Invasive Species Compendium

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Debris and waste associated with human activities (pathway vector)

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Datasheet

Debris and waste associated with human activities (pathway vector)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Debris and waste associated with human activities (pathway vector)
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Debris and waste associated with human activities (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Seeds, stem fragments, and tubers Yes Yes GISD (2018)
Abrus precatorius (rosary pea)Species is cultivated for ornamental, medicinal, and food additive purposes Yes Yes Motooka et al. (2003); Padua et al. (1999); Weber (2003)
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail) Yes
Acmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)Weed Yes Yes Chung et al. (2007)
Adonidia merrillii (Christmas palm)Popular ornamental palm Yes Yes Lim (2012)
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) Yes
Aeginetia indica (forest ghost flower)Not mentioned in references but could be a possible way of seed movement Yes
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf)Used as forage and green manure Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Agave americana (century plant)Seeds, bulbils and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes DAISIE (2016); Weeds of Australia (2016)
Agave fourcroydes (henequen)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Badano and Pugnaire (2004)
Agave sisalana (sisal hemp)This species is cultivated to produce fibre Yes Yes
Agave vivipara (Caribbean agave)Bulbils Yes PROTA (2015)
Agdestis clematidea (rockroot) Yes Yes Vickery (2009)
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)Pods, seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Albizia niopoides (silk tree)Planted as ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Vozzo (2002)
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)Spread by cuttings Yes Yes Francis (2000)
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Cultivated as an ornamental and as a food plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Alocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)Easily propagated by tubers or suckers Yes Yes Manner (2011)
Aloe vera (true aloe)From cultivation as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)Cultivated as an ornamental, aromatic and medicinal plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger)Rhizomes Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)Rhizomes used for spices and medicine Yes Yes
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Stems Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes Yes Grubben (2004)
Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)Seeds in soil, manure and waste associated with agricultural practices Yes Ward et al. (2013)
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)Potential seed contaminant Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp)Seeds can survive and be spread in compost Yes Costea et al. (2005)
Ambrosia peruviana (Peruvian ragweed)Cultivated as an ornamental and medicinal plant Yes Yes Lans (2007)
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)Common weed in disturbed areas associated with human activities Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Spores, plant fragments, rhizomes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen (2008)
Anredera baselloides (Madeira vine) Yes Yes
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine) Yes
Aphanomyces astacie.g. unused crayfish bait Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Ardisia humilis (low shoebutton)Used as ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Aristida ternipes (spidergrass)Forage/stock Yes Yes Allred (2003)
Aristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe) Yes Yes Hance (1873); Randall (2012); Starr et al. (2003); Weeds of Australia (2015)
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005); Liogier and Martorell (2000); Meerman (2003); Randall (2012)
Aronia x prunifolia Yes
Artemisia biennis (biennial wormwood)Seeds Yes Yes Kegode and Darbyshire (2013)
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) Yes Yes Ragone (2011)
Arundo donax (giant reed) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2014)
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Stansbury (1999)
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)Escaped from cultivation Yes NSW Weedwise (2018)
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Seeds may be spread in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale) Yes
Austrominius modestusOn plastic debris Yes Yes Barnes and Miller (2005)
Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi) Yes Yes Samson (1991)
Bacopa monnieri (water hyssop)seed and stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA (2017)
Bambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)Seeds, rhizomes and cuttings Yes Yes Duriyaprapan and Jansen (1995)
Bambusa longispiculata (mahal bamboo)Stem fragments, rhizomes Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Bambusa tuldoides (punting pole bamboo)Stem fragments, rhizomes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Bambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Rhizomes Yes Yes Dransfield and Widjaja (1995)
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)Seeds and stolons escaped from cultivation- garden waste disposal Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)Seeds and stem fragments – garden waste disposal Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Francis (2004)
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Possibly in waste associated to its cultivation and consumption Yes Dave's Garden (2017)
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Disposal of possibly infected materials associated with captive salamanders Yes ; Cunningham et al. (2015)
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Seeds escaped from gardens Yes Yes Connor (2002)
