Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Ship ballast water and sediment (pathway vector)

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Datasheet

Ship ballast water and sediment (pathway vector)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ship ballast water and sediment (pathway vector)

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ship ballast water and sediment (pathway vector); vessel discharging ballast water. Ballast water is used by shipping world-wide to enhance the safety and operational efficiency of modern vessels. When cargo is unloaded from a vessel, ballast water is taken up to maintain the trim and draft of the vessel. When a vessel loads ballast water, it also takes up the minute organisms in that water, which may include planktonic species, larvae of invertebrates and fish and, pathogens. These organisms are released with the ballast water at another port when the vessel loads more cargo, often thousands of miles from where the ballast was taken on board. It has been estimated that over 3,000 species are transported in ballast water every day.
TitleVessel discharging
CaptionShip ballast water and sediment (pathway vector); vessel discharging ballast water. Ballast water is used by shipping world-wide to enhance the safety and operational efficiency of modern vessels. When cargo is unloaded from a vessel, ballast water is taken up to maintain the trim and draft of the vessel. When a vessel loads ballast water, it also takes up the minute organisms in that water, which may include planktonic species, larvae of invertebrates and fish and, pathogens. These organisms are released with the ballast water at another port when the vessel loads more cargo, often thousands of miles from where the ballast was taken on board. It has been estimated that over 3,000 species are transported in ballast water every day.
Copyright©CSIRO/via flickr - CC BY 3.0
Ship ballast water and sediment (pathway vector); vessel discharging ballast water. Ballast water is used by shipping world-wide to enhance the safety and operational efficiency of modern vessels. When cargo is unloaded from a vessel, ballast water is taken up to maintain the trim and draft of the vessel. When a vessel loads ballast water, it also takes up the minute organisms in that water, which may include planktonic species, larvae of invertebrates and fish and, pathogens. These organisms are released with the ballast water at another port when the vessel loads more cargo, often thousands of miles from where the ballast was taken on board. It has been estimated that over 3,000 species are transported in ballast water every day.
Vessel dischargingShip ballast water and sediment (pathway vector); vessel discharging ballast water. Ballast water is used by shipping world-wide to enhance the safety and operational efficiency of modern vessels. When cargo is unloaded from a vessel, ballast water is taken up to maintain the trim and draft of the vessel. When a vessel loads ballast water, it also takes up the minute organisms in that water, which may include planktonic species, larvae of invertebrates and fish and, pathogens. These organisms are released with the ballast water at another port when the vessel loads more cargo, often thousands of miles from where the ballast was taken on board. It has been estimated that over 3,000 species are transported in ballast water every day.©CSIRO/via flickr - CC BY 3.0
Ship ballast water and sediment (pathway vector); vessel discharging ballast water.
TitleVessel discharging
CaptionShip ballast water and sediment (pathway vector); vessel discharging ballast water.
Copyright©International Maritime Organization/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Ship ballast water and sediment (pathway vector); vessel discharging ballast water.
Vessel dischargingShip ballast water and sediment (pathway vector); vessel discharging ballast water.©International Maritime Organization/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Ship ballast water and sediment (pathway vector); tug-boat discharging ballast water. Brofjorden, Sweden. September 2017.
TitleVessel discharging
CaptionShip ballast water and sediment (pathway vector); tug-boat discharging ballast water. Brofjorden, Sweden. September 2017.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by akaCJ (W.carter)/via flickr - CC0 1.0
Ship ballast water and sediment (pathway vector); tug-boat discharging ballast water. Brofjorden, Sweden. September 2017.
Vessel dischargingShip ballast water and sediment (pathway vector); tug-boat discharging ballast water. Brofjorden, Sweden. September 2017.Public Domain - Released by akaCJ (W.carter)/via flickr - CC0 1.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ship ballast water and sediment (pathway vector)

