Invasive Species Compendium

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Debris and waste associated with human activities (pathway vector)

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Datasheet

Debris and waste associated with human activities (pathway vector)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Debris and waste associated with human activities (pathway vector)
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    Compendia
    CAB International
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Debris and waste associated with human activities (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Seeds, stem fragments, and tubers Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Abrus precatorius (rosary pea)Species is cultivated for ornamental, medicinal, and food additive purposes Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003; Padua et al., 1999; Weber, 2003
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail) Yes
Acmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)Weed Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) Yes
Aeginetia indica (forest ghost flower)Not mentioned in references but could be a possible way of seed movement Yes
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf)Used as forage and green manure Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Agave americana (century plant)Seeds, bulbils and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes DAISIE, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016
Agave fourcroydes (henequen)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Badano and Pugnaire, 2004
Agave sisalana (sisal hemp)This species is cultivated to produce fibre Yes Yes
Agdestis clematidea (rockroot) Yes Yes Vickery, 2009
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)Pods, seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)Spread by cuttings Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Cultivated as an ornamental and as a food plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2019
Alocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)Easily propagated by tubers or suckers Yes Yes Manner, 2011
Aloe vera (true aloe)From cultivation as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger)Rhizomes Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)Rhizomes used for spices and medicine Yes Yes
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Stems Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes Yes Grubben, 2004
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)Potential seed contaminant Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp)Seeds can survive and be spread in compost Yes Costea et al., 2005
Ambrosia peruviana (Peruvian ragweed)Cultivated as an ornamental and medicinal plant Yes Yes Lans, 2007
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)Common weed in disturbed areas associated with human activities Yes Yes Montagnani et al., 2017
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Spores, plant fragments, rhizomes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
Anredera baselloides (Madeira vine) Yes Yes
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine) Yes
Aphanomyces astacie.g. unused crayfish bait Yes Yes Oidtmann et al., 2005
Ardisia humilis (low shoebutton)Used as ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
Aristida ternipes (spidergrass)Forage/stock Yes Yes Allred, 2003
Aristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe) Yes Yes Hance, 1873; Randall, 2012; Starr et al., 2003; Weeds of Australia, 2015
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Meerman, 2003; Randall, 2012
Aronia x prunifolia Yes
Artemisia biennis (biennial wormwood)Seeds Yes Yes Kegode and Darbyshire, 2013
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) Yes Yes Ragone, 2011
Arundo donax (giant reed) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Stansbury, 1999
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Seeds may be spread in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale) Yes
Austrominius modestusOn plastic debris Yes Yes Barnes and Miller, 2005
Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi) Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Bacopa monnieri (water hyssop)seed and stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA, 2017
Bambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)Seeds, rhizomes and cuttings Yes Yes Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995
Bambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Rhizomes Yes Yes Dransfield and Widjaja, 1995
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)Seeds and stolons escaped from cultivation- garden waste disposal Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)Seeds and stem fragments – garden waste disposal Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Francis, 2004
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Possibly in waste associated to its cultivation and consumption Yes GISD, 2018
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Disposal of possibly infected materials associated with captive salamanders Yes GISD, 2018; Cunningham et al., 2015
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Seeds escaped from gardens Yes Yes Connor, 2002
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Bauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)Cultivated as ornamental. Seeds escaped from gardens Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony) Yes Yes Smith, 2010
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Weed of agricultural lands, contaminant in seed crops Yes Yes Sankaran and Suresh, 2013
Blattella germanica (German cockroach) Yes Valles, 1996
Boerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)Weed in pastures and agricultural land Yes Yes Muzila, 2006
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Garden ornamental. Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Possible in debris associated with its cultivation Yes
Breynia disticha (snowbush)Possible from its ornamental use Yes Yes
Bromus secalinus (rye brome)In florists’ waste Yes Carlsson et al., 2014
Brugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)Grown as an ornamental Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Stem segments and seeds can be dispersed in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Seed and rhizomes escaped from gardens Yes Yes PIER, 2016
Calliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra)Seeds Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant)Plants and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Calopogonium caeruleum (jicama)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer) Yes Kehrli and Bacher, 2004
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper) Yes Yes Basu and De, 2003; FAO EcoCrop, 2014; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2014
Capsicum baccatum (pepper)Cultivated and consumed as a food and spice crop Yes Yes Basu and De, 2003
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Dumped garden waste Yes Weeds of Australia, 2015
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Seeds Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al., 2013
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum) Yes Bosch, 2007; Duke, 1983; Hanelt et al., 2001
Cassia grandis (pink shower) Yes Yes Toruan-Purba, 1999
