Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Host and vector organisms (pathway vector)



Host and vector organisms (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Host and vector organisms (pathway vector)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Host and vector organisms (pathway vector)

International Common Names

  • English: Vector species

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Acacia longifolia (golden wattle)Reported to be dispersed by ants. Yes Pieterse and Cairns (1990)
Acacia saligna (coojong) Seeds may be bird-dispersed (starling and doves in South Africa) or ant-dispersed in Australia Yes Yes Cronk and Fuller (1995); Holmes (1990)
Acarapis woodi (honeybee mite) Yes Yes Woodward and Quinn (2011)
Aculops fuchsiae (Fuchsia gall mite)Assumed possible on insects (e.g. bees) or birds Yes Koehler et al. (1985)
Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid) Yes
Adenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)Seeds dispersed by birds Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Aethina tumida Yes Yes OIE (2012)
Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass)dispersal by rodents Yes Miller (2010)
Akebia quinata (five-leaf akebia) Yes
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger)Birds Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) Yes
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) Yes
Amphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle) Yes Yes Carlton et al. (2011); Tarasov and Zevina (1957)
Amylostereum areolatum Yes Yes Ciesla (2003)
Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)Fruits are eaten by birds and pigs Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2011)
Aphanomyces astaciInfected crayfish (North American species or highly susceptible species) Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Ardisia crenata (coral berry)Birds, e.g. Bombycilla cedrorum, Dumetella carolinensis, Ixos amaurotis, Mimus polyglottos Yes Kitajima et al. (2006); Langeland and Burks (1998); Meisenburg (2007)
Ardisia humilis (low shoebutton)Fruits are dispersed mainly by birds and small mammals Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy) Yes BioNet-EAFRINET (2011)
Atriplex semibaccata (Australian saltbush) Yes
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale) Yes Yes
Austrominius modestusOn molluscs and crustaceans e.g. the crab Portunus holsatus (not a major vector) Yes Leloup and Lefevere (1952)
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)Foraging honey bees Yes Carnegie et al. (2010b); Chapman (1964)
Avipoxvirus Yes Yes
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato/potato psyllid) Yes Yes
Banana bunchy top virus (bunchy top of banana) Yes Yes
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Infected animals escaping or introduced into natïve host communities Yes ; Cunningham et al. (2015)
Bidens frondosa (beggarticks)On fur of animals Yes Brändel (2004)
Bothriocephalus acheilognathiFish act as final hosts, copepod crustaceans as intermediate hosts; piscivorous birds can carry eggs Yes Yes Bauer and Hoffman (1976); Choudhury and Cole (2012); Prigli (1975); Scholz et al. (2012)
Campylopus introflexusBirds migrating carry spores, shoot tips can attach to the fur of animals Yes Yes Razgulyaeva et al. (2001)
Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (zebra chip) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma phoeniciumAsymmetrasca decedens, Tachycixius viperina and T. cypricus. May be involved in long-distance transmission as well. Yes Dakhil et al. (2011); Abou-Jawdah et al. (2014) ;Tedeschi et al. (2015)
Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (witches'-broom phytoplasma disease) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma solani (Stolbur phytoplasma) Yes Yes Langer and Maixner (2004); Sharon et al. (2015); Weintraub and Beanland (2006)
Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma) Yes Yes
canine distemper virusFeral domestic dogs; wild animals Yes Yes
Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)Seeds sticky when wet, easily dispersed on animals Yes Yes ISSG (2019)
Cascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)Fruits dispersed by animals Yes Yes Fallen (1986); Ridley (1930)
Celtodoryx ciocalyptoidesOn shells of Crassostrea gigas Yes Pérez et al. (2006); Henkel and Janussen (2011)
Ceratocystis platani (canker stain of plane) Yes
Cheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )Fruits dispersed by birds Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Chelonid herpesvirus 5Possibly the marine leech Ozobranchus spp. and the cleaner fish Thalassoma duperrey Yes Greenblatt et al. (2004)
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Seeds and stem fragments may be dispersed by birds Yes Yes Nzengue et al. (2016)
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine)Seeds dispersed by birds Yes Yes Smith (2010)
Clavibacter nebraskensis (Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight) Yes Yes
Claviceps africana (ergot)conidia Yes Yes Prom (2005); Prom and Lopez (2004)
Claviceps fusiformis (pearl millet ergot)Insects feeding on honeydew Yes Dakshinamoorthy et al. (1988); Sharma et al. (1983)
Claviceps gigantea (horse's tooth)Conidia on insects Yes White (1999)
Claviceps sorghicolaOther vector - Insects - macroconidia Yes Tsukiboshi et al. (1999)
Cleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)Seeds dispersed by ants Yes PIER (2014)
Clerodendrum wallichii (Wallich's glorybower)Birds eat fruit and disperse seeds Yes Yes
Clusia roseaFruiting stage, birds disperse seeds Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Cocksfoot mottle virus (Cocksfoot mottle virus)Frequency of introduction not known. Yes Yes
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam)Likely spread by waterfowl Yes Schmidlin et al. (2012)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus
Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virusAphis craccivora is reported to be the most efficient vector Yes Atiri et al. (1984); Bock (1973)
Cowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)
Cucumis dipsaceus (hedgehog gourd)Dispersed by birdsItow (2003)
Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows)Natural dispersion mostly by viruliferous winged aphids Yes Yes Kassem et al. (2013)
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Yes Yes
Cydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Buxus spp. Yes Leuthardt et al. (2010)
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) Yes Yes
East Asian Passiflora virus Yes Yes
Ehrharta erecta (panic veldtgrass)Birdseed, starlings and in deer hooves Yes Ogle (1988)
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Seeds eaten and dispersed by birds, bats, and other animals Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)Transfer of plants, honeybees and the movement of beehives. Yes Yes Alexandrova et al. (2002)
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger)Seeds can be dispersed by ants, birds, bats, and rodents Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)Birds spread seeds Yes Miller et al. (2010)
Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug)Accidental introduction on plant material Yes Yes
Flacourtia indica (governor's plum)Birds eat seeds and disperse over short distances Yes Datta and Rawat (2008)
Gammarus tigrinusPotential to disperse on aquatic animals Yes Swanson (1984)
Gaultheria shallon (salal)Seeds transported to new areas after ingestion and egestion by birds Yes Plant Life (2015)
Geosmithia morbida (thousand cankers disease)Pityophthorus juglandis, in some cases Stenomimus pallidus, and possibly other insects Yes
Grapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus)GRBV is spread locally by the three-cornered alfalfa hopper Yes Bahder et al. (2016a)
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton)Seeds eaten by sheep and rabbits and remain viable Yes Tilley et al. (2015)
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily)Birds eat fruit and spread seed long distances Yes
Heterotheca grandiflora (telegraph weed)Possibly stuck to fur of domestic and wild animals Yes Csurhes (2009)
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant)Seeds reportedly dispersed by birds Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid) Yes Yes Hadidi et al. (2003)
Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) Yes
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)Seed dispersed by frugivorous birds Yes Yes
Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort)Sticky seed capsules stick to wool and fur of animals Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
Inula britannica (british yellowhead) Yes
Iris yellow spot virus (iris yellow spot)The disease is vectored by the onion thrips Yes Lewis (1997)
Isatis tinctoria (dyer's woad)Seeds carried by ants Yes Zouhar (2009)
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)Native ants Yes
