Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Machinery and equipment (pathway vector)



Machinery and equipment (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Machinery and equipment (pathway vector)

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Movement of material (Japanese climbing fern, Lygodium japonicum), on winch of off-road vehicle. Georgia, USA.
TitleMachinery and equipment (pathway vector)
CaptionMovement of material (Japanese climbing fern, Lygodium japonicum), on winch of off-road vehicle. Georgia, USA.
Copyright©Joseph LaForest/University of Georgia/ - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Movement of material (Japanese climbing fern, Lygodium japonicum), on winch of off-road vehicle. Georgia, USA.
Machinery and equipment (pathway vector)Movement of material (Japanese climbing fern, Lygodium japonicum), on winch of off-road vehicle. Georgia, USA.©Joseph LaForest/University of Georgia/ - CC BY-NC 3.0 US


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Machinery and equipment (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur) Yes
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail) Yes Yes
Acmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)Seeds Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007
Aegilops cylindrica Yes Yes
Aethina tumida Yes OIE, 2012
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)Dispersion by attaching to agricultural machinery. Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2016
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger)Rhizomes Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger) Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; UNIDO, 2005
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)Species cultivated in agricultural settings thus possibly spread by machinery and vehicle tires Yes Yes Duke, 1981; Hanelt et al., 2001
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort) Yes Yes Olliff et al., 2001
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)Seeds Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp)Seeds and plant parts can attach to farm machinery Yes Costea et al., 2005
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)Seeds and roots Yes Yes Montagnani et al., 2017
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine)Vegetative pieces are reported to be moved by machinery at citrus groves Yes Hall, 1984
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)Seeds can be transported with garden machinery Yes PIER, 2008
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart) Yes Yes Morton, 1987
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant) Yes Yes
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Oidtmann et al., 2005
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy)Seeds dispersed in mud adhering to machinery Yes Chung et al., 2007
Artemisia biennis (biennial wormwood) Yes Yes Kegode and Darbyshire, 2013
Arundo donax (giant reed)Seeds, plant fragments Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Asterias amurensis (northern Pacific seastar) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes
Batis maritima (saltwort) Yes
Bergia capensis (white water fire)Possible from rice cultivation Yes Chung et al., 2007
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Seed as contaminant Yes Yes Sankaran and Suresh, 2013
Bocconia frutescens (plume poppy)Contaminated soil may adhere to machinery within invaded areas Yes Benitez and Saulibio, 2007
Boiga irregularis (brown tree snake) Yes Yes
Bothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem) Yes Yes Hilty, 2014
Bothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)Contaminant Yes
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Fruits with wing-like structure Yes Yes McMullen, 1999
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Seeds, likely Yes Yes False Brome Working Group, 2009; Fletcher, 2009
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Possible, from its cultivation Yes
Brassica tournefortii (African mustard)Seeds Yes Minnich and Sanders, 2000
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes
Bromus secalinus (rye brome) Yes Chung et al., 2007
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Bythotrephes longimanus (spiny waterflea)Liive specimens attach to fishing gear, dormant eggs survive out of water and hatch elsewgere when i Yes Berg et al., 2002
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes Yes Les and Mehrhoff, 1999
Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)Species is grown locally and commercially as cash crop and ornamental; species known to escape from cultivated areas; species can reproduce by both seeds and cuttings Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Candidula intersecta (wrinkled dune snail) Yes Yes Meissner et al., 2009
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper) Yes Basu and De, 2003
Capsicum baccatum (pepper) Yes Yes Basu and De, 2003
Carcinus maenas (European shore crab)Movement of oil rigs, docks and other marine structures Yes Yes Le et al., 1990
Cassia grandis (pink shower) Yes Yes ICRAF, 2014; Toruan-Purba, 1999
Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindraceafishing nets Yes Yes Verlaque et al., 2003
Centaurea debeauxii (meadow knapweed) Yes
Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) Yes
Centella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort) Yes
Ceratocystis platani (canker stain of plane) Yes
Clerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower)Can spread by portions of roots transplanted on wheels of vehicles or within soil Yes Yes
