers Yes
Grapholita delineana (hemp borer)Trucks carrying harvested hemp stalks. Yes
Gremmeniella abietina (Brunchorstia disease)Christmas trees Yes
Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood) Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim, 2005
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)Adults found in vehicles, especially when seeking shelter in the autumn. Yes Yes
Helenium amarum (bitterweed) Yes Tomley and Panetta, 2002
Helicotylenchus dihystera (common spiral nematode)With soil Yes
Helicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)In soil from banana grower Yes
Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (spiral nematode)With soil Yes
Helicotylenchus variocaudatusWith soil Yes
Heliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)Seeds, root fragments Yes Yes Hegazy et al., 1994
Hemiberlesia pitysophila (pine needle hemiberlesian scale) Yes
Hemicriconemoides mangiferaeWith soil Yes
Hemicycliophora arenaria (sheath nematode)With soil Yes
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Tiley et al., 1996
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Seeds may get attached to tyres of cars, tractors and other vehicles Yes Yes Kabuce, 2006
Heterodera avenae (cereal cyst eelworm)Cysts in soil. Yes
Heterodera cajani (pigeon pea cyst nematode)Cysts Yes
Heterodera ciceri (chickpea cyst nematode)With soil. Yes
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode)Cysts in soil. Yes
Heterodera goettingiana (pea cyst eelworm)Cysts as contaminants. Yes
Heterodera oryzae (rice cyst nematode)Cysts in soil Yes
Heterodera oryzicola (rice cyst nematode)Cysts in soil. Yes
Heterodera sacchari (sugarcane cyst nematode)Cysts in soil. Yes
Heterodera zeae (corn cyst nematode)Cysts as contaminants. Yes
Heterotis niloticus (African bonytongue) Yes
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard) Yes Brooks, 2004
Hirschmanniella oryzae (rice root nematode)With soil. Yes
Hirschmanniella spinicaudata (rice root nematode)With soil. Yes
Homalodisca vitripennis (glassy winged sharpshooter)Adults within vehicles; adults and nymphs in storage and transport bins. Yes
Hoplolaimus indicus (lance nematode)With soil. Yes
Hoplolaimus pararobustus (lance nematode)With soil. Yes
Hoplolaimus seinhorsti (lance nematode)With soil. Yes
Hydrocharis morsus-ranaeVehicles with trailers Yes Yes USGS-NAS, 2002
Hylobitelus xiaoi Yes
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)Seeds Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Hyptis alata (clustered bushmint)Seeds as contaminants
Hyptis brevipes (lesser roundweed) Yes
Hyptis suaveolens (pignut) Yes Merril, 1981
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam)Seed in attached dirt; forestry vehicles Yes Trepl, 1984
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2018
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Indigofera trita subsp. scabra (Asian Indigo)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Seeds and stem fragments can be dispersed by slashers, movers and other vehicles Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2017
Ips hauseri (Kyrgyz mountain engraver) Yes
Ips subelongatus (larch bark beetle) Yes
Isatis tinctoria (dyer's woad)Especially agricultural vehicles Yes Zouhar, 2009
Japanagromyza tristella (soyabean black leaf-miner)Road transport/air/sea as commercial flowers/crops. Yes
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus effusus (common rush) Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush) Yes
Juncus tenuis (slender rush) Yes
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Seeds, plantlets, plant fragments Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea)Vegetation moving between water bodies on vehicles, moving boats, trailers, recreational equipment Yes Yes Cronk and Fuller, 1995
Lasioderma serricorne (cigarette beetle)Transported in national and international grain trade Yes
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Lepidium draba (hoary cress)All including agricultural machines, undercarriage Yes
Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetle)Adults are occasionally found in all sorts of road vehicles, which pass or park near infested fields Yes
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop) Yes
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid) Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes
Leuciscus leuciscus (common dace) Yes
Liberibacter africanus (African greening) Yes
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening) Yes
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes
Linepithema humile (Argentine ant) Yes Yes
Liriomyza brassicae (serpentine leafminer)Road transport/air. Yes
Liriomyza bryoniae (tomato leaf miner)Road transport/air. Yes
Liriomyza sativae (vegetable leaf miner) Yes
Liriomyza trifolii (American serpentine leafminer)Road transport/air. Yes
Longidorus elongatus (needle nematode)With soil. Yes
Lopholeucaspis japonica (Japanese baton shaped scale)Air and surface transport of ornamental and crop plant material. Yes
Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leaf lupin)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Lupinus plattensis (Nebraska lupine)Seeds Yes Yes Georgia, 1914
Lycium ferocissimum (African boxthorn)Farm vehicles Yes
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) Yes Yes Kean et al., 2015; Liebhold and Tobin, 2006; Ross, 2005
Lymantria mathura (pink gypsy moth) Yes
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)All kinds of treads Yes Thompson et al., 1987
