Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Containers and packaging - non-wood (pathway vector)



Containers and packaging - non-wood (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Containers and packaging - non-wood (pathway vector)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Containers and packaging - non-wood (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Adoretus sinicus (Chinese rose beetle)Adults Yes Stanaway et al. (2001)
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) Yes Yes
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant) Yes Yes
Aromia bungii (red necked longicorn)accidental Yes Reid and Cannon (2010); Smith (2009)
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly)Fruits infested with larvae, pupae and/or eggs Yes Yes
Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats) Yes Yes
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes
Candidula intersecta (wrinkled dune snail) Yes Yes Meissner et al. (2009)
Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly) Yes
Citrus leprosis virus C (leprosis of citrus) Yes
Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato) Yes
Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoidesErect plants Yes Yes Carlton and Scanlon (1985)
Crepidula fornicata (American slipper limpet)During the 1970s from USA or Japan to Europe Yes
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusPotential for movement through contaminated packing materials Yes
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Adult and larvae Yes Yes Joyce (1961)
Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot) Yes Yes
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)E. amylovora seems to be able to survive on some plastics but not on rigid high density polyethylene Yes Yes Ceroni et al. (2004); Keck et al. (1996)
Eucheuma spp.Live vegetative stage Yes
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Cysts Yes Inagarki (2004)
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)Frequently can occur accidentally due to H. halys seeking sheltered overwintering sites. Yes Yes
Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)Found in UK packing cases from Canada Yes Majerus et al. (2006)
Hypothenemus hampei (coffee berry borer)Adults Yes Yes
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid)The small dimension of the pest could help its spread as a hitchhiker, especially in refrigerated containers Yes Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Not uncommon Yes Yes
Lycorma delicatula (spotted lanternfly)Containers and packaging can harbour egg masses Yes Yes
Microstegium vimineum (Nepalese browntop)Possible vector into US Yes Fairbrothers and Gray (1972)
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Rare pathway Yes
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes Yes PAG (2000)
Pennisetum polystachion (mission grass) Yes Yes
Plantago asiatica mosaic virusPlAMV has been detected in milled sphagnum used to package lily bulbs imported from the Netherlands; if this packaging is mixed into plant growth medium without sterilization, transmission to susceptible hosts could occur Yes Yes
Polypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass) Yes
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Larvae might be overlooked when infestation level is low Yes Yes
Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail) Yes Yes
Sicyos angulatus (burcucumber)Seed Yes Kurokawa et al. (2009)
Solidago nemoralis (grey goldenrod)Hypothetical Yes Yes
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) Yes Yes
Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass)Potentially introduced to Washington state as discarded packaging material for shipments of oysters. Yes Yes Cohen and Carlton (1995)
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes
Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar) Yes
Striga asiatica (witch weed) Yes Yes
Tapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)Observed associated with metal containers and exports into New Zealand Yes Yes Harris et al. (2005)
Theba pisana (white garden snail) Yes Robinson (1999)
Thecaphora frezii (peanut smut)Spores can contaminate peanut products destined for exportation (edible grain, blanched and crushed peanut) Yes Cazón et al. (2016a)
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer) Yes
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes Yes
Vespula germanica (German wasp) Yes Yes