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban) Yes Yes
Clerodendrum speciosissimum (Java glory bower)Rhizome fragments may be accidentally transported in soil stuck to machinery, vehicles, etc Yes Yes
Colocasia esculenta (taro)Soil movements can disperse buried corms Yes Yes Safo-Kantaka, 2004
Coniothyrium glycines (red leaf blotch) Yes Hartman et al., 1987
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam)Commercial fishing gear Yes Karatayev et al., 2007
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass) Yes
Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) Yes Alverson and Sigg, 2008
Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)Seeds as contaminant in agricultural equipment Yes Yes Maddox et al., 2011
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Larvae Yes Yes Joyce, 1961
Cuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed)Possibly long distance dispersal Yes Technigro, 2011
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass) Yes NARO, 2004
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Root fragments Yes Kelly, 2000
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Cyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)As a contaminant Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1977
Daphnia lumholtziImportation of industrial and earth-moving equipment has been implicated in overseas invasions Yes Duffy et al., 2000; Havel and Shurin, 2004
Datura ferox (fierce thornapple) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes
Datura metel (Hindu datura) Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Descurainia sophia (flixweed) Yes Howard, 2003
Dickeya solani (black leg disease of potato)Smearing of heavily infected potatoes across machinery can facilitate spread to healthy tubers Yes Toth et al., 2011
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)Seeds, plant segments, rhizomes Yes Yes Holm et al., 1977
Dioscorea alata (white yam)Tubers (yams) and bulbils Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) Yes Yes
Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel)Transported on macrophytes entangled on boat trailers or on anchors Yes Yes Johnson et al., 2001
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2013
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)Seeds Yes Yes Waterhouse, 1994
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass) Yes Chung et al., 2007
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)Seeds Yes USDA-NRCS, 2016
Elephantopus mollis (elephant's foot) Yes Queensland Government, 2014
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Seeds Yes Yes
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2011
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Seed dispersal Yes Yes Fern, 2019
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)Seeds Yes Whistler, 1995
Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass) Yes USDA Forest Service, 2014
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)Seed Yes Holm et al., 1997
Eragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)Adheres to vehicles and machinery in farms Yes Reis, 1993
Erechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed)Movement of harvesting equipment and vehicles Yes Yes Darbyshire et al., 2012
Eremochloa ophiuroides (centipedegrass)Seeds and stolons Yes Yes Brosnan and Deputy, 2008
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita)Seeds as contaminant on garden tools Yes Yes Nagata, 1995
Euphorbia terracina (false caper) Yes
Euschistus heros (Neotropical brown stink bug)Machinery used in soybean or sunflower harvest. Yes
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)Rhizomes can be moved on tracks of earth movers Yes
Fallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)Earth moving equipment Yes Yes
Fallopia x bohemica Yes
Ficus elastica (rubber plant) Yes Yes Tawan, 2000; USDA-ARS, 2014; Whistler, 2000
Ficus pumila (creeping fig) Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Mabberly, 2008
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes DAISIE, 2014; Starr et al., 2003; USDA-ARS, 2014
Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis) Yes Holm et al., 1977
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) Yes
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. medicaginis (fusarium wilt of alfalfa) Yes
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier) Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)Seeds as a contaminant Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Cysts Yes Yes Been and Schomaker, 2006
Glyceria maxima (reed sweet-grass) Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Fruits, seeds, and stem fragments Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant) Yes Weeds CRC, 2008
Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood) Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim, 2005
Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)Found on imported excavation equipment in Australia Yes Smith and Fisher, 2008
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Seeds may get attached to tyres of cars, tractors and other vehicles Yes Yes Kabuce, 2006
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes
Heterotheca grandiflora (telegraph weed)Suspected vector in Australia Yes Csurhes, 2009
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard) Yes Brooks, 2004
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant) Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid) Yes Hadidi et al., 2003
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)Seeds potential contaminant on machinery and vehicles Yes Yes Australian Weeds Committee, 2012
