Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Ship structures above the water line (pathway vector)



Ship structures above the water line (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ship structures above the water line (pathway vector)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ship structures above the water line (pathway vector)

International Common Names

  • English: Cabins; Holds

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail) Yes
Acridotheres tristis (common myna) Yes
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) Yes
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant) Yes Yes
Bactrocera neohumeralisWith fruit cargo Yes
Bactrocera passiflorae (Fijian fruit fly)With fruit cargo Yes
Blattella germanica (German cockroach) Yes Mouchtouri et al. (2008)
Boiga irregularis (brown tree snake) Yes
Brachyponera chinensis (Asian needle ant) Yes Yes Smith (1934); Paysen (2007); MacGown (2013)
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes Yes Les and Mehrhoff (1999)
Carcinus maenas (European shore crab)Lower probability than ballast water but can survive out of water for up to 5 days Yes Klassen and Locke (2007)
Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)Alates Yes Yes Scheffrahn and Su (2000)
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes Karatayev et al. (2007)
Corvus splendens (house crow)Birds transported on ships e.g. regularly to Western Australia from Colombo Yes Long (1981); Ryall (1994); Ryall (2002); Ryall (2010a)
Crassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop) Yes Yes Minchin (2008); OEPP/EPPO (2007)
Cromileptes altivelis (humpback grouper)Juveniles and adults Yes Yes Sadovy (2000); Sadovy et al. (2007)
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Adult and larvae Yes Yes Howard et al. (1912)
Daphnia lumholtziAdult D. lumholtzi survived for up to 3 days in boat live-wells Yes Yes Havel and Stelzeinni-Schwent (2000)
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog) Yes Schwartz (1974)
Eucheuma spp.Live vegetative stage Yes Ask and Azanza (2002)
Forficula auricularia (European earwig)frequent and important pathway for this species; nymphs and adults Yes Yes
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Yes Yes USGS-NAS (2002)
Hygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed) Yes DCR (2003)
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea)Vegetation moving between water bodies on boats, trailers, recreational equipment, etc. Yes Cronk and Fuller (1995)
Lampropeltis californiae (California kingsnake)Stowaways Yes Yes Verzelen et al. (2017)
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed)A. Mikulyuk, Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, USA, personal communcation, 2010 Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Rare pathway Yes
Myriophyllum heterophyllum (broadleaf watermilfoil) Yes
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart)Unintentional transport of plants on boats, trailers, etc Yes Yes DCR (2004)
Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog)Adults Yes Johnson (2017)
Papuana huebneri (taro beetle) Yes
Peromyscus fraterculus (Northern Baja deermouse)Probably taken to Santa Catalina Island by fishermen Yes Alvarez-Castaneda and Cortes-Calva (2002)
Polistes dominula (European paper wasp) Yes Royal BC Museum (2011)
Pomacea maculataEggs, hatchlings Yes Yes
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes ISSG (2006)
Psittacus erithacus (African grey parrot) Yes Yes CITES (2005)
Rattus rattus (black rat) Yes
Rhinella marina (cane toad) Yes
Rusa marianna (Philippine deer)Small numbers of live adult animals deliberately transported aboard ships Yes Yes Miura and Yoshihara (2002); Wiles et al. (1999)
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG (2009)
Salvinia minima Yes Yes USGS (2005)
Theba pisana (white garden snail) Yes Johnson (1988)
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes Yes Hummel and Kiviat (2004)