Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Machinery and equipment (pathway vector)



Machinery and equipment (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Machinery and equipment (pathway vector)

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Movement of material (Japanese climbing fern, Lygodium japonicum), on winch of off-road vehicle. Georgia, USA.
TitleMachinery and equipment (pathway vector)
CaptionMovement of material (Japanese climbing fern, Lygodium japonicum), on winch of off-road vehicle. Georgia, USA.
Copyright©Joseph LaForest/University of Georgia/ - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Movement of material (Japanese climbing fern, Lygodium japonicum), on winch of off-road vehicle. Georgia, USA.
Machinery and equipment (pathway vector)Movement of material (Japanese climbing fern, Lygodium japonicum), on winch of off-road vehicle. Georgia, USA.©Joseph LaForest/University of Georgia/ - CC BY-NC 3.0 US


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Machinery and equipment (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur) Yes
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail) Yes Yes
Acmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)Seeds Yes Yes Chung et al. (2007)
Aegilops cylindrica Yes Yes
Aethina tumida Yes OIE (2012)
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)Dispersion by attaching to agricultural machinery. Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2016)
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger)Rhizomes Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger) Yes Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); UNIDO (2005)
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)Species cultivated in agricultural settings thus possibly spread by machinery and vehicle tires Yes Yes Duke (1981); Hanelt et al. (2001)
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort) Yes Yes Olliff et al. (2001)
Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)In machinery used for crop production Yes Yes Ward et al. (2013)
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)Seeds Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp)Seeds and plant parts can attach to farm machinery Yes Costea et al. (2005)
Ambrosia confertiflora Yes
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)Seeds and roots Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine)Vegetative pieces are reported to be moved by machinery at citrus groves Yes Hall (1984)
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)Seeds can be transported with garden machinery Yes PIER (2008)
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart) Yes Yes Morton (1987)
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant) Yes Yes
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy)Seeds dispersed in mud adhering to machinery Yes Mankeleja et al. (2014)
Artemisia biennis (biennial wormwood) Yes Yes Kegode and Darbyshire (2013)
Arundo donax (giant reed)Seeds, plant fragments Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2014)
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
Asterias amurensis (northern Pacific seastar) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes
Batis maritima (saltwort) Yes
Bergia capensis (white water fire)Possible from rice cultivation Yes
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Seed as contaminant Yes Yes Sankaran and Suresh (2013)
Bocconia frutescens (plume poppy)Contaminated soil may adhere to machinery within invaded areas Yes Benitez and Saulibio (2007)
Boiga irregularis (brown tree snake) Yes Yes
Bothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem) Yes Yes Hilty (2014)
Bothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)Contaminant Yes
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Fruits with wing-like structure Yes Yes McMullen (1999)
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Seeds, likely Yes Yes False Brome Working Group (2009); Fletcher (2009)
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Possible, from its cultivation Yes
Brassica tournefortii (African mustard)Seeds Yes Minnich and Sanders (2000)
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes
Bromus secalinus (rye brome) Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Bythotrephes longimanus (spiny waterflea)Liive specimens attach to fishing gear, dormant eggs survive out of water and hatch elsewgere when i Yes Berg et al. (2002)
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes Yes Les and Mehrhoff (1999)
Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)Species is grown locally and commercially as cash crop and ornamental; species known to escape from cultivated areas; species can reproduce by both seeds and cuttings Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Candidula intersecta (wrinkled dune snail) Yes Yes Meissner et al. (2009)
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper) Yes Basu and De (2003)
Capsicum baccatum (pepper) Yes Yes Basu and De (2003)
Carcinus maenas (European shore crab)Movement of oil rigs, docks and other marine structures Yes Yes Le et al. (1990)
Cassia grandis (pink shower) Yes Yes ICRAF (2014); Toruan-Purba (1999)
Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindraceafishing nets Yes Yes Verlaque et al. (2003)
Centaurea debeauxii (meadow knapweed) Yes
Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) Yes
Centella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort) Yes
Ceratocystis platani (canker stain of plane) Yes
Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass)Seeds attached to vehicles and machinery Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2020)
Clavibacter sepedonicus (potato ring rot) Yes
Clerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower)Can spread by portions of roots transplanted on wheels of vehicles or within soil Yes Yes
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban) Yes Yes