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)Air and surface transport of ornamental and crop plant material as cargo. Yes
Manduca quinquemaculata (tomato hornworm)Aircraft Yes
Martynia annua (tiger's claw)Seeds/“clawed” fruit Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Melanagromyza dolichostigma (miner, soybean root)Road transport/air. Yes
Melanaspis glomerata (sugarcane scale) Yes
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)Seeds as a contaminant Yes Klein, 2011
Meloidogyne acronea (African cotton root nematode)Eggs and galls in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)Eggs and galls in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne chitwoodi (columbia root-knot nematode)Eggs in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne coffeicola (coffee root-knot nematode) Yes
Meloidogyne decalineata (African coffee root-knot nematode)Eggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne exigua (coffee root-knot nematode)Eggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne fallax (false Columbia root-knot nematode)Eggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode)Eggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)Eggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Eggs and galls in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)Eggs and galls in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne mayaguensisEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (crystalline iceplant) Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Mesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint) Yes Yes
Miconia calvescens (miconia)Seeds. Introduced to Nuku iva and Fatu Hiva by vehicles and engines for road construction Yes Yes Meyer, 1998a
Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) Yes
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes Francis, 2004
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa)Fruits and seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Mimosa ceratonia (climbing mimosa)Fruits and seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Mimosa diplotricha (creeping sensitive plant) Yes DAF, 2016; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Mimosa pigra (giant sensitive plant) Yes
Monochamus sutor (small white-marmorated longicorn)Aircraft, ships Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Common pathway Yes Yes
Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean)Cultivated seed can be transported by agricultural vehicles and machinery Yes Yes Duke, 1981
Mus musculus (house mouse) Yes
Mycosphaerella citri (greasy spot)Dead leaves. Yes
Nacobbus aberrans (false root-knot nematode)Eggs and adults as contaminants. Yes
Nassella trichotoma (serrated tussock grass) Yes
Nasturtium microphyllum (one-row watercress) Yes
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Seeds and roots Yes Yes Mahbubur, 2013
Neodiprion sertifer (European pine sawfly) Yes
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)Tiny seeds can be transported in soil, on vehicle tyres, on footwear, etc Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Pieces of stems and roots from gardens Yes Yes Francis, 2005
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Seeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Pringle, 1982
Onopordum acanthium (scotch thistle)Transport vehicles and farm machinery Yes
Ophiostoma novo-ulmi (Dutch elm disease)Truck, ship, aeroplane, train Yes
Ophiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease)Truck, ship, aeroplane, train Yes
Orobanche cernua (nodding broomrape) Yes
Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) Yes
Orobanche ramosa (branched broomrape) Yes Jacobsohn, 1984
Oryza barthii Yes
Oryzaephilus surinamensis (saw toothed grain beetle)Transported in national and international grain trade Yes
Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog)Adults Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Papuana huebneri (taro beetle) Yes
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug) Yes
Paralongidorus australis (needle nematode)With soil Yes
Paratrichodorus minor (stubby root nematode)With soil Yes
Paratrichodorus porosusWith soil Yes
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)Tractors, combine harvestors, etc Yes
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass) Yes Eurobodalla Shire Council, 2017
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass) Yes
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) Yes
Pectinophora scutigera (pink spotted bollworm)In cotton modules being transported to gin Yes
Pennisetum pedicellatum (deenanath grass) Yes
Pennisetum polystachion (mission grass)Very low seed numbers Yes Lonsdale and Lane, 1994
Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)Seed and plant segments attached to vehicles Yes Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Pheidole megacephala (big-headed ant) Yes
Phylacteophaga froggatti (leafblister sawfly) Yes Yes
Phyllophaga smithi (white grub)Ships, boats, aeroplanes. Yes
Phytophthora cambivora (root rot of forest trees)Movement of soil Yes
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)In moist soil stuck to vehicles Yes Batini, 1977; Colquhoun and Petersen, 1994
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Yes Goheen et al., 2012
Phytophthora megasperma (root rot)Tractor tyres, car tyre treads. Yes
Phytophthora ramorum (Sudden Oak Death (SOD))All if soil moved.