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Bauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)Cultivated as ornamental. Seeds escaped from gardens Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony) Yes Yes Smith (2010)
Bergia capensis (white water fire)Possible in debris associated with rice cultivation. Yes
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Weed of agricultural lands, contaminant in seed crops Yes Yes Sankaran and Suresh (2013)
Blattella germanica (German cockroach) Yes Valles (1996)
Boerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)Weed in pastures and agricultural land Yes Yes Muzila (2006)
Bothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes MacKee (1994)
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Garden ornamental. Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Possible in debris associated with its cultivation Yes
Breynia disticha (snowbush)Possible from its ornamental use Yes Yes
Bromus secalinus (rye brome)In florists’ waste Yes Carlsson et al. (2014)
Brugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)Grown as an ornamental Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Stem segments and seeds can be dispersed in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Seed and rhizomes escaped from gardens Yes Yes PIER (2016)
Calliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra)Seeds Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant)Plants and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Calopogonium caeruleum (jicama)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo)Seeds Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer) Yes Kehrli and Bacher (2004)
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)Species is known to escape from cultivated areas; species can reproduce by both seeds and cuttings Yes PIER (2014)
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean)Seeds Yes Yes Kooi (2016)
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper) Yes Yes Basu and De (2003); FAO EcoCrop (2014); Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2014)
Capsicum baccatum (pepper)Cultivated and consumed as a food and spice crop Yes Yes Basu and De (2003)
Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)Weed in gardens, greenhouses and lawns. Seeds unintentionally dispersed as contaminant Yes Yes ISSG (2019)
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Dumped garden waste Yes Weeds of Australia (2015)
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Seeds Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al. (2013)
Carpobrotus chilensis (sea fig)As escaping from cultivation by discarded stem pieces Yes Jonkers (2001)
Cascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)Commonly spread in dumped garden waste Yes Weeds of Australia (2020)
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum) Yes Bosch (2007); Duke (1983); Hanelt et al. (2001)
Cassia grandis (pink shower) Yes Yes Toruan-Purba (1999)
Cassia javanica (pink shower)Seeds Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Centaurea iberica (Iberian starthistle) Yes
Centratherum punctatum (lark daisy)Planted as ornamental Yes Woodson and Schery (1975)
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine) Yes Yes
Chamaedorea elegans (parlour palm)Fruits/seeds escaped from gardens Yes Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012)
Cheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )Rhizomes and seeds escaped from gardens Yes Yes Staples et al. (2000)
Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2020)
Chloris virgata (feather finger grass)Stolons and seeds can be carried by wind, vehicles or by adhering to animal fur Yes Yes FAO (2015)
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Nzengue et al. (2016)
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine)Stem fragments, fruits Yes Yes Smith (2010)
Citharexylum ellipticum (anacahuita)Seeds Yes Yes Fuentes (2012)
Clematis terniflora (sweet autumn clematis)Spread of seeds through acitivities of humans Yes Yes Skibo (2006)
Cleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Cleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)Seed contaminant Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Clerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)Species produces root suckers Yes
Clerodendrum lindleyi (clerodendrum)Grown as an ornamental Méndez Santos (2013)
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)Widely cultivated as an ornamental. Often escaped from gardens Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)Seeds Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (chaya)Possible, if cuttings are able to root Yes
Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Seeds Yes Yes van den Bergh and Iamsupasit (1996)
Combretum grandiflorum (showy combretum) Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005); USDA-ARS (2015)
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant) Yes
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass) Yes
Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)Seeds from cultivation Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)Known to have escaped cultivation in Panama, Paraguay, Florida and other parts of the Caribbean and South America Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); Flora of Panama (2016); Paraguay Checklist (2016)
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray) Yes
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Corms and rhizomes dispersed in dumping garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Crotalaria maypurensis (rattlebox weed)Seeds as contaminant on soil, machinery, and crop seeds Yes Yes Flora of Panama (2015)
Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)Seeds as contaminant in crop seeds, forage, hay and agricultural equipment Yes Yes Maddox et al. (2011)
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusContaminated plant material from old crops or harvested fruits taken to new locations Yes
Cucumis anguria (West Indian gherkin)Escaped from cultivation. Often naturalized outside cultivation Yes Yes Wilkins-Ellert (2004)
Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress) Yes Yes
Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)Rhizomes, tillers and plant fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Oyen (1999)
