Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Bulk freight or cargo (pathway vector)



Bulk freight or cargo (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bulk freight or cargo (pathway vector)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bulk freight or cargo (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail) Yes
Aegilops cylindrica Yes
Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)Transported accidentally with crop products Yes Ward et al. (2013)
Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp)Occurs as a contaminant of grain in cargo ships Yes Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium (2015)
Amphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle) Yes Yes Carlton et al. (2011)
Anolis aeneus (bronze anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs possible Yes
Anolis cristatellus (Puerto Rican crested anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs Yes
Anolis extremus (Barbados anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs possible Yes
Anolis trinitatis (St Vincent bush anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs Yes
Anolis wattsi (Watts' anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs possible Yes
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant) Yes
Artemisia biennis (biennial wormwood)Seeds Yes Jehlík (1984); Suominen (1979)
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)All life stages Yes Yes
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)All life stages. In New Zealand, 7-33 interceptions of fruit flies per year in cargo Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly)All life stages Yes Yes
Boa imperator (Central American Boa)Transported as a stowaway in cargo Yes Guthrie (1923); Allen (1928)
Boiga irregularis (brown tree snake) Yes
Brachyponera chinensis (Asian needle ant) Yes Yes Smith (1934); Paysen (2007); MacGown (2013)
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer) Yes Gilbert et al. (2004); Gilbert et al. (2005)
Candidula intersecta (wrinkled dune snail) Yes Yes Meissner et al. (2009)
Ceratitis quinaria (five-spotted fruit fly)Consignments of host fruit. Yes Yes
Cochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Very low risk, but possible Yes Yes
Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)Alates, larvae or nymphs in woodens storage boxesScheffrahn and Su (2000)
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes
Cornu aspersum (common garden snail) Yes
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes
Ctenosaura similis (black spiny-tailed iguana)Presumably transported to Venezuela in cargo ships Yes Barrio-Amorós and Rivas-Fuenmayor (2008)
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Adult and larvae Yes Yes Joyce (1961)
Cuscuta campestris (field dodder) Yes
Cydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Buxus spp. Yes Leuthardt et al. (2010)
Dacus ciliatus (lesser pumpkin fly)infested fruit Yes
Daphnia lumholtzi Yes Yes
Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila) Yes
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Adults, juveniles and eggs Yes Yes Christy et al. (2007); Kraus (2009); Stewart (1977)
Erionota thrax (banana skipper) Yes Yes
Erionota torus (banana skipper)Adults attracted to lights when motor vehicles and boats are loaded at night are likely to be rare h Yes Yes Cock (2015)
Eucheuma spp.Live vegetative stage Yes
Euschistus heros (Neotropical brown stink bug)Transport of soybean produce. Yes Yes Saluso et al. (2011)
Forficula auricularia (European earwig)Probably most frequent and important pathway for this species; nymphs and adults Yes Yes Crumb et al. (1941)
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)cysts Yes Yes Inagaki (2004)
Gymnandrosoma aurantianum (citrus fruit borer)Larvae in fruit Yes PestID (2018)
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)Frequently can occur accidentally due to H. halys seeking sheltered overwintering sites. Yes Yes Hoebeke and Carter (2003)
Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird) Yes
Helicoverpa zea (bollworm) Yes Yes
Hemidactylus frenatus (common house gecko)Commonly transported via stowaways in cargo Yes Yes Kraus (2009)
Hypothenemus hampei (coffee berry borer)Mostly adults Yes
Hyptis brevipes (lesser roundweed) Yes
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam)On dirt on logs transported by trains Yes Trepl (1984)
Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed)Soil ballast Yes Yes Halvorsen and Grøstad (1998)
Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed)Has been spread with bird feed and as contaminant in grain and wool Yes NDFF (2016)
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid)Potential transport in refrigerated containers that, due to the low temperature, could extend the life period of blue gum chalcid Yes Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Not uncommon Yes Yes
Lycorma delicatula (spotted lanternfly)Bulk freight containers can convey egg masses Yes Yes
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)Larvae Yes Yes
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant) Yes DAF (2016); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant) Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Rare pathway Yes
Mus musculus (house mouse) Yes
Orobanche cernua (nodding broomrape) Yes
Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) Yes
Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog) Yes Johnson (2017)
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Adult females on papaya fruits Yes Yes Tanwar et al. (2010)
Paratrechina longicornis (crazy ant) Yes
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes PAG (2000)
Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass) Yes
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug) Yes Arif et al. (2012)
Piper aduncum (spiked pepper) Yes ISSG (2016)
Plasmodium relictumInfected mosquitoes can be transported in containers, but this has not been shown for P. relictum. Yes Joyce (1961); LaPointe (2007)
Podarcis sicula (Italian wall lizard)This is one of the main vectors of introduction in Europe Yes Carretero and Silva-Rocha (2015); Mizsei et al. (2016); Silva-Rocha et al. (2012)
Polistes chinensis antennalis (Asian paper wasp) Yes
Procambarus fallax f. virginalis (Marmorkrebs) Yes
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)Often, all stages, in nursery plant shipments Yes
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)Adults could be transported in containers, on ferries (vehicles) Yes Yes
Rattus norvegicus (brown rat)All life stages can hitch-hike on cargo, usually at low density Yes Yes Russell et al. (2008)
Rattus rattus (black rat) Yes
Rhinella marina (cane toad) Yes
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Contaminated grain Yes Valverde et al. (1999); Valverde et al. (2001)
Silene gallica (common catchfly)Shipping containers Yes
Spartina densifloraProbably introduced from South America to the USA and the Mediterranean by lumber trade Yes California State Coastal Conservancy (2016); Nieva et al. (2001)
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)potential pathway Yes Cock et al. (2017)
Sternochetus mangiferae (mango seed weevil) Yes
Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew) Yes Yes
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Seeds Yes Yes Cortés-Flores et al. (2013)
Tapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)Observed associated with metal containers and exports into New Zealand Yes Yes Harris et al. (2005)
Theba pisana (white garden snail) Yes Godan (1983)
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer) Yes
Vespula germanica (German wasp) Yes Yes
Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) Yes