Invasive Species Compendium

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Containers and packaging - wood (pathway vector)

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Datasheet

Containers and packaging - wood (pathway vector)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Containers and packaging - wood (pathway vector)

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Containers and packaging - wood (pathway vector); EUR pallet stack. Wood treating and marking requirements

To minimise the spread of pests, ISPM15 specifies requirements for treatment and marking of wood packaging that have now been adopted by close to 200 countries ISPM15 covers pallets, cases, crates, as well as dunnage (loose packing or wedges) that are manufactured from non-man made wooden materials. To achieve compliance, wood without its bark must undergo heat treatment which must be carried out to an agreed standard and by an approved source. Only after a prescribed treatment can wood be marked in the prescribed manner as being ISPM15 compliant.

Exemptions - The following types of wood packaging material don’t need to be treated and marked:

   - solid wood less than 6 millimetres thick
   -  manufactured wood products such as plywood, particle board, oriented strand board, chipboard
   - barrels for wine and spirit
   - gift boxes for wine, cigars and other commodities which have been processed in some way to remove pest risk
TitleEUR pallet stack
CaptionContainers and packaging - wood (pathway vector); EUR pallet stack. Wood treating and marking requirements To minimise the spread of pests, ISPM15 specifies requirements for treatment and marking of wood packaging that have now been adopted by close to 200 countries ISPM15 covers pallets, cases, crates, as well as dunnage (loose packing or wedges) that are manufactured from non-man made wooden materials. To achieve compliance, wood without its bark must undergo heat treatment which must be carried out to an agreed standard and by an approved source. Only after a prescribed treatment can wood be marked in the prescribed manner as being ISPM15 compliant. Exemptions - The following types of wood packaging material don’t need to be treated and marked: - solid wood less than 6 millimetres thick - manufactured wood products such as plywood, particle board, oriented strand board, chipboard - barrels for wine and spirit - gift boxes for wine, cigars and other commodities which have been processed in some way to remove pest risk
CopyrightPublic Domain - released by Klaus Mueller (VanGore)/via wikipedia
Containers and packaging - wood (pathway vector); EUR pallet stack. Wood treating and marking requirements

To minimise the spread of pests, ISPM15 specifies requirements for treatment and marking of wood packaging that have now been adopted by close to 200 countries ISPM15 covers pallets, cases, crates, as well as dunnage (loose packing or wedges) that are manufactured from non-man made wooden materials. To achieve compliance, wood without its bark must undergo heat treatment which must be carried out to an agreed standard and by an approved source. Only after a prescribed treatment can wood be marked in the prescribed manner as being ISPM15 compliant.

Exemptions - The following types of wood packaging material don’t need to be treated and marked:

   - solid wood less than 6 millimetres thick
   -  manufactured wood products such as plywood, particle board, oriented strand board, chipboard
   - barrels for wine and spirit
   - gift boxes for wine, cigars and other commodities which have been processed in some way to remove pest risk
EUR pallet stack Containers and packaging - wood (pathway vector); EUR pallet stack. Wood treating and marking requirements To minimise the spread of pests, ISPM15 specifies requirements for treatment and marking of wood packaging that have now been adopted by close to 200 countries ISPM15 covers pallets, cases, crates, as well as dunnage (loose packing or wedges) that are manufactured from non-man made wooden materials. To achieve compliance, wood without its bark must undergo heat treatment which must be carried out to an agreed standard and by an approved source. Only after a prescribed treatment can wood be marked in the prescribed manner as being ISPM15 compliant. Exemptions - The following types of wood packaging material don’t need to be treated and marked: - solid wood less than 6 millimetres thick - manufactured wood products such as plywood, particle board, oriented strand board, chipboard - barrels for wine and spirit - gift boxes for wine, cigars and other commodities which have been processed in some way to remove pest riskPublic Domain - released by Klaus Mueller (VanGore)/via wikipedia

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Containers and packaging - wood (pathway vector)