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (camel grass)Seeds, rhizomes and tillers Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Fibrous - resilient stolens Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Cynodon plectostachyus (African stargrass)Seeds and stolons escaped from pastures Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not)Seeds Yes ​Missouri Botanical Garden (2017​)
Cyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge) Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Seeds and stem segments are commonly dispersed in dumped garden waste. Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Contaminant in crops and crop seeds Yes Yes Heuzé et al. (2015)
Derris elliptica (tuba root)Seed and stem fragments Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Desmodium cajanifolium (tropical tick trefoil)No information available but possible from its cultivation Yes
Dichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)Stolons and seeds Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Dichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)Possible due to its cultivation for pasture and hay Yes
Dichanthium caricosum (nadi blue grass)Seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane) Yes Space and Flynn (2002)
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)Seeds, plant segments, rhizomes Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Dimorphotheca sinuata (Cape marigold)Seeds Yes Yes Halvorson and Guertin (2003)
Dioscorea alata (white yam)Tubers (yams) and bulbils Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato)Tubers and bulbils Yes Yes ISSG (2012)
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Although no information available, it is possible as it is used as an ornamental and food Yes
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Tuber and stem fragments Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Dracaena fragrans (corn plant)Seeds, cuttings, stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila) Yes
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)Seeds and plant fragments Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop)Spreads via dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Dypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)One of the most important ornamental palms in commerce Yes Yes Ellison and Ellison (2001)
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Potential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)Seeds Yes Yes Waterhouse (1994)
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)Seeds escaped from cultivation Yes USDA-NRCS (2016)
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Adults, juveniles and eggs can be found under daytime refugia Yes Carey (1982); Olson et al. (2012); Stewart and Martin (1980); Wilson and Porras (1983)
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Seeds in dumped garden waste Yes
Emilia praetermissa (yellow thistle)Seeds dispersed as contaminants Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Seed dispersal Yes Yes Fern (2019)
Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)Cuttings and plant disposals Yes Yes PIER (2012)
Eragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)Seeds spread readily into disturbed areas from cultivated areas Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)Seeds spread readily into disturbed areas from cultivated areas Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass) Yes Alien plants of Belgium (2018)
Erechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed)Seed contaminant of crops Yes Yes Darbyshire et al. (2012)
Eremochloa ophiuroides (centipedegrass)Seeds and stolons Yes Yes Brosnan and Deputy (2008)
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita)Common weed in gardens, parks and lawns Yes Yes Fried and Dumbardon-Martial (2015)
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Weeds of New Zealand (2016)
Erodium botrys (long-beaked stork's bill)In animal products (wool) Yes Yes Alien plants of Belgium (2013)
Erythrina berteroana (coralbean)Seeds Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree) Yes
Euphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)Stem fragments and seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Little et al. (1974)
Euphorbia leucocephala (white Christmas bush)Seeds, stem and root fragments Yes Yes Galindo-García et al. (2019)
Euphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)Seeds, stem fragments and cuttings Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Euphorbia neriifolia (Indian spurge tree)Seeds, stem fragments, cuttings Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Often spread by cuttings and stem fragments Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)Seeds and plant parts Yes Yes
Euphorbia trigona (African milk weed)Spreads by cuttings and stem fragments Yes PROTA (2016)
Euphorbia umbellata (African milk bush)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed) Yes Yes Rutledge and McLendon (1996)
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)Excavations and topsoil Yes
Ficus benghalensis (banyan)Seeds, stem cuttings, cuttings Yes Yes Smith (2010)
Ficus elastica (rubber plant) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014); Whistler (2000)
Ficus lyrata (fiddle-leaf fig) Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua (2014); Gilman and Watson (2014); Hutchinson and Rendle (1916); Madulid (1995); Starr et al. (2003)
Ficus pumila (creeping fig) Yes Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); Mabberly (2008)
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes DAISIE (2014); Starr et al. (2003); USDA-ARS (2014)
Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)Seeds dispersed by human-related activities Yes Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Flemingia strobilifera (wild hops)Grown as an ornamental Yes Yes ISSG (2014)
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier) Yes Yes Damalas (2008)
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)Common weed in gardens and arable lands Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede (2010)