Clerodendrum speciosissimum (Java glory bower)Rhizome fragments may be accidentally transported in soil stuck to machinery, vehicles, etc Yes Yes
Colocasia esculenta (taro)Soil movements can disperse buried corms Yes Yes Safo-Kantaka (2004)
Coniothyrium glycines (red leaf blotch) Yes Hartman et al. (1987)
Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)With wooden parts Yes Yes Scheffrahn and Su (2000)
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam)Commercial fishing gear Yes Karatayev et al. (2007)
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass) Yes
Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) Yes Alverson and Sigg (2008)
Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)Seeds as contaminant in agricultural equipment Yes Yes Maddox et al. (2011)
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Larvae Yes Yes Joyce (1961)
Cuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed)Possibly long distance dispersal Yes Technigro (2011)
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass) Yes NARO (2004)
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Root fragments Yes Kelly (2000)
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Cyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)As a contaminant Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Daphnia lumholtziImportation of industrial and earth-moving equipment has been implicated in overseas invasions Yes Duffy et al. (2000); Havel and Shurin (2004)
Datura ferox (fierce thornapple) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes
Datura metel (Hindu datura) Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Descurainia sophia (flixweed) Yes Howard (2003)
Dichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)Possible due to its cultivation for pasture and hay Yes
Dickeya solani (black leg disease of potato)Smearing of heavily infected potatoes across machinery can facilitate spread to healthy tubers Yes Toth et al. (2011)
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize)
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)Seeds, plant segments, rhizomes Yes Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Dioscorea alata (white yam)Tubers (yams) and bulbils Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) Yes Yes
Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel)Transported on macrophytes entangled on boat trailers or on anchors Yes Yes Johnson et al. (2001)
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)Seeds Yes Yes Waterhouse (1994)
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass) Yes Webster (2015)
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass) Yes Bossard et al. (2000)
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)Seeds Yes USDA-NRCS (2016)
Elephantopus mollis (elephant's foot) Yes Queensland Government (2014)
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Seeds Yes Yes
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2011)
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Seed dispersal Yes Yes Fern (2019)
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)Seeds Yes Whistler (1995)
Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass) Yes USDA Forest Service (2014)
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)Seed Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Eragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)Adheres to vehicles and machinery in farms Yes Reis (1993)
Erechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed)Movement of harvesting equipment and vehicles Yes Yes Darbyshire et al. (2012)
Eremochloa ophiuroides (centipedegrass)Seeds and stolons Yes Yes Brosnan and Deputy (2008)
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita)Seeds as contaminant on garden tools Yes Yes Nagata (1995)
Euphorbia terracina (false caper) Yes
Euschistus heros (Neotropical brown stink bug)Machinery used in soybean or sunflower harvest. Yes
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)Rhizomes can be moved on tracks of earth movers Yes
Fallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)Earth moving equipment Yes Yes
Fallopia x bohemica Yes
Ficus elastica (rubber plant) Yes Yes Tawan (2000); USDA-ARS (2014); Whistler (2000)
Ficus pumila (creeping fig) Yes Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); Mabberly (2008)
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes DAISIE (2014); Starr et al. (2003); USDA-ARS (2014)
Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis) Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) Yes
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. medicaginis (fusarium wilt of alfalfa) Yes
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier) Yes Yes Damalas (2008)
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)Seeds as a contaminant Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede (2010)
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Cysts Yes Yes Been and Schomaker (2006)
Glyceria maxima (reed sweet-grass) Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Fruits, seeds, and stem fragments Yes Yes Motooka et al. (2003)
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant) Yes Weeds CRC (2008)
Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood) Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim (2005)
Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)Found on imported excavation equipment in Australia Yes Smith and Fisher (2008)
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Seeds may get attached to tyres of cars, tractors and other vehicles Yes Yes Kabuce (2006)
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes
Heterotheca grandiflora (telegraph weed)Suspected vector in Australia Yes Csurhes (2009)
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard) Yes Brooks (2004)
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant) Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid) Yes Hadidi et al. (2003)
