Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mail (pathway vector)

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Datasheet

Mail (pathway vector)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mail (pathway vector)
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mail (pathway vector)

International Common Names

  • English: Post

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Seeds available over the internet Yes Yes
Acacia mearnsii (black wattle)Seed packets from suppliers Yes
Acanthiophilus helianthi (fly, capsule)Cut flowers. Yes
Acarapis woodi (honeybee mite) Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Adenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)Seeds sold online Yes Yes
Agave sisalana (sisal hemp)Sold in nursery and landscape trade Yes Yes
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)Plants and seeds sold online www.davesgarden.com Yes Yes
Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass) Yes
Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) Yes
Amynthas agrestis (crazy worm)Can be ordered online Yes Yes Ziemba et al., 2016
Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Anastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Anastrepha obliqua (West Indian fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Anastrepha striata (guava fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Anguina agrostis (nematode, bentgrass)Grass seed samples Yes
Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)Seeds and plants sold online Yes Yes Burke and DiTommaso, 2011
Aphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode)Rice seeds Yes
Aphelenchoides fragariae (strawberry crimp nematode)With ornamentals Yes
Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Chrysanthemum foliar eelworm)With flowers and cuttings Yes
Apiognomonia errabunda (anthracnose) Yes
Aporia crataegi (black-veined white)Amateur breeders Yes
Ardisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia) Yes Yes
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)Seeds sold at internet sites and mailed internationally Yes Yes
Aronia x prunifolia Yes Yes
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Yes
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes Yes
Avocado sunblotch viroid (avocado sun blotch) Yes
Axonopus fissifolius Yes
Bactrocera carambolae (carambola fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera cucumis (cucumber fruit fly)Fruit in post Yes
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)Most frequently eggs and larvae inside fruit Yes Yes
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)Fruits infested with eggs and/or larvae Yes Yes
Bactrocera facialisFruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera frauenfeldi (mango fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera jarvisi (Jarvis' fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera kirkiFruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera latifrons (Solanum fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera melanotusFruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera minax (Chinese citrus fly)Fruit in post Yes
Bactrocera neohumeralisFruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera occipitalisFruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera passiflorae (Fijian fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera psidii (South Sea guava fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera tauFruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera tsuneonis (Japanese orange fly)Fruit in post Yes
Bactrocera umbrosaFruit in post. Yes
Bactrocera xanthodes (Pacific fruit fly)Fruit in post Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly)Fruits infested with larvae and/or eggs Yes Yes
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Seeds Yes Yes
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)Internet Yes
blood disease bacterium (blood disease bacterium of banana)Transfer of vegetative germplasm. Yes
Bombus terrestris (bumble bee) Yes
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Seeds, likely Yes
Bromelia pinguin (wild pineapple) Yes Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail)Especially since the species is an ornamental and a medicinal plant Yes Yes Plants for a Future, 2013
Cactodera cacti (cactus cyst eelworm) Yes
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Adult plants, seedlings, tubers and seeds are sold online Yes Yes
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant)Seeds and plants sold by nursery and landscape trade Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2013
Centaurea macrocephala (giant knapweed) Yes
Centratherum punctatum (lark daisy)Seeds sold online (http://davesgarden.com) Yes Yes
Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly)Fruit in post Yes
Ceratitis punctata (cacao fruit fly)Fruit in post Yes
Cherax destructor (yabby)F Gherardi, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Italy, pers. comm., 2011 Yes Yes
Chromatomyia horticola (pea leaf miner)Air/road. Yes
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato)Transfer of seeds. Yes
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Goss's bacterial wilt & leaf blight)Transfer of seeds. Yes
Clerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)Sold in the nursery and landscape trade Yes Yes
Coccinella septempunctata (seven-spot ladybird)Adults Yes Yes
Cornu aspersum (common garden snail) Yes
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)Horticulture trade Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos) Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos) Yes Yes Jansen, 2005
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Cronartium ribicola (white pine blister rust)Aeciospores Yes
Cryptostegia grandiflora (rubber vine)Internet plant sales Yes
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine)Seeds sold online Yes Yes PIER, 2012
Cupaniopsis anacardioides (carrotwood)Seed available Yes
Cuphea hyssopifolia (false heather) Yes