Juncus planifolius (broadleaf rush)Birds Yes New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (NZPCN) (2012)
Lantana camara (lantana)Birds, occasionally sheep and goats Yes
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Birds and fish Yes
Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed) Yes
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Seeds dispersed by birds Yes Aragón and Groom (2003)
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)Larvae picked up and carried by passing birds and mammals including humans Yes Harman (in press)
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)Eggs and snails associated with traded aquatic plants Yes
Melicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime)Seeds can be dispersed by birds and bats Yes Yes Francis (1992)
Melissococcus plutonius Yes FERA (2013); Kanbar et al. (2004)
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (crystalline iceplant)Seeds may dispersed by rabbits and mice Yes Cal-IPC (California Invasive Plant Council) (2015)
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes Yes
Monilinia fructigena (brown rot) Yes Byrde and Willetts (1977); Lack (1989)
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Common pathway Yes Yes
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)Seeds are dispersed by birds, bats, and other mammals Yes Yes Nelson (2006)
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Seeds may be dispersed by birds Yes Hau and Corlett (2002)
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Seeds may be dispersed by birds Yes Alejandro et al. (2016)
Myicola ostreaeThrough transfer of infected hosts Yes Yes Comps (1972); Faasse (2003); Gollasch et al. (2009); His (1979); Ho and Kim (1991); Holmes and Minchin (1995); Kim (2004); Preisler et al. (2009); Stock (1993); Streftaris et al. (2005); Torchin and Mitchell (2004); Torchin et al. (2002); Villalba et al. (1993); Wolff (2005); Zenetos (2005)
Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease agent)Dissemination mainly through movement of salmonoid fish; possibly by wildlife over shorter distances Yes Yes Koel et al. (2010)
Nandina domestica (Nandina)Birds and mammals Yes Stone (2009)
Neolecanium cornuparvum (magnolia scale)Can be carried on the feet of birds and by ants Yes Herms and Nielsen (2004); Vanek and Potter (2010b)
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)The species is a host organism of the cochineal insectEncyclopedia of Life (2017)
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (wild olive) Yes
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive) Yes
Ophiostoma longicollumbark beetle? Yes Masuya et al. (1998)
Orobanche cernua (nodding broomrape) Yes
Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) Yes
Paederia foetida (skunkvine)Birds excrete seeds Yes Yes Takahashi and Kamitani (2004)
Paenibacillus larvae Yes Schäfer et al. (2010)
Papuana huebneri (taro beetle)Taro corms or propagating material Yes Yes
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Active transport by mutualistic ants. Passing animals including humans Yes Tanwar et al. (2010)
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Seeds adhered to animal fur Yes Yes PIER (2018)
Paspalum millegrana (yerba brava)Seeds consumed/dispersed by birds (especially aquatic birds) Yes Yes Más and Garcia-Molinari (2006)
Paspalum virgatum (sword grass)Seeds consumed and dispersed by animals Yes Yes Sistachs and Leon (1987)
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)Seeds can be dispersed by birds, pigs, rats, and humans Yes Yes Francis (2000)
Passiflora tarminiana (banana passionfruit)Possums and possibly rats Yes Beavon (2007)
Passion fruit woodiness virus (passionfruit woodiness disease)In live Passiflora plant tissueBaker et al. (2014)
Peanut stripe virus (groundnut stripe disease) Yes Yes
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Pectobacterium parmentieri (black leg disease of potato) Yes
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed)Animals Yes
Phalaris aquatica (bulbous canarygrass) Yes
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Yes Hansen et al. (2000)
Pinus elliottii (slash pine) Yes Yes Richardson and Higgins (1998)
Piper aduncum (spiked pepper) Yes ISSG (2016)
Plasmodiophora brassicae (club root)Infested soil can be moved on livestock Yes
Plasmodium relictumMigratory birds Yes Laird (1960); Warner (1968)
Plum pox virus (sharka)Several aphid species. Yes