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)Seeds potential contaminant on machinery and vehicles Yes Yes Australian Weeds Committee (2012)
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)Seeds Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Hyptis brevipes (lesser roundweed) Yes
Hyptis suaveolens (pignut) Yes Cullen et al. (2012)
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam)Seed in attached dirt on forestry equipment Yes Trepl (1984)
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes
Indigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)Farming equipment Yes Yes Duke (1981)
Indigofera spicata (creeping indigo)Lawn mowing and farming equipment Yes Yes Morton (1989)
Indigofera tinctoria (true indigo) Yes Yes
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Inula britannica (british yellowhead) Yes
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Potential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Isatis tinctoria (dyer's woad)Seeds carried on agricultural machinery and vehicles Yes Yes Zouhar (2009)
Iva xanthiifolia (marsh-elder)Agricultural and construction machinery (e. g. harvester, plough) Yes Yes Follak (2014)
Jatropha curcas (jatropha) Yes Pitt (1999)
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush) Yes NZPCN (New Zealand Plant Conservation Network) (2015)
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Seeds, plantlets, plant fragments Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2011)
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed)A. Mikulyuk, Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, USA, personal communcation, 2010 Yes Yes
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop) Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Not uncommon Yes Yes
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes
Linaria vulgaris (common toadflax)By movement on cultivation equipment Yes Zouhar (2003)
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Yes CEH (2007)
Lycorma delicatula (spotted lanternfly)Egg masses can be laid on externally stored equipment, i.e. tractors, chippers, ATVs, etc. Yes Yes
Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern) Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) Yes Thompson et al. (1987)
Malva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)Seed contaminant Yes Yes Makowski and Morrison (1989)
Martynia annua (tiger's claw)Seeds/“clawed” fruit Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)Seeds as a contaminant Yes Yes Klein (2011)
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass) Yes Yes
Melissococcus plutonius Yes Yes ; FERA (2013)
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Movement of infested soil Yes Yes
Merremia aegyptia (hairy woodrose)dispersal facilitated by soil working tools and machinery Yes
Merremia cissoides (roadside woodrose)seed dispersal may be facilitated by soil working tools and machinery Yes
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Garden tools Yes Yes Mansur (2001)
Mesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint) Yes Yes
Miconia calvescens (miconia)Seeds Yes Yes
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes Yes
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa)Fruits and seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Mimosa ceratonia (climbing mimosa)Fruits and seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Mimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant) Yes DAF (2016); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)On car tyres in NSW Yes Harley (2007)
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Rare pathway Yes
Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean)Cultivated seed can be transported by agricultural vehicles and machinery Yes Yes Duke (1981)
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Probably arrived to Seychelles with the machinery imported for the dredging of the coast of Mahé Yes Gerlach (1996)
Murdannia nudiflora (doveweed) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2017)
Nasturtium microphyllum (one-row watercress) Yes
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Seeds and roots Yes Yes Mahbubur (2013)
Neyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed) Yes
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco) Yes
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Pieces of stems and roots from gardens Yes Yes Francis (2005)
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Seeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Pringle (1982)
Onopordum illyricum (Illyrian thistle) Yes
Opuntia aurantiaca (jointed cactus) Yes
Orbea variegata (carrion-flower)Stem fragments can be transported on machinery Yes Biosecurity South Australia (2015); NSW Department of Primary Industries (2020)
Orobanche cernua (nodding broomrape) Yes
Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) Yes
Orobanche ramosa (branched broomrape) Yes Jacobsohn (1984)
Oryza barthii Yes
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel) Yes
Paederia foetida (skunkvine) Yes Yes
Paenibacillus larvae Yes Yes
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug) Yes Tanwar et al. (2010)
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes Yes PAG (2000)
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass) Yes Eurobodalla Shire Council (2017)
Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)Seeds and rhizomes Yes Yes Violi (2000)
Paspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass)Possibly from agricultural practices Yes Hitchcock (1936); FAO (2012b)
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) Yes
Pastinaca sativa (parsnip)Frequently attached to machinery associated with agriculture, landscaping and construction Yes Yes Cain et al. (2010)
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)Seed and plant segments Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)One possible incidence recorded of movement of seeds Yes Joubert and Cunningham (2002)