International Common Names

  • English: Ballast sediment; Ballast water; Boat ballast water

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Acanthogobius flavimanus Yes Nico and Fuller, 2008
Acentrogobius pflaumii Yes Yes Francis et al., 2003; Lockett and Goman, 2001; Maddern and Morrison, 2008; NIMPIS, 2002
Alexandrium minutumresting cysts, no evidence for this species Yes Yes
Alitta succinea (pile worm) Yes
Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)Solid ballast Yes Yes Nelson, 1917
Aphanomyces astaciPossible means of movement Yes Yes Oidtmann et al., 2005
Arcuatula senhousia (Asian date mussel)larvae Yes NIMPIS, 2002
Ascidiella aspersa (European sea squirt) Yes
Asterias amurensis (northern Pacific seastar) Yes Yes
Austrominius modestus Yes Eno et al., 1997
Botrylloides violaceus (violet tunicate) Yes Lambert, 2007; Ruiz et al., 2000
Brachidontes pharaonis Yes Yes Zenetos et al., 2005
Bugula neritina (brown bryozoan) Yes
Bythotrephes longimanus (spiny waterflea)Dormant eggs in ballast water and mud. Yes Berg et al., 2002; USGS NAS, 2015
Caprella muticaLive caprellids have been found in ballast water, although no definitive sightings Yes Coutts et al., 2003
Carcinus maenas (European shore crab)most common vector Yes Yes Carlton and Cohen, 2003
Carex kobomugi (Asiatic sand sedge)Probably arrived to east and west coast of USA by sand ballast around the year 1900 Yes Burkitt and Wootton, 2010; Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria, 2015
Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea Yes Yes Verlaque et al., 2003
Centaurea iberica (Iberian starthistle) Yes
Centaurea melitensis (Maltese starthistle) Yes Roché and Talbott, 1986
Cercopagis pengoi (fishhook waterflea)adult or resting egg Yes Cristescu et al., 2001
Charybdis hellerii Yes Campos and Türkay, 1989; Galil and Zenetos, 2002
Chelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp) Yes Crawford, 1935; Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002; Vaate et al., 2002
Chthamalus proteusPotential vector for larvae; speculative, not observed Yes Yes
Ciona intestinalis (sea vase) Yes Yes
Ciona savignyi Yes Yes
Codium parvulum Yes Hoffman et al., 2014
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam)Transport of pediveliger larvae and juveniles Yes Karatayev et al., 2007
Corbula amurensis (Amur River clam)Larval through adult Yes Yes Carlton et al., 1990
Cordylophora (euryhaline hydroid)Larvae? And/or adult Yes Yes Nico and Fuller, 2008; Carlton, 1979; Pienimäki and Leppäkoski, 2004; Streftaris et al., 2005
Corella eumyota (orange-tipped sea squirt)Adults Yes Yes Wasson et al., 2001; Lambert, 2004; Minchin, 2007; El-Nagar et al., 2010
Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster) Yes Minchin and Gollasch, 2008
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Crepidula fornicata (American slipper limpet)A possibility for larvae Yes
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)Introduced into USA in discarded ship ballast Yes USDA-NRCS, 2016
Daphnia lumholtziD. lumholtzi adults and resting eggs could easily be transported in ship ballast water and sediments Yes Yes Havel and Shurin, 2004
Didemnum vexillum (carpet sea squirt) Yes Lambert, 2007; Ruiz et al., 2000
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp) Yes Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002; Vaate et al., 2002
Diplosoma listerianum Yes Lambert, 2007; Ruiz et al., 2000
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) Yes Yes
Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel) Yes Nico and Fuller, 2008; Orlova et al., 2005
Ensis directus Yes Kerckhof et al., 2007
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab) Yes Gollasch, 2006
Eualetes tulipaUnlikely, however possible. Larvae settle within 24 hours of hatching Yes Miloslavich and Penchaszadeh, 1992
Fallopia x bohemica Yes
Ficopomatus enigmaticus (tubeworm)Transported as adult and larvae Yes Yes Hewitt et al., 2009
Gammarus tigrinusMain mean of introduction to new areas Yes Yes Grigorovich et al., 2005; Sylvester and MacIsaac, 2010; Sareyka et al., 2011
Gracilaria salicorniaPlant fragments Yes
Grateloupia turuturuSpores and juvenile stages transported in ballast waters Yes Marston and Villalard-Bohnsack, 2002
Gymnocephalus cernuus (ruffe)USA and Canada Yes Pratt et al., 1992
Gymnodinium catenatumResting cysts Yes Yes Bolch and Salas, 2007