Galphimia glauca (goldshower)Seeds and plant fragments escaped from gardens Yes Yes Brown (2012)
Galphimia gracilis (goldshower)Seeds, cuttings Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Garcinia dulcis (yellow mangosteen)Seeds dispersed by humans Yes Yes Jansen (1991)
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Fruits, seeds, and stem fragments Yes Yes Motooka et al. (2003)
Grevillea robusta (silky oak) Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton) Yes Tilley et al. (2015)
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Henderson (2003)
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes Yes
Helianthus debilis (beach sunflower)Seeds, stolons Yes Yes Gilman and Park-Brown (1999)
Heliconia bihai (macaw flower)Seeds and rhizomes Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Heliocarpus donnellsmithii (majagua)Seeds Yes Yes Becerra-Aguilar et al. (2013)
Heliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)Seeds, root fragments Yes Yes Hegazy et al. (1994)
Hemigraphis alternata (red ivy)Stem fragments dumped in garden waste Yes Yes University of Queensland (2016)
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Seeds may be transported with movements of soil and garden waste Yes Yes Kabuce (2006)
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes Yes
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)Stem segments Yes Yes PIER (2013)
Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe) Yes Yes Weaver and Francis (1989)
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant)Grown as an ornamental: capable of regenerating from cuttings Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit) Yes
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)removed from gardens as waste or compost Yes
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass) Yes Yes Williams and Baruch (2000)
Hyptis spicigera (black sesame) Yes Le Bourgeois et al. (2019)
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Naturalized in rubbish dumps Yes Yes Flora Mesoamericana (2018)
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Inga acreana (ice-cream bean tree)Fruits consumed by humans Yes Yes ​Van den Eynden et al. (1999​)
Inga mucuna (ice-cream bean tree)Fruits consumed by humansUseful Tropical Plants (2020)
Ipomoea alba (white moonflower )Seeds and plant fragments Yes Yes Queensland Government (2016)
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)Seeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Often used in gardens and fences Yes Yes Henderson (2015)
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )Escaped from cultivation, gardens, urban parks Yes Queensland Government (2016)
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Seeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government (2017)
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Seeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes PFAF (2017)
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Potential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Ipomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)Seeds in garden waste Yes Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants (2010)
Ischaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)Agricultural weed Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Ixora casei (giant red ixora)Often cultivated as ornamental and hedge plant Yes Yes Keeler et al. (2003)
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)Sand mining Yes
Jatropha integerrima (peregrina)Possible, as it is listed as escaped from cultivation Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2020)
Justicia pectoralis (freshcut)Seeds and roots Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Seeds and cuttings escaped from gardens Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016)
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)Seeds and fruits Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2014)
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Seeds in dumped garden waste Yes Gilman and Watson (1993)
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)Seeds Yes Yes PFAF (2017)
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)Seeds as contaminants Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)Seeds Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Planted in gardens Yes Yes eFloras (2014)
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)In garden soil used for compost. Yes Dave’s Garden (2016)
Leucophyllum frutescens (Texas barometer bush)Cultivated as ornamental and spread by seeds and cuttings Yes Yes Martin (2020)
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Frequent Yes
Lindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)Agricultural weed Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Linepithema humile (Argentine ant) Yes Yes
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)Seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Meyer et al. (2008)
Ludwigia palustris (marsh seedbox)Escaped from cultivation. Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leaf lupin)Fruits/seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Seeds Yes Yes NOBANIS (2015)
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)No information available but it could be a possibility as it is reported as cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro)Seeds as contaminants in grass seed and hay Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)Stolons and rhizomes in garden waste dumping Yes Yes Diggs and Lipscomb (2014)
Malva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)Garden and agricultural weed Yes Yes Makowski and Morrison (1989)
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Seeds escaped from cultivation areas Yes Yes Webb et al. (1988)
Malvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)Stem fragments dispersed in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weed Watch (2012)
Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)Seeds, rhizomes and suckers Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Melicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime)Fruits are consumed by humans and consequently seeds can be easily dispersed Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2003)
