Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Germplasm (pathway vector)



Germplasm (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Germplasm (pathway vector)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Germplasm (pathway vector)

International Common Names

  • English: Plant collections

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow) Yes Yes
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)Plants propagated in vitro for reintroduction purposes Yes Yes Rout et al. (2009)
Acacia angustissima (prairie acacia) Yes
Adiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern) Yes
Aegilops cylindrica Yes Yes
Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)Preserved at USDA-ARS facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Arracacia xanthorrhiza (arracacha)Preserved at various institutions, including In vitro propagation, mainly in South America. Yes Yes FAO (2016)
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)Seeds stored at MSB facilities. Collections at various botanical gardens. Yes Yes Susini (1952); Lasser et al. (1974); Forbes et al. (2010); Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2020)
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Germplasm collections available at various sites Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats) Yes Yes
Blighia sapida (akee apple)Cultivated in nurseries and botanic gardens Yes Yes Rashford (2001)
Bothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem) Yes Hilty (2014)
Brachypodium distachyon (purple false brome)Used as a model for the grasses used to produce biomass, food, feed and forage Yes USDA-JGI (2016)
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Seeds were imported for USDA plantings, frequency unknown Yes Hull AC Jr (1974); Rosenthal et al. (2008)
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Germplasm preserved at various sites worldwide Yes Yes Brassica European Database (2018); PROTA (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (African greening)Research or cultivar introductions Yes Yes
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (citrus greening)Research Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (witches'-broom phytoplasma disease) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma) Yes Yes
Chondrilla juncea (rush skeletonweed) Yes USDA-FS (2014)
Clavibacter nebraskensis (Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight) Yes Yes
Clavibacter sepedonicus (potato ring rot) Yes Yes
Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (cadang cadang disease)Unrestricted movement of coconut germplasm from affected areas of the Philippines. Yes Yes
Coniothyrium glycines (red leaf blotch) Yes Yes Hartman et al. (1987)
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus
Cowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Crescentia cujete (calabash tree)Germplasm collections are available Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusPrimary mode of international movement is by seed trade Yes Yes
Cuphea hyssopifolia (false heather) Yes
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (bacterial wilt of dry beans)very important Yes Yes
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Presumed vector. Congeners known to be transported between greenhouses Yes Yes Murakami et al. (2007)
Dichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)Collections are available at USDA facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Digitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)Stored in the National Plant Germplasm System Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass)Germplasm collections at various institutions. Yes Yes PROTA (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
Digitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)Stored in the National Plant Germplasm System Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)germplasm collections at various institutions Yes Yes PROTA (2017); USDA-ARS (2017)
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Germplasm collections available in India Yes Yes Sharma and Goel (1994)
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes
Ditylenchus gigas (giant stem and bulb nematode)Physical means Yes Yes Wharton (1996)
Eichhornia paniculata (Brazilian water hyacinth) Yes New York Botanical Garden (2016)
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight) Yes Yes
Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue) Yes Yes Darbyshire (2007)
Ficus carica (common fig) Yes Yes
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (Fusarium wilt of watermelon)possible Yes McLaughlin and Martyn; 1982; Michail et al.; 1989; Boughalleb and El Mahjoub; 2006
Grapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus) Yes Yes Al-Rwahnih et al. (2015a)
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes Yes
Holcus lanatus (common velvet grass)In the majority of British pasture seed mixtures Yes Yes
Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid) Yes Yes Hadidi et al. (2003)
Iris domestica (blackberry lily)Germplasm preserved at various institutions Yes Yes MSB (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
Jatropha integerrima (peregrina)Germplasm collections of the species are available Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Kigelia africana (sausage tree)Often cultivated in botanical gardens. Available in the nursery trade Yes Pinkas (1998)
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)Germplasm stored for preservation purposes. Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) Yes Yes
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)Collections available at USDA facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Ligustrum obtusifolium (border privet) Yes Yes Maddox et al. (2010)
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Lonicera confusaSeeds likely to be traded among nurseries and gardens Yes Yes San Marcos Growers (2016)
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Germplasm preserved at various sites. Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot)Dominant dispersal associated with cocoa production Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Rare pathway Yes Yes
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree) Yes Yes Palada et al. (2017)
Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)Germplasm collections available at USDA facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Nerium oleander (oleander)Germplasm collections available Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco)Germplasm preserved at USDA-ARS facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Oryza barthiiPotential Yes
Pachira insignis (wild chestnut)Cultivated as an ornamental, including in botanical gardens Yes Yes Dominica Botanic Gardens (2018)
Pandanus dubius (bakong)Collections available at USDA facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass)germplasm collections at various institutions Yes Yes Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2017); PROTA (2017); USDA-ARS (2017)
Passion fruit woodiness virus (passionfruit woodiness disease)In live Passiflora plant tissue Yes Yes Baker et al. (2014)
Pear blister canker viroid Yes Yes
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Collections at USDA-ARS facilities and at various botanical gardens worldwide Yes Yes Liogier (1965); Lasser et al. (1974); USDA-ARS (2019)
Plum pox virus (sharka)Most frequent by budwood or nursery stock. Yes
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Present in collections of various botanical gardens Yes Yes Ballesteros et al. (2012); New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Puccinia gladioli Yes Yes Wise et al. (2004)
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)Establishment of botanical gardens in colonies Yes Yes
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes Yes
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Germplasm is deposited and available at USDA-TARS Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae (brown stripe downy mildew of maize)Not documented, but likely Yes Yes Singh et al. (1967)
Securigera varia (crown vetch)Germplasm collections available at USDA-ARS facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Senna alata (candle bush)Seed collections and germplasm available for long term storage. Long-term storage at IITS Genebank Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Sesbania bispinosa (dunchi fibre)Seeds and germplasm preserved at various sites Yes Yes Millennium Seed Bank (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
Spartina densifloraIntroduction could have been the result of the mislabelling of a species for a botanical garden Yes Bortolus (2006)
Sporisorium pulverulentum (Sporisorium smut of wild Saccharum) Yes
Sterculia apetala (Panama tree)Germplasm collections available at UDSA-ARS facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)Historic collections available at USDA facilities Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Strawberry necrotic shock virus (Strawberry necrotic shock virus) Yes Yes
Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma (grassy shoot of sugarcane) Yes Yes
sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma (white leaf of sugarcane) Yes Yes
Thymophylla tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy)Seeds and germplasm preserved at various facilities worldwide Yes Yes Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2019); USDA-ARS (2019)
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tomato brown rugose fruit virus) Yes Yes
Tragus racemosus (stalker bur grass)Germplasm collections are available at USDA facilities and at the Millennium Seed Bank Yes Yes Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2020); USDA-ARS (2020)
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer) Yes Yes
Verbena officinalis (vervain)Germplasm collections are available at various facilities Yes Yes Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2020); USDA-ARS (2020)
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes Yes BGCI (2014); Royal Horticultural Society (2015)
Vitex parviflora (molave)Germplasm preserved at various sites Yes Yes de Kok (2020)
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Seeds, live plants Yes Trusty et al. (2008)
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. euvesicatoria (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. perforans (bacterial spot of tomato) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis (bacterial leaf streak of grasses) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (bacterial leaf streak of barley) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (bacterial leaf streak of wheat and barley) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas vesicatoria (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes Yes
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) Yes Yes BGCI (2016)
Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube) Yes Azam-Ali et al. (2006)