International Common Names

  • English: Wood packaging

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf) Yes
Acanthiophilus helianthi (fly, capsule)Containers of cut flowers or safflower for oil production. Yes
Acanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur)Achenes adhere to packing Yes
Achlysiella williamsiCarrying sugarcanes Yes
Acrolepiopsis assectella (leek moth) Yes
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer) Yes Haack et al., 2002
Amylostereum areolatum Yes Ciesla, 2003
Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Anastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Anastrepha obliqua (West Indian fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Anastrepha striata (guava fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge)Packing materials Yes Yes
Anguina agrostis (nematode, bentgrass)Dealing with grasses Yes
Anolis aeneus (bronze anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs possible Yes
Anolis cristatellus (Puerto Rican crested anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs Yes
Anolis extremus (Barbados anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs possible Yes
Anolis trinitatis (St Vincent bush anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs Yes
Anolis wattsi (Watts' anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs possible Yes
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant) Yes Yes
Aphelenchoides arachidis (groundnut testa nematode)Peanut packings Yes
Aphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode) Yes
Aphelenchoides fragariae (strawberry crimp nematode) Yes
Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Chrysanthemum foliar eelworm) Yes
Apiognomonia errabunda (anthracnose) Yes
Argyrotaenia citrana (orange tortrix)From the field to the packing house Yes
Aromia bungii (red necked longicorn)accidental Yes Reid and Cannon, 2010; Smith, 2009
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)Spores Yes Grgurinovic et al., 2006
Avena sterilis (winter wild oat)Grain sack contaminant Yes
Bactrocera carambolae (carambola fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera cucumis (cucumber fruit fly)Of fruit. Yes
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)Of fruit cargo Yes
Bactrocera facialisOf fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera frauenfeldi (mango fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera jarvisi (Jarvis' fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera kirkiOf fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera latifrons (Solanum fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera melanotusOf fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera minax (Chinese citrus fly)Of fruit cargo Yes
Bactrocera neohumeralisOf fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera occipitalisOf fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera passiflorae (Fijian fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera psidii (South Sea guava fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera tauOf fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera tsuneonis (Japanese orange fly)Of fruit cargo Yes
Bactrocera umbrosaOf fruit cargo. Yes
Bactrocera xanthodes (Pacific fruit fly)Of fruit cargo Yes
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)Unintentional transport of seeds Yes
Blattella germanica (German cockroach) Yes Yes Nigam et al., 1969
Bromus tectorum (downy brome)All Yes
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wilt nematode)Pinewood Yes
Calotropis procera (apple of sodom) Yes
Candidula intersecta (wrinkled dune snail) Yes Yes Meissner et al., 2009
Carex kobomugi (Asiatic sand sedge)Probably arrived to east and west coast of USA by sand ballast around the year 1900 Yes Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria, 2015; Wootton et al., 2005
Carpomya pardalina (Baluchistan melon fly)With infested fruits Yes
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum)Species extensively used for wood and timber products, primarily locally Yes Yes Bosch, 2007; Duke, 1983
Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly)Of fruit cargo Yes
Ceratitis punctata (cacao fruit fly)Of fruit cargo Yes
Ceratocystis fimbriata (Ceratocystis blight)Wood used in packaging or dunnage. Yes
Ceratocystis platani (canker stain of plane) Yes
Cirsium vulgare (spear thistle)Shipping. Contaminated feed Yes
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Potato ring rot) Yes
Coptotermes formosanus (Formosan subterranean termite) Yes
Cornu aspersum (common garden snail) Yes
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Cronartium ribicola (white pine blister rust)Aeciospores Yes
Crumenulopsis sororia Yes
Crupina vulgaris (bearded creeper)Packing material for machinery. Yes
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusPotential for movement through contaminated packing materials Yes
Dacus ciliatus (lesser pumpkin fly)Of fruit cargo Yes
Deanolis albizonalis (mango seed borer)Solid wood packing material Yes
Dendroctonus pseudotsugae (Douglas-fir beetle) Yes
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass) Yes