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (bacterial tan spot)Transfer of seeds. Yes
Cuscuta japonica (Japanese dodder) Yes
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not)Seeds Yes Dave’s Garden, 2017
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)Seed catalogues, internet. Yes
Dacus ciliatus (lesser pumpkin fly)fruit in post Yes
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane) Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Sales online Yes Yes
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball)Sold over the internet Yes Yes
Echium plantagineum (Paterson's curse)Seed catalogues, internet Yes
Eichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth) Yes Schmitz et al., 1998
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane)Widely available by mail-order (F Barthelat, IUCN Caribbean, Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe, pers. obs.) Yes Yes
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)Transfer of germplasm. Yes
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger)Seeds sold online Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)As live plants or seeds Yes ISSG, 2013
Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree) Yes Yes
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge) Yes Yes
Euscepes postfasciatus (West Indian sweet potato weevil)Parcel of sweet potato roots. Yes
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)Internet plant sales
Genista monspessulana (Montpellier broom)seed catalogues; internet Yes
Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (leafroll disease) Yes
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes
Heliconia bihai (macaw flower)Plants sold online Yes Yes
Helicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)With banana rhizones Yes
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes
Heterodera avenae (cereal cyst eelworm)Cysts in soil. Yes
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode)Cysts in soil. Yes
Heterodera goettingiana (pea cyst eelworm)Cysts as contaminants. Yes
Heterodera oryzae (rice cyst nematode)Cysts in soil Yes
Heterodera oryzicola (rice cyst nematode)Cysts in soil. Yes
Heterodera sacchari (sugarcane cyst nematode)Cysts in soil. Yes
Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage)Internet Yes
Hygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed)Mail order shipments Yes Ramey, 2001
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)seed is available online Yes
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Seeds sold online Yes Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam) Yes Beerling and Perrins, 1993
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass)I. cylindrica var Rubra (Japanese Bloodgrass) is sold as ornamental grass by nurseries Yes
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Seeds sold online Yes Yes Dave’s Garden, 2017
Ipomoea ochracea (fence morning-glory)Seeds sold online (http://davesgarden.com) Yes Yes
Japanagromyza tristella (soyabean black leaf-miner)Air/road. Yes
Jasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)Seeds are sold online Yes Yes
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)plants sold online Yes Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011; Top Tropicals, 2016
Jatropha curcas (jatropha) Yes Pitt, 1999
Justicia pectoralis (freshcut)Seeds and plants sold online - http://davesgarden.com Yes Yes
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (devil's backbone)Plants sold online (http://davesgarden.com) Yes Yes
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)From online sales Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells) Yes
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea)Mail order Yes Australia Natural Heritage Trust, 2003
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)Seedlings and seeds sold online (http://www.floridata.com) Yes Yes
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Seeds sold online Yes Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Lamium amplexicaule (henbit deadnettle)Sold as wildflower Yes
Lantana camara (lantana) Yes
Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (sugarcane ratoon stunting disease)Transfer of cuttings. Yes
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) Yes
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)Widely available by mail order nursery catalogue and over the internet Yes
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)Commercial nurseries, botanical gardens Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Manduca quinquemaculata (tomato hornworm)Amateur trade Yes
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree) Yes
Meloidogyne acronea (African cotton root nematode)Eggs and galls in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)Eggs and galls in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode)Eggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)Eggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Eggs and galls in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)Eggs and galls in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne mayaguensisEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Merremia aegyptia (hairy woodrose)seeds sold online Yes Yes Le Jardin Naturel, 2016
Merremia cissoides (roadside woodrose)seeds sold online Yes Yes Sunshine Seeds, 2016
Merremia umbellata (hogvine)Seeds are sold online Yes Yes Sunshine Seeds, 2016
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Common pathway Yes Yes
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Internet trade Yes Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Seeds and potted plants are sold online Yes Yes Top Tropicals, 2016
Mycosphaerella citri (greasy spot)Dear leaves. Yes
Myriophyllum heterophyllum (broadleaf watermilfoil)Internet sales Yes Yes
Myriophyllum pinnatum (cutleaf watermilfoil)species sold in the internet Yes Yes Live Aquaria, 2017
Nandina domestica (Nandina)Seeds, Plants Yes