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2017)
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass) Yes Yes
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Movement of infested soil. Yes
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Stem fragments and seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Mansur (2001)
Mesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)Seed, frequent Yes Yes
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes Francis (2004)
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Seeds might spread through waste from its cultivation. Yes
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)No information available, but possible from rice cultivation and its use for food Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Common pathway Yes
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Seeds and cuttings associated with its cultivation Yes Csurhes and Navie (2016)
Morus nigra (black mulberry)Species has been widely introduced as a crop species Yes Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); Wyk BEvan (2005)
Murdannia nudiflora (doveweed) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2017)
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Seeds and stem fragments from gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Seeds and stem fragments from gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes Ogbu (2011)
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Seeds and ramets Yes Yes Chidumayo (2006)
Neomarica caerulea (walking iris)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Neonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)Seeds can be spread in dumped garden waste Yes Queensland Government (2013)
Nephrolepis hirsutula (sword fern)Possible from its use for leis, decoration or mulchWhistler (1988)
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) Yes Yes Funk et al. (2007); PIER (2014); Randall (2012)
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Can spread through garden waste Yes PIER (2017)
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Seed, stem fragment in garden waste Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil) Yes Yes
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)Pieces of stems and roots from gardens Yes Yes
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Pieces of stems and roots from gardens Yes Yes Francis (2005)
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Seeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Pringle (1982)
Pachystachys coccinea (Cardinal's guard)Seeds, escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Kenny (2000)
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)Agricultural debris Yes Baiwa et al. (2016)
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Seeds and stem fragments from gardens, pastures and agricultural lands Yes Yes Manidool (1992)
Paspalum millegrana (yerba brava)Weeds of active pastures--seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Más and Garcia-Molinari (2006)
Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)Seeds and rhizomes from pastures and lawns Yes Violi (2000)
Paspalum virgatum (sword grass)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Sistachs and Leon (1987)
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit) Yes Yes Francis (2000)
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)Known to be a garden escape in Puerto Rico; species can reproduce by cuttings Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); SANBI (2014)
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Species is known to have escaped from human cultivation Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000)
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium)Species known to have escaped from cultivation Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); Randall (2012)
Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)Seed and plant segments Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) Yes
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Possible. No details but reported as naturalized in Madeira Yes DAISIE (2019)
Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean) Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug) Yes
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Rhizomes disposed in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government (2017)
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman and Watson (1994)
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Weed in gardens , yards, parks , agriculture and pasturelands Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Poa nemoralis (wood bluegrass) Yes
Polyscias balfouriana (Balfour aralia)Seeds and stem cuttings Yes Yes Hume (1951)
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia)Seeds, stem and root fragments Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Polyscias guilfoylei (geranium aralia)Stem fragments Yes Yes Duvauchelle (2007)
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick)in garden waste Yes
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry)Has escaped from gardens via garden waste Yes GISD (2011)
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Seeds and stem fragments from dumping garden waste Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Pteris multifida (spider brake)Although not reported it is a possibility as a result of its cultivation Yes
Pteris tripartita (giant brake)Not mentioned in literature, but a possibility from its cultivation Yes
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Possible, as it grows in urban areas and it is reported as an ornamental species Yes UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2019)
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)Seeds Yes Yes
Pterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)Seeds Yes Yes
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Possible in soil debris associated with its cultivation Yes
Ptychosperma macarthurii (Macarthur palm)Fruits and seeds Yes Yes Daehler and Baker (2006)
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)Waste from its cultivation. Yes California Invasive Plant Council (2017)