Halophila stipulacea (halophila seagrass) Yes Yes Ruiz and Ballantine, 2004
Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Asian shore crab)Larval Yes
Hemigrapsus takanoi (brush-clawed shore crab)Larval/adult Yes Gollasch et al., 2009
Hemimysis anomala Yes Yes Ellis and MacIsaac, 2009; Ricciardi and Rasmussen, 1998
Limnomysis benedeniFor inland navigation of minor importance compared to bilge water and cooling water filters. Yes Yes Reinhold and Tittizer, 1997; Reinhold and Tittizer, 1998; Ricciardi and Rasmussen, 1998
Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel)From Southeast Asia to South America. From Rio de la Plata, Argentina to Guaiba, Brazil Yes Darrigran Pastorino, 1995; Mansur et al., 2004
Littorina littorea (common periwinkle)With rock ballast Yes Brawley et al., 2009
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) Yes Thompson et al., 1987
Marenzelleria neglecta (red gilled mud worm)planktonic larvae, benthic adults Yes
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (crystalline iceplant)As a contaminant in sand used in ship ballasts Yes Nico and Fuller, 2008
Microcosmus squamigerPossible method for transport of larvae, but doubtful if larvae can survive transport Yes Rius et al., 2008b
Mnemiopsis leidyi (sea walnut) Yes
Mytilopsis sallei (Caribbean false mussel) Yes Chu et al., 1997
Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) Yes
Neogobius fluviatilis (monkey goby)In all stages of life Yes Yes Ahnelt et al., 1998
Neogobius melanostomus (round goby)In all stages of life Yes Yes Corkum et al., 2004; Jude, 1997
Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp)Larval stages Yes Köhn and Gosselck, 1989
Palaemon macrodactylus (oriental shrimp)Most likely incorporated into ballast water as larvae Yes Ashelby et al., 2004; Béguer et al., 2007; Cuesta et al., 2004; González-Ortegón et al., 2007; Micu and Nita, 2009; Newman, 1963; Spivak et al., 2006; Udekem et al., 2005
Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)Introduced into Florida in ship ballast Yes Violi, 2000
Perna viridis (Asian green mussel) Yes
Persicaria perfoliata (mile-a-minute weed) Yes Yes Moul, 1948
Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey) Yes Fuller et al., 2008
Phyllorhiza punctata (Australian spotted jellyfish) Yes
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Yes Yes Rivers, 2002
Polyandrocarpa zorritensis Yes Brunetti and Mastrototaro, 2004
Pontogammarus robustoides Yes Yes Arbaciauskas et al., 2011a; Kurashov and Barbashova, 2008; Panov et al., 2009
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes
Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New Zealand mudsnail)One of the main causes of long distance transport of mudsnail Yes Yes Alonso and Castro-Díez, 2008
Pseudochattonella verruculosa Yes Hopkins, 2001
Pseudodiaptomus marinus Yes Yes Brylinski et al., 2012
Pterois volitans (lionfish)A possible route of introduction Yes Whitfield et al., 2002
Rapana venosa (veined rapana whelk)Main form of transport, larval stage Yes Yes ICES, 2004
Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Harris mud crab)Most likely vector Yes Cohen and Carlton, 1995
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG, 2009
Schizoporella errata (branching bryozoan) Yes
Schizoporella japonica (orange ripple bryozoan) Yes Yes Ryland et al., 2014
Sida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals)Growing at the remnants of ship ballast in the Philadelphia harbour at Pennsylvania, USA Yes Yes Ruiz and Carlton, 2003
Siganus rivulatus (marbled spinefoot) Yes Wonham et al., 2000
Silene latifolia subsp. alba (white campion)Original vector of introduction Yes
Solenopsis richteri (black imported fire ant) Yes Taber, 2000
Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass)Both seeds and small pieces of rhizomes could be transported via ship ballast. Yes Yes Cohen and Carlton, 1995
Sporobolus pyramidatus (whorled dropseed) Yes Rhoads and McKinley, 1993
Styela plicata (pleated sea squirt) Yes Yes
Teredo navalis (naval shipworm)Larvae Yes Yes Nair and Saraswathy, 1971
Tridentiger trigonocephalus (chameleon goby)Most likely vector for introductions Yes Yes Lockett and Gomon, 2001; NIMPIS, 2014
Ulva ohnoiMicro life stages like spores, germlings or thallus fragments Yes Flagella et al., 2007
Ulva pertusa Yes Aguilar-Rosas et al., 2008
Ulva reticulata (ribbon sea lettuce)Spores, zygotes, germlings Yes Yes Flagella et al., 2010