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Available online Yes Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart)Internet sales of aquatic water plants Yes ISSG, 2006
Oeceoclades maculata (monk orchid)Seeds and plants sale online Yes Yes
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize)Transfer of seeds. Yes
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)Seeds and plants sold online Yes Yes
Pennisetum pedicellatum (deenanath grass) Yes
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Seeds can be ordered by mail Yes Hazzard's Greenhouse, 2012; Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Pheidole megacephala (big-headed ant) Yes
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Widely sold online to the unsuspecting public Yes Yes Rickel, 2012
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo)Readily available online Yes Yes Rickel, 2012
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry) Yes Yes
Pilosella aurantiaca (orange hawkweed)Mail-order distribution of seed Yes
Pilosella caespitosa (yellow hawkweed)Internet Yes
Pilosella officinarum (mouse-ear hawkweed)Internet Yes
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug)In mailed plant material Yes
Plantago coronopus (Buck's-horn plantain) Yes Yes
Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) Yes
Polygonum persicaria (redshank)Sold as wildflower Yes
Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail) Yes
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch, 2004
Pratylenchus brachyurus (root-lesion nematode)Importing host plants Yes
Pratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode) Yes
Pratylenchus goodeyi (banana lesion nematode)Banana rhizomes. Yes
Pratylenchus loosi (root lesion nematode)Importing tea plants. Yes
Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion)Carrying planting material. Yes
Pratylenchus thornei Yes
Pratylenchus vulnus (walnut root lesion nematode) Yes
Pratylenchus zeae (root lesion nematode)With planting material. Yes
Prays citri (citrus flower moth) Yes
Procambarus fallax f. virginalis (Marmorkrebs)C Chucholl, University of Ulm, Germany, personal communication, 2011 Yes Yes
Prosopis juliflora (mesquite)Still available from mail order catalogues (e.g. Setropa) Yes Pasiecznik, 2001
Prosopis pallida (mesquite)Mail order seed catalogues Yes
Prosopis velutina (velvet mesquite)Mail order seed catalogues Yes
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)Occasional, all stages, in parcels of fruits or plants without going through quarantine Yes
Pseudomonas corrugata (pith necrosis of tomato)Transfer of seeds. Yes
Pseudomonas fuscovaginae (sheath brown rot)Transfer of seeds. Yes
Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea (bacterial blight of soybean)Transfer of seeds. Yes
Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi (bacterial: pea blight)Transfer of seeds. Yes
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)Seed catalogues, internet. Risk of further introduction. Yes
Puccinia asparagi (asparagus rust) Yes
Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu) Yes
Radopholus similis (burrowing nematode)with plants Yes
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato)Transfer of vegetative germplasm. Yes
Rhagoletis cerasi (European cherry fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Rhagoletis completa (walnut husk fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Rhagoletis fausta (black cherry fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Rhagoletis indifferens (western cherry fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Rhagoletis mendax (blueberry fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Rhagoletis pomonella (apple maggot)Fruit in post. Yes
Rhagoletis ribicola (American currant fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Rivina humilis (bloodberry) Yes
Rubus fruticosus (blackberry)Internet Yes
Ruditapes philippinarum (Japanese carpet shell)Clam spat is supplied by post to aquaculture operations Yes
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp)Plants and seeds are still sold over the internet Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)Plants and seeds are sold over the internet Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Sesbania punicea (red sesbania) Yes
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry) Yes Yes
Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod)Internet Yes
Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod)Internet Yes
Spathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)Seeds and plants sold online Yes Yes
Sphinx pinastri (pine hawkmoth) Yes
Sternochetus mangiferae (mango seed weevil) Yes
Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)Mailing seeds for commercial use. Yes
Tecoma stans (yellow bells)Popular garden plant. Seeds are small and travel well Yes
Theba pisana (white garden snail) Yes Godan, 1983
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Seeds sold online Yes Yes
Toxotrypana curvicauda (papaya fruit fly)Fruit in post. Yes
Tradescantia fluminensis (wandering Jew) Yes
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)Sold online Yes Yes
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Sold online Yes Yes
Triphasia trifolia (limeberry)Seeds sold online Yes Yes
Turbina corymbosa (Christmas vine)Seed and plants are sold online Yes Yes
Tylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)Citrus plants. Yes
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Vachellia macracantha (porknut)seeds are available online Yes Yes
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes Royal Horticultural Society, 2015
Vincetoxicum nigrum (black swallowwort)Internet Yes
Xylella fastidiosa (Pierce's disease of grapevines)Bacteria in living vector insects or plants (dormant or non-dormant). Cultured bacteria are highly i Yes
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet)Seeds or plants Yes Woodward and Quinn, 2011
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes Yes