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)
Phytophthora alni species complex (alder Phytophthora)Movement of infected soil on machinery (not specifically demonstrated for the alder Phytophthora but known to be important for root phytophthoras) Yes Webber and Rose (2008)
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)In moist soil stuck to equipment Yes Batini (1977); Colquhoun and Petersen (1994)
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Goheen et al. (2012)
Phytophthora ramorum (Sudden Oak Death (SOD))
Piper aduncum (spiked pepper) Yes ISSG (2016)
Plasmodiophora brassicae (club root)Infested soil can be easily moved on machinery Yes Yes
Platydemus manokwari (New guinea flatworm)P. manokwari can be readily transported in soil on machines Yes
Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage) Yes Yes Randall (2012); Wagner and Lorence (2014)
Pluchea carolinensis (sourbush)Vector suspected as part of military construction activites Yes PIER (2015)
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Seed Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed)Seeds Yes Burnett and Moore (2014)
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)Harvest time, crawlers, on hired or shared farm machinery Yes
Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes Fortnum and Gooden (2008)
Rattus rattus (black rat) Yes Yes
Rhamphicarpa fistulosaPoorly-cleaned equipment used in contaminated fields could cause new infestations in new fields Yes
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder (2014); Randall (2012)
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Thailand to Malaysia, and in southern USA Yes Yes Anwar (2001); Arkansas State Plant Board (2008); Millhollon (1980)
Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) Yes Yes Floridata (2014); Liogier and Martorell (2000)
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG (2009)
Salvinia minima Yes Yes ISSG (2006)
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Garden tools Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae (brown stripe downy mildew of maize)Likely since oospores in soil could be transferred Yes
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes
Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna) Yes Yes
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna)Seeds moved by agricultural tools Yes
Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)In mud sticking to machinery Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Senna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)Carried by mud stuck to machinery Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2014)
Senna spectabilis (whitebark senna)Seeds are thought to have been picked in the mud and spread by trucks Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Senna surattensis (golden senna) Yes Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); Little and Skolmen (1989); Sosef and Maesen (1997)
Sesbania sericea (silky sesban)Seeds Yes Yes Francis (2000)
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Holm et al. (1977); Smith (2002)
Sida repens (Javanese fanpetals)Seeds and fruits as contaminants Yes Yes Raju and Rani (2016)
Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade) Yes Yes
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Weed in pastures Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)Seeds Yes Yes ISSG (2020)
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Queen, workers and brood if soil attached Yes Taber (2000)
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes GISD (2018)
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes
Sporobolus africanus (rat’s tail grass) Yes Yes
Sporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass) Yes Yes
Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine) Yes Yes ISSG (2012)
Theba pisana (white garden snail) Yes Godan (1983)
Thecaphora frezii (peanut smut)Spores can adhere to agricultural machinery and be carried to other plots in the same country or bordering countries Yes Cazón (2015); Rago et al. (2016); Rago et al. (2017)
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Garden tools Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)Dumped garden waste, garden tools Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2018)
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes Yes Hummel and Kiviat (2004)
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass)Seeds Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Tropilaelaps Yes Yes Defra (2005)
Ulex europaeus (gorse)Farm machinery Yes Hoshovsky (1986)
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer) Yes Yes
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Seeds – contaminants Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Adheres to vehicles and machinery in farms Yes New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries (2015)
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal (2018)
Utricularia gibba Yes NZPCN (2010)
Ventenata dubia (North Africa grass)When seeds are present Yes Yes
Verbesina encelioides (golden crownbeard)Unintentional transport of seeds on military bulldozer within and between Hawaiian Islands. Yes Yes Woodward (1972)
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes Yes
Vulpia myuros (annual fescue)Seeds Yes Wallace (1997)
Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) Yes Yes ISSG (2014)
Xanthium spinosum (bathurst burr) Yes PIER (2013)
Xanthomonas citri (citrus canker)cultivation equipment Yes
Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum (bacterial leaf streak of corn) Yes Sivitis (2017)
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Possible from lawn mowing, garden and nursery tending Yes
Zingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger) Yes Yes
Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger) Yes Yes