Pineus boerneri (pine woolly aphid) Yes
Piper aduncum (spiked pepper) Yes ISSG, 2016
Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) Yes
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Seed Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)Cargo ships/boats Yes
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes Yes
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Pratylenchus brachyurus (root-lesion nematode)Farm machinery Yes
Pratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode) Yes
Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion)In soil. Yes
Pratylenchus thorneiIn soil. Yes
Pratylenchus vulnus (walnut root lesion nematode)In soil. Yes
Pratylenchus zeae (root lesion nematode)In soil. Yes
Prays citri (citrus flower moth) Yes
Prosopis ruscifolia Yes
Prostephanus truncatus (larger grain borer)Carried by national and international grain trade Yes
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)Harvest time, crawlers, on hired or shared farm vehicles Yes
Pseudoidium neolycopersici (tomato powdery mildew) Yes
Psittacus erithacus (African grey parrot) Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Spores can be transported via clothing and equipment Yes UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019
Puccinia asparagi (asparagus rust) Yes
Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Punctodera chalcoensisIn soil. Yes
Radopholus citriWith soil from citrus orchards. Yes
Radopholus similis (burrowing nematode)With soil Yes
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes
Rastrococcus invadens (fruit tree mealybug)Theoretically possible from lorries and trucks brushing against plants. Probably very minor. Yes
Rattus rattus (black rat) Yes
Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus (red ring nematode)In soil and plant tissue. Yes
Rhagoletis cerasi (European cherry fruit fly)Aeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Lorries, aeroplanes and perhaps ships, with fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis completa (walnut husk fly)Lorries, aeroplanes and perhaps ships, with fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis fausta (black cherry fruit fly)Lorries, aeroplanes and perhaps ships, with fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis indifferens (western cherry fruit fly)Lorries, aeroplanes and perhaps ships, with fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis mendax (blueberry fruit fly)Lorries, aeroplanes and perhaps ships, with fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis pomonella (apple maggot)Aeroplanes and boats, with fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis ribicola (American currant fruit fly)Lorries, aeroplanes and perhaps ships, with fruit cargo. Yes
Rhaponticum repens (Russian knapweed)Farm vehicles; road maintenance machinery Yes
Rhinella marina (cane toad) Yes Yes
Rivina humilis (bloodberry) Yes
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, 2014; Randall, 2012
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Rail trucks from Mexico to USA Yes Lehtonen, 2003
Rotylenchulus parvus (reniform nematode)With soil. Yes
Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode)In soil. Yes
Rubus fruticosus (blackberry)Unintentional transport of seeds Yes
Rudbeckia laciniata (cutleaf coneflower) Yes Yes Akasaka et al., 2015
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG, 2009
Scapanes australis (rhinoceros beetle) Yes
Schismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)Off-road vehicles causing soil disturbances promotes spread Yes Guertin, 2003
Scirtothrips perseae (avocado thrips)Road, rail, sea and air Yes
Sciurus aberti (Abert's squirrel)Frequent occurrence with adult animals in 1990s; <100 individuals moved to a location Yes Yes Davis and Brown, 1988
Sclerospora graminicola (downy mildew of pearl millet)Oospores with soil Yes
Scolytus morawitzi (scolytid of Morawitz) Yes
Scolytus multistriatus (smaller European elm bark beetle) Yes
Scutellonema brachyurusWith soil. Yes
Scutellonema bradys (yam nematode)With soil. Yes
Scutellonema clathricaudatumIn soil. Yes
Senecio inaequidens (South African ragwort)Road and rail vehicles Yes
Senecio jacobaea (common ragwort)Farm vehicles, etc. Yes
Senecio madagascariensis (fireweed)Farm vehicle, etc Yes
Senecio vulgaris Yes
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna)On tyres Yes
Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod)Motor vehicles Yes
Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)Tractors and farm vehicles Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Senna surattensis (golden senna) Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Little and Skolmen, 1989; Sosef and Maesen, 1997
Septoria cannabis (yellow leaf spot) Yes
Sesbania punicea (red sesbania) Yes
Sesbania sericea (silky sesban)Seeds Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Lonsdale and Lane, 1994
Sisymbrium irio Yes
Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade)Vehicles, earth moving equipment and agricultural implements. Yes Yes
Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple)Seeds Yes Yes Medal et al., 2012
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)All types Yes
Solenopsis richteri (black imported fire ant)Newly mated queens attracted to shiny surfaces Yes Taber, 2000
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Holm et al., 1977
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) Yes
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes
Sphagneticola trilobata (wedelia) Yes Yes
Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar)eggs, larvae, pupae, moths Yes Yes
Sporobolus africanus (rat’s tail grass) Yes Yes
Sporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass) Yes Yes
Squalius cephalus (European chub) Yes
Stachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed) Yes Smith, 2002
Striga asiatica (witch weed) Yes
Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead wildrye) Yes Yes Nafus and Davies, 2014
Tetropium gracilicorne (fine-horned spruce borer) Yes
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug)Adults and nymphs Yes Nadel et al., 2010
Theba pisana (white garden snail) Yes Cowie, 1987; Cowie and Robinson, 2003; Godan, 1983
Themeda arguens (Christmas grass)Seeds Yes Yes Motta, 1953
Themeda quadrivalvis (grader grass)Contaminant Yes Yes Keir and Vogler, 2006
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan) Yes Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Tibouchina herbacea (cane tibouchina)Frequent along roadsides. Possibly more frequent at helicopter landing sites. Yes Yes Almasi, 2000
Tomato mottle virus Yes
Toxotrypana curvicauda (papaya fruit fly)Lorries, aeroplanes and perhaps ships, with fruit cargo. Yes
Tradescantia fluminensis (wandering Jew) Yes
Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine)Farm machinery, bicycles, road vehicles Yes
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass)Seeda Yes Cook et al., 2005
Trophotylenchulus piperisIn soil. Yes
Tylenchorhynchus annulatus (stunt nematode)With soil. Yes
Tylenchorhynchus claytoni (stunt nematode) Yes
Tylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)In soil. Yes
Ulex europaeus (gorse)Farm machinery Yes Hoshovsky, 1986
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Seeds – contaminants Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Species is common on roadsides and trails, adheres to vehicles Yes Yes New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries, 2015
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Ventenata dubia (North Africa grass)When seeds are present Yes Yes
Verbesina encelioides (golden crownbeard)Unintentional transport of seeds on military bulldozer within and between Hawaiian Islands. Yes Yes Woodward, 1972
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes Yes
Vincetoxicum nigrum (black swallowwort)Railroads, highways Yes
Vincetoxicum rossicum (European swallowwort)Utility rights-of-way, railroad, highway Yes
Xanthium spinosum (bathurst burr) Yes PIER, 2013
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vasculorum (sugarcane gumming disease)Harvesters Yes
Xanthomonas citri (citrus canker)Water splashed from machinery in orchard. Yes
Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum (bacterial leaf streak of corn) Yes Sivitis, 2017
Xiphinema americanum (dagger nematode)In wet soil. Yes
Xiphinema diversicaudatum (dagger nematode)In soil. Yes
Xiphinema index (fan-leaf virus nematode)With soil in grape vines. Yes
Xiphinema rivesi (dagger nematode) Yes
Xylella fastidiosa (Pierce's disease of grapevines)Bacteria in living vector insects Yes
Xylotrechus altaicus (Altay longhorn beetle) Yes
Zabrotes subfasciatus (Mexican bean weevil)Transported in national and international grain trade Yes