Ditylenchus africanus (peanut pod nematode)Of peanuts Yes
Ditylenchus angustus (rice stem nematode)Carrying rice seeds Yes
Ditylenchus destructor (potato tuber nematode)Carrying potato Yes
Ditylenchus dipsaci (stem and bulb nematode)Carrying bulbs, tubers, etc Yes
Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly, common)If rotten fruit not cleared. Yes
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Adults Yes Reynolds, 2012
Emex australis (Doublegee)Vineyear crates Yes
Emex spinosa (spiny emex)Crates and bags Yes
Ephestia kuehniella (Mediterranean flour moth) Yes
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)Containers/crates need to be contaminated with infected fruit producing copious amount of exudates. Yes Yes Billing and Berrie, 2002
Eucheuma spp.Live vegetative stage Yes Ask and Azanza, 2002
Forficula auricularia (European earwig)Frequent and important pathway for this species; nymphs and adults Yes Yes
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier) Yes
Gilpinia hercyniae (spruce sawfly) Yes
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Cysts as contamination Yes
Globodera tabacum (tobacco cyst nematode)Cysts in soil Yes
Glomerella tucumanensis (red rot of sugarcane)Infected materials such as leaves and spindles used for packing the seed canes carry the inoculum. Yes
Gnathotrichus sulcatus (western hemlock wood stainer) Yes
Golovinomyces cichoracearum (powdery mildew) Yes
Golovinomyces orontii (powdery mildew) Yes
Grapholita inopinata (Manchurian fruit moth) Yes
Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird) Yes
Helicotylenchus dihystera (common spiral nematode)With soil Yes
Helicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)In soil from banana grower Yes
Helicotylenchus oleae (spiral nematode)With host plants Yes
Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (spiral nematode)With soil Yes
Hemicriconemoides mangiferaeWith soil Yes
Hemicycliophora arenaria (sheath nematode)With soil Yes
Heterodera avenae (cereal cyst eelworm)Cysts in soil. Yes
Heterodera cajani (pigeon pea cyst nematode)Cysts Yes
Heterodera ciceri (chickpea cyst nematode)As cysts. Yes
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode)Cysts in soil. Yes
Heterodera goettingiana (pea cyst eelworm)Cysts as contaminants. Yes
Heterodera oryzae (rice cyst nematode)Cysts in soil Yes
Heterodera oryzicola (rice cyst nematode)Cysts in soil. Yes
Heterodera sacchari (sugarcane cyst nematode)Cysts in soil. Yes
Heterodera zeae (corn cyst nematode)Cysts as contaminants. Yes
Hirschmanniella miticausaWith soil. Yes
Hirschmanniella oryzae (rice root nematode)With soil. Yes
Ips hauseri (Kyrgyz mountain engraver) Yes
Ips subelongatus (larch bark beetle) Yes
Lepidium draba (hoary cress) Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug) Yes Yes
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Linepithema humile (Argentine ant) Yes Yes
Littorina littorea (common periwinkle)Hitchikers in rockweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) used for packing of bait worms or shellfish Yes Carlton, 2007; San Francisco Estuary Partnership, 2009
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) Yes Yes Kean et al., 2015
Lymantria mathura (pink gypsy moth) Yes
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) Yes
Maruca vitrata (lima bean pod borer) Yes
Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly)Straw. Yes
Megaplatypus mutatus Yes Yes
Meloidogyne acronea (African cotton root nematode) Yes
Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)Eggs and galls in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne chitwoodi (columbia root-knot nematode)Eggs in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne coffeicola (coffee root-knot nematode) Yes
Meloidogyne decalineata (African coffee root-knot nematode)Eggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne exigua (coffee root-knot nematode)Eggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne fallax (false Columbia root-knot nematode)Eggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode)Eggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)Eggs and juveniles in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode) Yes
Meloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)Eggs and galls in soil. Yes
Meloidogyne mayaguensisEggs and galls in soil. Yes
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes Yes
Monilochaetes infuscans (scurf of sweet potato) Yes
Monochamus scutellatus (white-spotted sawyer) Yes
Monochamus sutor (small white-marmorated longicorn) Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Rare pathway Yes
Mycosphaerella citri (greasy spot)Dead leaves. Yes
Nacobbus aberrans (false root-knot nematode)Eggs and adults as contaminants. Yes
Nassella trichotoma (serrated tussock grass)Wool packing. Yes
Nemorimyza maculosa (chrysanthemum leaf miner)Debris from cut flowers. Yes
Omorgus suberosus (hide beetle) Yes Vaurie, 1962
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon)Stocked in rivers yearly as juveniles Yes Haack et al., 2002; Haack et al., 2002