Poa nemoralis (wood bluegrass) Yes
Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)Carried by birds Yes
Pomacea maculataJuveniles and adults Yes Yes
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Prunus serotina (black cherry)Birds, mammals, small, seed-catching rodents and the dung beetle Trypocopris vernalis Yes Yes Boucault (2009); Smith (1975); Vanhellemont (2009)
Pseudogymnoascus destructans (white-nose syndrome fungus)Believed to primarily be spread by infected bats during local movements among roosting sites Yes Carpenter et al. (2016); Lorch et al. (2011); Wilder et al. (2015)
Pseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive) Yes Yes
Pterolepis glomerata (false meadowbeauty)Dispersed by birds Yes PIER (2015); Renner (1994)
Raffaelea lauricola (laurel wilt)R. lauricola is a fungal symbiont of an ambrosia beetle, which disseminates the fungus Yes Yes Fraedrich et al. (2008)
Raffaelea quercivora (Japanese oak wilt)Vectored by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus Yes Yes
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes Yes
Rapana venosa (veined rapana whelk)Fouling Chelonia mydas Yes Lezama et al. (2013)
Rhamphicarpa fistulosaCattle Yes
Rhaponticum repens (Russian knapweed) Yes
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Birds Yes Csurhes and Hankamer (2011)
Rubus argutus (sawtooth blackberry)Various bird species, especial non-native birds Yes Motooka and (2003); University of Hawaii Botany Department (2012)
Rubus niveus (Mysore raspberry)Ingested by birds, reptiles and other animals Yes Buddenhagen and Jewell (2006)
Rubus racemosus (black raspberry)Seeds dispersed by frugivorous birds Yes Yes
Sander vitreus (walleye)All life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes
Schismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)Seeds carried by harvester ants Yes Rissing (1986)
Silene gallica (common catchfly)Carried on bird feet, livestock feet and harvester ants Yes
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)Seeds dispersed by crabs and birds Yes Yes Lonard et al. (2015)
Strawberry necrotic shock virus (Strawberry necrotic shock virus)Thrips transmitted. Yes Yes Sharman et al. (2011)
Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma (grassy shoot of sugarcane) Yes Yes
sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma (white leaf of sugarcane) Yes Yes
Thaumetopoea processionea (oak processionary moth) Yes Yes Evans (2007)
Tibouchina herbacea (cane tibouchina)Rats and birds Yes Almasi (2000); Motooka et al. (2003)
Tomato apical stunt viroid Yes Yes
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus) Yes Yes
Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt) Yes Yes
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl) Yes Yes Czosnek (2007b)
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Fruits dispersed by birds Yes Yes NZPCN (2016)
Triphasia trifolia (limeberry)Seeds dispersed by birds Yes PIER (2012)
Tropilaelaps Yes Yes Defra (2005)
Trypanosoma evansiMechanically transmitted by haematophagous flies; in Latin America the vampire bat is mainly responsible for dissemination Yes Desquesnes et al. (2013)
Typha domingensis (southern cattail)Achenes adhere to fish scales. Yes Krattinger (1975)
Typha x glauca (hybrid cattail)Typha's fruits can adhere to fish scales Yes Krattinger (1975)
Ulva reticulata (ribbon sea lettuce)Kappaphycus alvarezii introduction in areas outside its natural occurrence may bring U. reticulata Yes Yes Ask et al. (2003)
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Birds spread seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Smith (2002)
Uromycladium spp. that cause gall rusts (Acacia gall rusts)Possible but not main means of dispersal. Living infected host material not traded. Yes Yes Triyogo and Widyastuti (2012); Dennill et al. (1999)
Utricularia gibbaWater fowl Yes Compton et al. (2012)
Varroa destructor (Varroa mite) Yes Denmark et al. (2000)
Wheat streak mosaic virus (wheat streak)Aceria tosichella (K.) is the only known vector for wheat streak mosaic virus. Yes Keifer (1969); Slykhuis (1955)
Xanthomonas citri pv. punicae (bacterial blight of pomegranate) Yes
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. euvesicatoria (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (bacterial leaf streak of barley) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas vesicatoria (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes Yes