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)Seeds Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Hyptis brevipes (lesser roundweed) Yes
Hyptis suaveolens (pignut) Yes Chung et al., 2007
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam)Seed in attached dirt on forestry equipment Yes Trepl, 1984
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes
Indigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)Farming equipment Yes Yes Duke, 1981
Indigofera spicata (creeping indigo)Lawn mowing and farming equipment Yes Yes Morton, 1989
Indigofera tinctoria (true indigo) Yes Yes
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Inula britannica (british yellowhead) Yes
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Potential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Isatis tinctoria (dyer's woad)Seeds carried on agricultural machinery and vehicles Yes Yes Zouhar, 2009
Iva xanthiifolia (marsh-elder)Agricultural and construction machinery (e. g. harvester, plough) Yes Yes Follak, 2014
Jatropha curcas (jatropha) Yes Pitt, 1999
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush) Yes Chung et al., 2007
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Seeds, plantlets, plant fragments Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed)A. Mikulyuk, Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, USA, personal communcation, 2010 Yes Yes
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop) Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Not uncommon Yes Yes
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes
Linaria vulgaris (common toadflax)By movement on cultivation equipment Yes Zouhar, 2003
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Yes CEH, 2007
Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern) Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) Yes Thompson et al., 1987
Malva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)Seed contaminant Yes Yes Makowski and Morrison, 1989
Martynia annua (tiger's claw)Seeds/“clawed” fruit Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)Seeds as a contaminant Yes Yes Klein, 2011
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass) Yes Yes
Melissococcus plutonius Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007; FERA, 2013
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Movement of infested soil Yes Yes
Merremia aegyptia (hairy woodrose)dispersal facilitated by soil working tools and machinery Yes
Merremia cissoides (roadside woodrose)seed dispersal may be facilitated by soil working tools and machinery Yes
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Garden tools Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
Mesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint) Yes Yes
Miconia calvescens (miconia)Seeds Yes Yes
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes Yes
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa)Fruits and seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Mimosa ceratonia (climbing mimosa)Fruits and seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Mimosa diplotricha (creeping sensitive plant) Yes DAF, 2016; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)On car tyres in NSW Yes Harley, 2007
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Rare pathway Yes
Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean)Cultivated seed can be transported by agricultural vehicles and machinery Yes Yes Duke, 1981
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Probably arrived to Seychelles with the machinery imported for the dredging of the coast of Mahé Yes Gerlach, 1996
Murdannia nudiflora (doveweed) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Nasturtium microphyllum (one-row watercress) Yes
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Seeds and roots Yes Yes Mahbubur, 2013
Neyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed) Yes
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco) Yes
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Pieces of stems and roots from gardens Yes Yes Francis, 2005
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Seeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Pringle, 1982
Onopordum illyricum (Illyrian thistle) Yes
Opuntia aurantiaca (jointed cactus) Yes
Orobanche cernua (nodding broomrape) Yes
Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) Yes
Orobanche ramosa (branched broomrape) Yes Jacobsohn, 1984
Oryza barthii Yes
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel) Yes
Paederia foetida (skunkvine) Yes Yes
Paenibacillus larvae Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug) Yes Tanwar et al., 2010
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes Yes PAG, 2000
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass) Yes Eurobodalla Shire Council, 2017
Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)Seeds and rhizomes Yes Yes Violi, 2000
Paspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass) Yes
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) Yes
Pastinaca sativa (parsnip)Frequently attached to machinery associated with agriculture, landscaping and construction Yes Yes Cain et al., 2010
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)Seed and plant segments Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)One possible incidence recorded of movement of seeds Yes Joubert and Cunningham, 2002
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
