Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bulk freight or cargo (pathway vector)

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Datasheet

Bulk freight or cargo (pathway vector)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bulk freight or cargo (pathway vector)
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bulk freight or cargo (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail) Yes
Aegilops cylindrica Yes
Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp)Occurs as a contaminant of grain in cargo ships Yes Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium, 2015
Amphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle) Yes Yes Carlton et al., 2011
Anolis aeneus (bronze anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs possible Yes
Anolis cristatellus (Puerto Rican crested anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs Yes
Anolis extremus (Barbados anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs possible Yes
Anolis trinitatis (St Vincent bush anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs Yes
Anolis wattsi (Watts' anole)Adults, juveniles or eggs possible Yes
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant) Yes
Artemisia biennis (biennial wormwood)Seeds Yes Jehlík, 1984; Suominen, 1979
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)All life stages Yes Yes
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)All life stages. In New Zealand, 7-33 interceptions of fruit flies per year in cargo Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly)All life stages Yes Yes
Boa imperator (Central American Boa)Transported as a stowaway in cargo Yes Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium, 2015
Boiga irregularis (brown tree snake) Yes
Brachyponera chinensis (Asian needle ant) Yes Yes Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium, 2015
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer) Yes Gilbert et al., 2004; Gilbert et al., 2005
Candidula intersecta (wrinkled dune snail) Yes Yes Meissner et al., 2009
Ceratitis quinaria (five-spotted fruit fly)Consignments of host fruit. Yes Yes
Cochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Very low risk, but possible Yes Yes
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes
Cornu aspersum (common garden snail) Yes
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes
Ctenosaura similis (black spiny-tailed iguana)Presumably transported to Venezuela in cargo ships Yes Barrio-Amorós and Rivas-Fuenmayor, 2008
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Adult and larvae Yes Yes Joyce, 1961
Cuscuta campestris (field dodder) Yes
Cydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Buxus spp. Yes Leuthardt et al., 2010
Dacus ciliatus (lesser pumpkin fly)infested fruit Yes
Daphnia lumholtzi Yes Yes
Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila) Yes
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Adults, juveniles and eggs Yes Yes Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium, 2015; Kraus, 2009; Stewart, 1977
Erionota thrax (banana skipper) Yes Yes
Erionota torus (banana skipper)Adults attracted to lights when motor vehicles and boats are loaded at night are likely to be rare h Yes Yes Cock, 2015
Eucheuma spp.Live vegetative stage Yes
Euschistus heros (Neotropical brown stink bug)Transport of soybean produce. Yes Yes Saluso et al., 2011
Forficula auricularia (European earwig)Probably most frequent and important pathway for this species; nymphs and adults Yes Yes Crumb et al., 1941
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)cysts Yes Yes Inagaki, 2004
Gymnandrosoma aurantianum (citrus fruit borer)Larvae in fruit Yes PestID, 2018
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)Frequently can occur accidentally due to H. halys seeking sheltered overwintering sites. Yes Yes Hoebeke and Carter, 2003
Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird) Yes
Hemidactylus frenatus (common house gecko)Commonly transported via stowaways in cargo Yes Yes Kraus, 2009
Hypothenemus hampei (coffee berry borer)Mostly adults Yes
Hyptis brevipes (lesser roundweed) Yes
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam)On dirt on logs transported by trains Yes Trepl, 1984
Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed)Soil ballast Yes Yes Halvorsen and Grøstad, 1998
Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed)Has been spread with bird feed and as contaminant in grain and wool Yes NDFF, 2016
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid)Potential transport in refrigerated containers that, due to the low temperature, could extend the life period of blue gum chalcid Yes Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Not uncommon Yes Yes
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mimosa diplotricha (creeping sensitive plant) Yes DAF, 2016; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant) Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Eggs, crawlers/adults. Rare pathway Yes
Mus musculus (house mouse) Yes
Orobanche cernua (nodding broomrape) Yes
Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) Yes
Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog) Yes Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium, 2015
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Adult females on papaya fruits Yes Yes Tanwar et al., 2010
Paratrechina longicornis (crazy ant) Yes
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes PAG, 2000
Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass) Yes
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug) Yes
Piper aduncum (spiked pepper) Yes ISSG, 2016
Plasmodium relictumInfected mosquitoes can be transported in containers, but this has not been shown for P. relictum. Yes Joyce, 1961; LaPointe, 2007
Podarcis sicula (Italian wall lizard)This is one of the main vectors of introduction in Europe Yes Carretero and Silva-Rocha, 2015; Mizsei et al., 2016; Silva-Rocha et al., 2012
Polistes chinensis antennalis (Asian paper wasp) Yes
Procambarus fallax f. virginalis (Marmorkrebs) Yes
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)Often, all stages, in nursery plant shipments Yes
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)Adults could be transported in containers, on ferries (vehicles) Yes Yes
Rattus norvegicus (brown rat)All life stages can hitch-hike on cargo, usually at low density Yes Yes Russell et al., 2008
Rattus rattus (black rat) Yes
Rhinella marina (cane toad) Yes
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Contaminated grain Yes Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium, 2015; Valverde et al., 2001
Silene gallica (common catchfly)Shipping containers Yes
Spartina densifloraProbably introduced from South America to the USA and the Mediterranean by lumber trade Yes California State Coastal Conservancy, 2016; Nieva et al., 2001
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)potential pathway Yes Cock et al., 2017
Sternochetus mangiferae (mango seed weevil) Yes
Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew) Yes Yes
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Seeds Yes Yes Cortés-Flores et al., 2013
Tapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)Observed associated with metal containers and exports into New Zealand Yes Yes Harris et al., 2005
Theba pisana (white garden snail) Yes Godan, 1983
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer) Yes
Vespula germanica (German wasp) Yes Yes
Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) Yes