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)When cutting trees and taking debris to landfill sites, for example Yes
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes
Rattus rattus (black rat) Yes Yes
Rauvolfia caffra (quinine tree )Fruits/Seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Granda and Fuentes (1987)
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Infested fruits Yes
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Yes
Rubus niveus (Mysore raspberry)Garden waste Yes ISSG (2014)
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)Seeds and stem fragments escaped from gardens Yes Yes ISSG (2010)
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia) Yes Yes Hupp et al. (2013)
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG (2009)
Sambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)Seeds, rhizomes, fragments Yes Yes Charlebois et al. (2010)
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Stem fragments Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Sanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)Plant fragments and cuttings Yes Yes Smith (1991)
Sechium edule (chayote)Fruits Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes Yes
Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna)Species used by humans as medicine Yes
Senna italica (Senegal senna)Seeds Yes Yes Okeyo and Bosch (2007)
Senna surattensis (golden senna) Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade)Easily carried by shoe soles, hooves, machinery, vehicle wheels, grazing livestock Yes Yes
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade) Yes Yes PBI Solanum Project (2014)
Solanum quitoense (naranjilla)Associated with cultivation Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)Seeds as a contaminant Yes Yes ISSG (2020)
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Queen, workers, eggs, larvae and pupae Yes Taber (2000)
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)Seeds, rhizomes Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes GISD (2018)
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)Seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom)Often escaped from cultivation; seeds as contaminant Yes Yes Nilsen et al. (1993); Zouhar (2005)
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet)Seeds and root shoots Yes Yes
Stachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed) Yes
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)Possible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes PIER (2019)
Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)Fragments spread in garden waste and soil Yes Yes ISSG (2012)
Syzygium grande (sea apple)Seeds, fruit, and bark are used locally in traditional medicine Yes Rahman et al. (2011)
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple) Yes Yes Funk et al. (2007); Morton (1987); PIER (2015); Randall (2012)
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Seeds, dumped garden waste Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Tamarindus indica (tamarind)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes POWO (2018)
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)Capsules and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes NZPCN (2016)
Terminalia muelleri (Australian almond)Seeds Yes Yes Gilman and Watson (1993)
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Rhizomes, spores and tubers in dumped garden waste Yes Yes
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Stem fragments, roots, dumping of garden cuttings Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Thunbergia erecta (bush clockvine)Stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)Stem fragments, roots, dumped garden waste Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Thunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet) Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Thymophylla tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy)No information available, but possible escape from cultivation Yes
Tibouchina herbacea (cane tibouchina)Mowing could spread plant fragments which can resprout Yes Yes Almasi (2000)
Tibouchina urvilleana (princessflower) Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)Seeds in garden waste Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Seeds in dumped garden waste and contaminated agricultural produce Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2018)
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tomato brown rugose fruit virus)Human movements between crops and fruit harvesting Yes
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Fruits and seeds Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Stem fragments dumped in garden waste Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)Leaves, cuttings and discarded plants from gardens and yards Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Leaves, cuttings and discarded plants from gardens and yards Yes ISSG (2012)
Tradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)Garden waste Yes Biosecurity Queensland (2012)
Trimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris)Stem fragments/plantlets and rhizomes Yes Yes
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer) Yes Yes
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium (2016)
Vernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)Seeds from trees in cultivation Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) Yes Yes Harris et al. (2005)
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Cuttings, uprooted plants Yes University of Florida (2013)
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)Spread by tubers and bulbils (cormels) Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet)Discarded pieces of plants Yes Sydney Weeds Committee (2016)
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Possible from lawn mowing, garden and nursery tending Yes Ames (1938)
Zingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger)Widely cultivated for various medicinal purposes and as flavouring agent in food preparations Yes Yes Chirangini and Sharma (2005); Ravindran and Babu (2005); Wolff et al. (1999)
Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)