Orobanche ramosa (branched broomrape) Yes Yes
Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog) Yes
Pantherophis guttatus (corn snake) Yes Kraus, 2009
Pepino mosaic virus Yes
Phoracantha semipunctata (eucalyptus longhorned borer) Yes
Phthorimaea operculella (potato tuber moth) Yes
Phyllophaga smithi (white grub) Yes
Pilosella officinarum (mouse-ear hawkweed)Packing material Yes
Plantago asiatica mosaic virusPlAMV has been detected in wood shavings used to package lily bulbs imported from the Netherlands; if this packaging is mixed into plant growth medium without sterilization, transmission to susceptible hosts could occur Yes Yes Haack et al., 2002
Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) Yes
Polypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass) Yes
Pratylenchus brachyurus (root-lesion nematode)Involving plants Yes
Pratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)Of host plants Yes
Pratylenchus goodeyi (banana lesion nematode)With plant material. Yes
Pratylenchus loosi (root lesion nematode)Of tea leaves. Yes
Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion)Fruits and planting material. Yes
Pratylenchus thorneiWith planting material. Yes
Pratylenchus vulnus (walnut root lesion nematode)With plants. Yes
Pratylenchus zeae (root lesion nematode)Planting material. Yes
Prays citri (citrus flower moth) Yes
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug) Yes
Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae (bacterial blight of coffee) Yes
Puccinia asparagi (asparagus rust) Yes
Punctodera chalcoensisWith host plants. Yes
Punctodera punctata (grass cyst nematode)With host plants. Yes
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)Less probable Yes Yes
Radopholus citriCitrus packing. Yes
Radopholus similis (burrowing nematode)With planting material Yes
Raffaelea lauricola (laurel wilt) Yes Yes
Rattus rattus (black rat) Yes
Rhagoletis cerasi (European cherry fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis completa (walnut husk fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis fausta (black cherry fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis indifferens (western cherry fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis mendax (blueberry fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis pomonella (apple maggot)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Rhagoletis ribicola (American currant fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)3 litre pots Yes
Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode)In soil. Yes
Rubus fruticosus (blackberry)Unintentional transport of seeds Yes
Scapanes australis (rhinoceros beetle) Yes
Scolytus morawitzi (scolytid of Morawitz) Yes
Scutellonema bradys (yam nematode)With soil. Yes
Senecio jacobaea (common ragwort)Hay packaging Yes
Senecio madagascariensis (fireweed)Hay packaging Yes
Senecio vulgarisHay packing Yes
Sinoxylon conigerum (conifer auger beetle)Dunnage, wooden crating, pallets and other packing material. Yes
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Queen, workers, eggs, larvae and pupae Yes ISSG, 2014
Sphaerodactylus vincenti (Saint Vincent dwarf gecko)Possible invasion pathway by humans Yes Daltry, 2009
Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar) Yes
Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea (powdery scab)Sacks; crates. Yes
Tamarix aphylla (athel)Cuttings, whole plants Yes
Tamarix canariensis (Canary Island tamarisk)Cuttings, whole plants Yes
Tamarix chinensis (five-stamen tamarisk)Cuttings, whole plants Yes
Tamarix gallica (French tamarisk)Cuttings, whole plants Yes
Tamarix parviflora (small-flower tamarisk)Cuttings, whole plants Yes
Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar)Cuttings, whole plants Yes
Tetropium gracilicorne (fine-horned spruce borer) Yes
Thaumetopoea processionea (oak processionary moth) Yes Forestry Commission, 2014
Theba pisana (white garden snail) Yes Robinson, 1999
Themeda arguens (Christmas grass)Introduced in contaminated straw packing Yes Yes Motta, 1953
Toxotrypana curvicauda (papaya fruit fly)Of fruit cargo. Yes
Tylenchorhynchus claytoni (stunt nematode) Yes
Tylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)Of citrus. Yes
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer) Yes
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Commerce of forage seeds Yes New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries, 2015
Urochloa platyphylla (broadleaf signalgrass)Introduced as a contaminant in grass and crop-seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Varanus niloticus (Nile monitor)Pet trade Yes Enge et al., 2004
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet)If not treated Yes Yes
Vespula germanica (German wasp) Yes Yes
Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) Yes Harris et al., 2005
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. begoniae (bacterial wilt of begonias) Yes
Xanthomonas citri (citrus canker)packing boxes Yes
Xiphinema rivesi (dagger nematode) Yes
Xylosandrus mutilatus (camphor shoot beetle) Yes Rabaglia, 2003
Xylotrechus altaicus (Altay longhorn beetle) Yes