Cassia javanica (pink shower)Seeds Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Centaurea iberica (Iberian starthistle) Yes
Centratherum punctatum (lark daisy)Planted as ornamental Yes Woodson and Schery, 1975
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine) Yes Yes
Chamaedorea elegans (parlour palm)Fruits/seeds escaped from gardens Yes GISD, 2018
Chloris virgata (feather finger grass)Stolons and seeds can be carried by wind, vehicles or by adhering to animal fur Yes Yes FAO, 2015
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Nzengue et al., 2016
Citharexylum ellipticum (anacahuita)Seeds Yes Yes Fuentes, 2012
Clematis terniflora (sweet autumn clematis)Spread of seeds through acitivities of humans Yes Yes Skibo, 2006
Cleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Cleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)Seed contaminant Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Clerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)Species produces root suckers Yes
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)Seeds Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Seeds Yes Yes van den Bergh and Iamsupasit, 1996
Combretum grandiflorum (showy combretum) Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2015
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant) Yes
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass) Yes
Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)Seeds from cultivation Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)Known to have escaped cultivation in Panama, Paraguay, Florida and other parts of the Caribbean and South America Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Flora of Panama, 2016; GISD, 2018
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray) Yes
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Corms and rhizomes dispersed in dumping garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Crotalaria maypurensis (rattlebox weed)Seeds as contaminant on soil, machinery, and crop seeds Yes Yes Flora of Panama, 2015
Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)Seeds as contaminant in crop seeds, forage, hay and agricultural equipment Yes Yes Maddox et al., 2011
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusContaminated plant material from old crops or harvested fruits taken to new locations Yes
Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress) Yes Yes
Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)Rhizomes, tillers and plant fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Oyen, 1999
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Fibrous - resilient stolens Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Cynodon plectostachyus (African stargrass)Seeds and stolons escaped from pastures Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not)Seeds Yes GISD, 2018
Cyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge) Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Seeds and stem segments are commonly dispersed in dumped garden waste. Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Contaminant in crops and crop seeds Yes Yes Heuzé et al., 2015
Derris elliptica (tuba root)Seed and stem fragments Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Dichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)Stolons and seeds Yes Cook et al., 2005
Dichanthium caricosum (nadi blue grass)Seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane) Yes Space and Flynn, 2002
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)Seeds, plant segments, rhizomes Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Dioscorea alata (white yam)Tubers (yams) and bulbils Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato)Tubers and bulbils Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Tuber and stem fragments Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila) Yes
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)Seeds and plant fragments Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop)Spreads via dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Dypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)One of the most important ornamental palms in commerce Yes Yes Ellison and Ellison, 2001
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Potential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2013
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)Seeds Yes Yes Waterhouse, 1994
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)Seeds escaped from cultivation Yes USDA-NRCS, 2016
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Adults, juveniles and eggs can be found under daytime refugia Yes Carey, 1982; GISD, 2018; Stewart and Martin, 1980; Wilson and Porras, 1983
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Seeds in dumped garden waste Yes
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Seed dispersal Yes Yes Fern, 2019
Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)Cuttings and plant disposals Yes Yes PIER, 2012
Eragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)Seeds spread readily into disturbed areas from cultivated areas Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)Seeds spread readily into disturbed areas from cultivated areas Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass) Yes Alien plants of Belgium, 2018
Erechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed)Seed contaminant of crops Yes Yes Darbyshire et al., 2012
Eremochloa ophiuroides (centipedegrass)Seeds and stolons Yes Yes Brosnan and Deputy, 2008
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita)Common weed in gardens, parks and lawns Yes Yes Fried and Dumbardon-Martial, 2015
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Weeds of New Zealand, 2016
Erodium botrys (long-beaked stork's bill)In animal products (wool) Yes Yes Alien plants of Belgium, 2013
Erythrina berteroana (coralbean)Seeds Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree) Yes
Euphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)Stem fragments and seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Little et al., 1974
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Often spread by cuttings and stem fragments Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)Seeds and plant parts Yes Yes
Euphorbia trigona (African milk weed)Spreads by cuttings and stem fragments Yes PROTA, 2016
Euphorbia umbellata (African milk bush)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed) Yes Yes Rutledge and McLendon, 1996
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)Excavations and topsoil Yes
Ficus benghalensis (banyan)Seeds, stem cuttings, cuttings Yes Yes Smith, 2010
Ficus elastica (rubber plant) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014; Whistler, 2000
Ficus lyrata (fiddle-leaf fig) Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Gilman and Watson, 2014; Hutchinson and Rendle, 1916; Madulid, 1995; Starr et al., 2003
Ficus pumila (creeping fig) Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Mabberly, 2008
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes DAISIE, 2014; Starr et al., 2003; USDA-ARS, 2014
Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)Seeds dispersed by human-related activities Yes Yes Holm et al., 1977
Flemingia strobilifera (wild hops)Grown as an ornamental Yes Yes ISSG, 2014
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier) Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)Common weed in gardens and arable lands Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