Phytophthora alni species complex (alder Phytophthora)Movement of infected soil on machinery (not specifically demonstrated for the alder Phytophthora but known to be important for root phytophthoras) Yes Webber and Rose, 2008
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)In moist soil stuck to equipment Yes Batini, 1977; Colquhoun and Petersen, 1994
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Goheen et al., 2012
Phytophthora ramorum (Sudden Oak Death (SOD))
Piper aduncum (spiked pepper) Yes ISSG, 2016
Plasmodiophora brassicae (club root)Infested soil can be easily moved on machinery Yes Yes
Platydemus manokwari (New guinea flatworm)P. manokwari can be readily transported in soil on machines Yes
Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage) Yes Yes Randall, 2012; Wagner and Lorence, 2014
Pluchea carolinensis (sourbush)Vector suspected as part of military construction activites Yes PIER, 2015
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Seed Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed)Seeds Yes Burnett and Moore, 2014
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)Harvest time, crawlers, on hired or shared farm machinery Yes
Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes Fortnum and Gooden, 2008
Rattus rattus (black rat) Yes Yes
Rhamphicarpa fistulosaPoorly-cleaned equipment used in contaminated fields could cause new infestations in new fields Yes
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, 2014; Randall, 2012
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Thailand to Malaysia, and in southern USA Yes Yes Anwar, 2001; Arkansas State Plant Board, 2008; Millhollon, 1980
Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) Yes Yes Floridata, 2014; Liogier and Martorell, 2000
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG, 2009
Salvinia minima Yes Yes ISSG, 2006
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Garden tools Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae (brown stripe downy mildew of maize)Likely since oospores in soil could be transferred Yes Chung et al., 2007
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes
Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna) Yes Yes
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna)Seeds moved by agricultural tools Yes
Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)In mud sticking to machinery Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Senna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)Carried by mud stuck to machinery Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2014
Senna spectabilis (whitebark senna)Seeds are thought to have been picked in the mud and spread by trucks Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Senna surattensis (golden senna) Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Little and Skolmen, 1989; Sosef and Maesen, 1997
Sesbania sericea (silky sesban)Seeds Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Holm et al., 1977; Smith, 2002
Sida repens (Javanese fanpetals)Seeds and fruits as contaminants Yes Yes Raju and Rani, 2016
Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade) Yes Yes
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Weed in pastures Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Queen, workers and brood if soil attached Yes Taber, 2000
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Holm et al., 1977
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes
Sporobolus africanus (rat’s tail grass) Yes Yes
Sporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass) Yes Yes
Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine) Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Theba pisana (white garden snail) Yes Godan, 1983
Thecaphora frezii (peanut smut)Spores can adhere to agricultural machinery and be carried to other plots in the same country or bordering countries Yes Cazón, 2015; Rago et al., 2016; Rago et al., 2017
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Garden tools Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)Dumped garden waste, garden tools Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2018
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes Yes Hummel and Kiviat, 2004
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass)Seeds Yes Cook et al., 2005
Tropilaelaps Yes Yes Defra, 2005
Ulex europaeus (gorse)Farm machinery Yes Hoshovsky, 1986
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer) Yes Yes
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Seeds – contaminants Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Adheres to vehicles and machinery in farms Yes New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries, 2015
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal, 2018
Utricularia gibba Yes NZPCN, 2010
Ventenata dubia (North Africa grass)When seeds are present Yes Yes
Verbesina encelioides (golden crownbeard)Unintentional transport of seeds on military bulldozer within and between Hawaiian Islands. Yes Yes Woodward, 1972
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes Yes
Vulpia myuros (annual fescue)Seeds Yes Wallace, 1997
Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) Yes Yes ISSG, 2014
Xanthium spinosum (bathurst burr) Yes PIER, 2013
Xanthomonas citri (citrus canker)cultivation equipment Yes
Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum (bacterial leaf streak of corn) Yes Sivitis, 2017
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Possible from lawn mowing, garden and nursery tending Yes Chung et al., 2007
Zingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger) Yes Yes
Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger) Yes Yes