Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Germplasm (pathway vector)



Germplasm (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Germplasm (pathway vector)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Germplasm (pathway vector)

International Common Names

  • English: Plant collections

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow) Yes Yes
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)Plants propagated in vitro for reintroduction purposes Yes Yes Rout et al., 2009
Acacia angustissima (prairie acacia) Yes
Adiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern) Yes
Aegilops cylindrica Yes Yes
Arracacia xanthorrhiza (arracacha)Preserved at various institutions, including In vitro propagation, mainly in South America. Yes Yes FAO, 2016
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Germplasm collections available at various sites Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats) Yes Yes
Bothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem) Yes Hilty, 2014
Brachypodium distachyon (purple false brome)Used as a model for the grasses used to produce biomass, food, feed and forage Yes USDA-JGI, 2016
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Seeds were imported for USDA plantings, frequency unknown Yes Hull AC Jr, 1974; Rosenthal et al., 2008
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Germplasm preserved at various sites worldwide Yes Yes Brassica European Database, 2018; PROTA, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (witches'-broom phytoplasma disease) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma) Yes Yes
Chondrilla juncea (rush skeletonweed) Yes USDA-FS, 2014
Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (cadang cadang disease)Unrestricted movement of coconut germplasm from affected areas of the Philippines. Yes Yes
Coniothyrium glycines (red leaf blotch) Yes Yes Hartman et al., 1987
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (African cotton leaf curl begomovirus)
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusPrimary mode of international movement is by seed trade Yes Yes
Cuphea hyssopifolia (false heather) Yes
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Presumed vector. Congeners known to be transported between greenhouses Yes Yes Murakami et al., 2007
Digitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)Stored in the National Plant Germplasm System Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass)Germplasm collections at various institutions. Yes Yes PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
Digitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)Stored in the National Plant Germplasm System Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)germplasm collections at various institutions Yes Yes PROTA, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes
Eichhornia paniculata (Brazilian water hyacinth) Yes Rout et al., 2009
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight) Yes Yes
Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue) Yes Yes Darbyshire, 2007
Ficus carica (common fig) Yes Yes
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (Fusarium wilt of watermelon)possible Yes Rout et al., 2009; Rout et al., 2009; Rout et al., 2009; Rout et al., 2009
Grapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus) Yes Yes Al-Rwahnih et al., 2015a
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes Yes
Holcus lanatus (common velvet grass)In the majority of British pasture seed mixtures Yes Yes
Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid) Yes Yes Hadidi et al., 2003
Iris domestica (blackberry lily)Germplasm preserved at various institutions Yes Yes MSB, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)Germplasm stored for preservation purposes. Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) Yes Yes
Liberibacter africanus (African greening)Research Yes
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening)Research Yes
Ligustrum obtusifolium (border privet) Yes Yes Maddox et al., 2010
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Lonicera confusaSeeds likely to be traded among nurseries and gardens Yes Yes San Marcos Growers, 2016
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Germplasm preserved at various sites. Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot)Dominant dispersal associated with cocoa production Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Rare pathway Yes Yes
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree) Yes Yes Palada et al., 2017
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco)Germplasm preserved at USDA-ARS facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Oryza barthiiPotential Yes
Pachira insignis (wild chestnut)Cultivated as an ornamental, including in botanical gardens Yes Yes Dominica Botanic Gardens, 2018
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass)germplasm collections at various institutions Yes Yes Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2017; PROTA, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
Pear blister canker viroid Yes Yes
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Collections at USDA-ARS facilities and at various botanical gardens worldwide Yes Yes Liogier, 1965; Lasser et al., 1974; USDA-ARS, 2019
Plum pox virus (sharka)Most frequent by budwood or nursery stock. Yes
Puccinia gladioli Yes Yes Wise et al., 2004
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)Establishment of botanical gardens in colonies Yes Yes
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes Yes
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Germplasm is deposited and available at USDA-TARS Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae (brown stripe downy mildew of maize)Not documented, but likely Yes Yes Rout et al., 2009
Securigera varia (crown vetch)Germplasm collections available at USDA-ARS facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Senna alata (candle bush)Seed collections and germplasm available for long term storage. Long-term storage at IITS Genebank Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Spartina densifloraIntroduction could have been the result of the mislabelling of a species for a botanical garden Yes Bortolus, 2006
Sporisorium pulverulentum (Sporisorium smut of wild Saccharum) Yes
Sterculia apetala (Panama tree)Germplasm collections available at UDSA-ARS facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Strawberry necrotic shock virus (Strawberry necrotic shock virus) Yes Yes
Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma (grassy shoot of sugarcane) Yes Yes
sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma (white leaf of sugarcane) Yes Yes
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer) Yes Yes
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes Yes BGCI, 2014; Royal Horticultural Society, 2015
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Seeds, live plants Yes Trusty et al., 2008
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) Yes Yes BGCI, 2016
Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube) Yes Azam-Ali et al., 2006