Galphimia glauca (goldshower )Seeds and plant fragments escaped from gardens Yes Yes Brown, 2012
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Fruits, seeds, and stem fragments Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Grevillea robusta (silky oak) Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton) Yes Tilley et al., 2015
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Henderson, 2003
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes Yes
Heliconia bihai (macaw flower)Seeds and rhizomes Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Heliocarpus donnellsmithii (majagua)Seeds Yes Yes Becerra-Aguilar et al., 2013
Heliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)Seeds, root fragments Yes Yes Hegazy et al., 1994
Hemigraphis alternata (red ivy)Stem fragments dumped in garden waste Yes Yes University of Queensland, 2016
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Seeds may be transported with movements of soil and garden waste Yes Yes Kabuce, 2006
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes Yes
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)Stem segments Yes Yes PIER, 2013
Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe) Yes Yes Weaver and Francis, 1989
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant)Grown as an ornamental: capable of regenerating from cuttings Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit) Yes
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)removed from gardens as waste or compost Yes
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass) Yes Yes Williams and Baruch, 2000
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Naturalized in rubbish dumps Yes Yes Flora Mesoamericana, 2018
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2018
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Ipomoea alba (white moonflower )Seeds and plant fragments Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2016
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Often used in gardens and fences Yes Yes Henderson, 2015
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )Escaped from cultivation, gardens, urban parks Yes Queensland Government, 2016
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Seeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2017
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Seeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes PFAF, 2017
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Potential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Ipomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)Seeds in garden waste Yes Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2010
Ischaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)Agricultural weed Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)Sand mining Yes
Justicia pectoralis (freshcut)Seeds and roots Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Seeds and cuttings escaped from gardens Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)Seeds and fruits Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Seeds in dumped garden waste Yes Gilman and Watson, 1993
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)Seeds Yes Yes PFAF, 2017
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)Seeds Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Planted in gardens Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)In garden soil used for compost. Yes GISD, 2018
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Frequent Yes
Lindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)Agricultural weed Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Linepithema humile (Argentine ant) Yes Yes
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)Seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Meyer et al., 2008
Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leaf lupin)Fruits/seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Seeds Yes Yes NOBANIS, 2015
Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro)Seeds as contaminants in grass seed and hay Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)Stolons and rhizomes in garden waste dumping Yes Yes Diggs and Lipscomb, 2014
Malva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)Garden and agricultural weed Yes Yes Makowski and Morrison, 1989
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Seeds escaped from cultivation areas Yes Yes Webb et al., 1988
Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)Seeds, rhizomes and suckers Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Melicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime)Fruits are consumed by humans and consequently seeds can be easily dispersed Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2003
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass) Yes Yes
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Movement of infested soil. Yes
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Stem fragments and seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
Mesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)Seed, frequent Yes Yes
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes Francis, 2004
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Seeds might spread through waste from its cultivation. Yes GISD, 2018
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Common pathway Yes
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Seeds and cuttings associated with its cultivation Yes Csurhes and Navie, 2016
Morus nigra (black mulberry)Species has been widely introduced as a crop species Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Wyk BEvan, 2005
Murdannia nudiflora (doveweed) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Seeds and stem fragments from gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Seeds and stem fragments from gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes Ogbu, 2011
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Seeds and ramets Yes Yes Chidumayo, 2006
Neomarica caerulea (walking iris)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Neonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)Seeds can be spread in dumped garden waste Yes Queensland Government, 2013
Nephrolepis hirsutula (sword fern)Possible from its use for leis, decoration or mulchWhistler, 1988
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) Yes Yes Funk et al., 2007; PIER, 2014; Randall, 2012
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Can spread through garden waste Yes PIER, 2017
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Seed, stem fragment in garden waste Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil) Yes Yes
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)Pieces of stems and roots from gardens Yes Yes
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Pieces of stems and roots from gardens Yes Yes Francis, 2005
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Seeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Pringle, 1982
Pachystachys coccinea (Cardinal's guard)Seeds, escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Kenny, 2000
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)Agricultural debris Yes GISD, 2018
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Seeds and stem fragments from gardens, pastures and agricultural lands Yes Yes Manidool, 1992
Paspalum millegrana (yerba brava)Weeds of active pastures--seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Más and Garcia-Molinari, 2006
Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)Seeds and rhizomes from pastures and lawns Yes Violi, 2000
Paspalum virgatum (sword grass)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Sistachs and Leon, 1987
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit) Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)Known to be a garden escape in Puerto Rico; species can reproduce by cuttings Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000; SANBI, 2014
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Species is known to have escaped from human cultivation Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium)Species known to have escaped from cultivation Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012
Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)Seed and plant segments Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) Yes
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Possible. No details but reported as naturalized in Madeira Yes DAISIE, 2019
Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean) Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug) Yes
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Weed in gardens , yards, parks , agriculture and pasturelands Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Poa nemoralis (wood bluegrass) Yes
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick)in garden waste Yes
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry)Has escaped from gardens via garden waste Yes GISD, 2011
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Seeds and stem fragments from dumping garden waste Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)Seeds Yes Yes
Pterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)Seeds Yes Yes
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Possible in soil debris associated with its cultivation Yes
Ptychosperma macarthurii (Macarthur palm)Fruits and seeds Yes Yes Daehler and Baker, 2006
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)Waste from its cultivation. Yes GISD, 2018
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)When cutting trees and taking debris to landfill sites, for example Yes
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes
Rattus rattus (black rat) Yes Yes
Rauvolfia caffra (quinine tree )Fruits/Seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Granda and Fuentes, 1987
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Infested fruits Yes
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Yes
Rubus niveus (Mysore raspberry)Garden waste Yes ISSG, 2014
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)Seeds and stem fragments escaped from gardens Yes Yes ISSG, 2010
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia) Yes Yes Hupp et al., 2013
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG, 2009
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Stem fragments Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Sanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)Plant fragments and cuttings Yes Yes Smith, 1991
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes Yes
Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna)Species used by humans as medicine Yes
Senna surattensis (golden senna) Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade)Easily carried by shoe soles, hooves, machinery, vehicle wheels, grazing livestock Yes Yes
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade) Yes Yes PBI Solanum Project, 2014
Solanum quitoense (naranjilla)Associated with cultivation Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Queen, workers, eggs, larvae and pupae Yes Taber, 2000
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)Seeds, rhizomes Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Holm et al., 1977
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom)Often escaped from cultivation; seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Nilsen et al., 1993; Zouhar, 2005
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet)Seeds and root shoots Yes Yes
Stachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed) Yes
Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)Fragments spread in garden waste and soil Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Syzygium grande (sea apple)Seeds, fruit, and bark are used locally in traditional medicine Yes Rahman et al., 2011
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple) Yes Yes Funk et al., 2007; Morton, 1987; PIER, 2015; Randall, 2012
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Seeds, dumped garden waste Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)Capsules and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes NZPCN, 2016
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Rhizomes, spores and tubers in dumped garden waste Yes Yes
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Stem fragments, roots, dumping of garden cuttings Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)Stem fragments, roots, dumped garden waste Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Thunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet) Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Tibouchina herbacea (cane tibouchina)Mowing could spread plant fragments which can resprout Yes Yes Almasi, 2000
Tibouchina urvilleana (princessflower) Yes Starr et al., 2003
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)Seeds in garden waste Yes Queensland Government, 2018
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Seeds in dumped garden waste and contaminated agricultural produce Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2018
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Fruits and seeds Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Stem fragments dumped in garden waste Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)Leaves, cuttings and discarded plants from gardens and yards Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Leaves, cuttings and discarded plants from gardens and yards Yes ISSG, 2012
Tradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)Garden waste Yes Biosecurity Queensland, 2012
Trimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris)Stem fragments/plantlets and rhizomes Yes Yes
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer) Yes Yes
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes GISD, 2018
Vernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)Seeds from trees in cultivation Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) Yes Yes Harris et al., 2005
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Cuttings, uprooted plants Yes University of Florida, 2013
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)Spread by tubers and bulbils (cormels) Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet)Discarded pieces of plants Yes Sydney Weeds Committee, 2016
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Possible from lawn mowing, garden and nursery tending Yes Ames, 1938
Zingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger)Widely cultivated for various medicinal purposes and as flavouring agent in food preparations Yes Yes Chirangini and Sharma, 2005; Ravindran and Babu, 2005; Wolff et al., 1999
Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005