Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Aquaculture stock (pathway vector)



Aquaculture stock (pathway vector)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Vector
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aquaculture stock (pathway vector)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aquaculture stock (pathway vector)

Species Transported by Vector

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abbottina rivularis (Chinese false gudgeon)Fry and fingerlings contaminated in seedlings of Asian carps Yes Yes
Alexandrium minutumcysts in shellfish, suspected only Yes Yes
Alitta succinea (pile worm)On oysters Yes Smith and Carlton (1975)
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes Yes
Ameiurus natalis Yes Yes
Ameiurus nebulosus (brown bullhead) Yes
Anguillicoloides crassusTransfers of eels by air and by road. As many transfers are illegal, details are often unavailable. Yes Yes Kennedy and Fitch (1990)
Aphanomyces astaciNorth American crayfish Yes Yes Alderman (1996); Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Arcuatula senhousia (Asian date mussel)larvae Yes NIMPIS (2002)
Aspius aspius (asp) Yes Yes
Austrominius modestusWithin and between European countires with movement of shellfish and small boats Yes Yes Barnes and Barnes (1968a)
Bothriocephalus acheilognathiRearing of grass carp and common carp brood stock, fingerlings etc. Yes Bauer and Hoffman (1976)
Botrylloides perspicuusAdult colonies or colony fragments Yes Yes
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes Yes Les and Mehrhoff (1999)
Caprella muticaUnknown Yes Yes Carlton (1987)
Carassius cuvieri (Japanese crucian carp) Yes Yes Jang et al. (2002)
Carassius gibelio (Prussian carp) Yes Yes
Carcinus maenas (European shore crab)Proportional to the amount of aquaculture for a site but in these areas quite common Yes Yes
Celtodoryx ciocalyptoidesAdult living sponges as epibionts on shells of Crassostrea gigas Yes PĂ©rez et al. (2006); Henkel and Janussen (2011)
Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail)Fragments with stocking/on nets Yes Yes
Channa argus argus (northern snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004)
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004); Froese and Pauly (2009)
Cherax destructor (yabby) Yes Yes Horwitz (1990); Lynas et al. (2007)
Cherax quadricarinatus (redclaw crayfish) Yes Yes Lynas et al. (2007)
Cichlasoma urophthalmum (Mayan cichlid)Released and/or escaped from fish farms possibly responsible for populations in Florida Yes Yes Schofield et al. (2016)
Ciona intestinalis (sea vase) Yes Yes
Ciona savignyi Yes Yes
Clarias batrachus (walking catfish) Yes Yes
Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoidesErect plants, green bump form Yes Yes Carlton and Scanlon (1985)
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes Brancotte and Vincent (2002); Fox (1970)
Cordylophora (euryhaline hydroid)Colonies on commercial oysters Yes Yes Carlton (1979)
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Crepidula fornicata (American slipper limpet)From England to mainland countries during the 1930s Yes Blanchard (1997)
Cromileptes altivelis (humpback grouper)Juveniles Yes APEC/SEAFDEC (2001); Ou et al. (1999); Sadovy et al. (2007)
Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Yes Yes Costa et al. (1993); Roberts and Ebner (1997)
Daphnia lumholtziEggs can survive passage through the digestive tract of fish Yes Yes Havel and Shurin (2004); Mellors (1975); Sorensen and Sterner (1992)
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) Yes Yes
Elodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed)Fragments with stocking/or nets Yes Yes Bowmer et al.; 1995
Esox lucius (pike)All life stages Yes Yes
Eucheuma spp.Live vegetative stage Yes Yes
Ficopomatus enigmaticus (tubeworm)Transported as adults. See text in 'movement and dispersal' Yes Yes Fofonoff et al. (2003)
Gracilaria salicorniaPlants or plant fragments to establish new populations Yes Smith et al. (2004)
Gracilaria tikvahiae (graceful red weed) Yes Yes University of Hawaii (2008)
Grateloupia turuturuJuvenille microscopic stages on various molluscs Yes Cabioch et al. (1997); Maggs and Stegenga (1999); Reise et al. (1999); Ribera and Boudouresque (1995); Ribera Siguan (2002); Schaffelke et al. (2006); Wallentinus (2002)
Gymnodinium catenatumResting cysts Yes Yes
Hemibarbus labeo (barbel steed) Yes Kottelat (2000)
Hemiculter leucisculus (common sawbelly)Fries and fingerlings contaminated in stocks of Asian carps Yes Yes
Heterotis niloticus (African bonytongue) Yes Yes Micha (1973)
Homarus americanus (American lobster) Yes Kittaka (1984)
Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) Yes Yes
KappaphycusSpecies are introduced to numerous countries around the tropics for aquaculture Yes Yes
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Might be moved unintentionally in aquaculture of freshwater fish Yes Yes Hicks (1937)
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch (2004)
Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish) Yes Yes Welcomme (1988)
Lepomis gulosus (warmouth)See distribution table and list Yes Yes
Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill) Yes Yes
Leucaspius delineatus (sunbleak) Yes Yes
Leuciscus idus (ide) Yes Yes
Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Broodstock, eggs, larvae and adults transferred for stocking aquaculture facilities Yes Yes Briggs et al. (2004)
Littorina littorea (common periwinkle)Adults, in past with oysters Yes Carlton (2007)
Lucania parva (rainwater killifish)Eggs, larvae, adults Yes Hubbs and Miller (1965)
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes
Lumbricus rubellus Yes Yes
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn) Yes Yes
Melanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania) Yes
Micropterus dolomieu (smallmouth bass) Yes Yes
Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) Yes
Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (oriental weatherloach) Yes Yes
Myicola ostreaePossibly many introductions by movement of natural host and other infected stock. All life stages. Yes Yes Comps (1972); Faasse (2003); Gollasch et al. (2009); His (1979); Ho and Kim (1991); Holmes and Minchin (1995); Kim (2004); Preisler et al. (2009); Stock (1993); Streftaris et al. (2005); Torchin and Mitchell (2004); Torchin et al. (2002); Villalba et al. (1993); Wolff (2005); Zenetos (2005)
Mylopharyngodon piceus (black amur)Brought into the US in imported grass carp stocks Yes Nico (2011)
Myriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil) Yes Yes
Mytilicola intestinalis (mussel red worm)Intestinal parasite in farmed bivalve seed stocks Yes Yes Dare (1982)
Mytilicola orientalis (oyster redworm)Intestinal parasite in farmed bivalve seed stocks Yes Lauckner (1983); Minchin et al. (1993)
Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease agent)Most frequent means of dissemination. Parasite not easily detected Yes Yes Hoffman (1990)
Nasturtium microphyllum (one-row watercress) Yes Yes Howard and Lyon (1952b)
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes Stuckey (1973)
Odontesthes bonariensis (pejerrey)Eggs and fry Yes Reartes (1995)
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon)Stocked in rivers yearly as juveniles Yes Yes Leitritz and Lewis (1976); Piper et al. (1982)
Oreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)All life stages Yes Yes USGS NAS (2007)
Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)Wide spread intentional introduction Yes Yes Canonico et al. (2005)
Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp) Yes
Palaemon macrodactylus (oriental shrimp)Possible but not proven Yes
Paraergasilus longidigitus Yes Yes
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)Broodstock, eggs, larvae and adults transferred from other countries and within the same country Yes Yes Shrimp News (2007)
Perccottus glenii (Amur sleeper)Accidently introduced many times to many places as contamination of stocking material of Asian carp Yes Yes Bogutskaya and Naseka (2002); Miller and Vasil'eva (2003); Reshetnikov (2004)
Petricolaria pholadiformis (false angel wing) Yes Yes Naylor (1957)
Phytophthora alni species complex (alder Phytophthora)Release of fish together with contaminated water; suggested but not specifically demonstrated Yes Jung and Blaschke (2004)
Pimephales vigilax (bullhead minnow)adults Yes Sigler and Miller (1963)
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Yes Yes Gherardi (2007); Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001); Rivers (2002)
Polyandrocarpa zorritensis Yes Mastrototaro et al. (2008)
Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail) Yes Yes
Pomacea maculataHatchlings, juveniles, adults Yes Yes
Pomoxis annularis (white crappie)All life stages Yes Welcomme (1988)
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie)All life stages Yes Welcomme (1988)
Pontogammarus robustoidesAs fish-food Yes Arbaciauskas et al. (2010); Emelyanova (1994); Grabowski (2011); Jazdzewski et al. (1972)
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed)Vegetative hitchiker Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch (2004)
Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New Zealand mudsnail)Transport of aquaculture products (trout eggs, live fish); in the guts of introduced fish farm fish Yes Zaranko et al. (1997)
Procambarus acutus acutus Yes Yes Taylor et al. (2007)
Pseudodiaptomus marinus Yes Fleminger and Kramer (1988)
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon)All life stages as contaminants Yes Yes Copp et al. (2005b)
Rapana venosa (veined rapana whelk) Yes Yes ICES (2004)
Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus (rosy bitterling) Yes Yes
Ruditapes philippinarum (Japanese carpet shell)Accidental introduction to NE Pacific with oyster seed Yes FAO (2009)
Rugosa rugosa (wrinkled frog) Yes Sarashina and Yoshida (2015)
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon) Yes
Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout)All life stages for aquaculture Yes Yes
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG (2009)
Salvinia minima Yes Yes USGS (2005)
Sander lucioperca (pike-perch)All life stages Yes Yes
Sander vitreus (walleye)All life stages Yes Yes
Sargassum muticum (wire weed) Yes
Scardinius erythrophthalmus (rudd) Yes
Schizoporella errata (branching bryozoan) Yes
Schizoporella japonica (orange ripple bryozoan)On oysters Yes Powell (1970)
Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum)Fingerlings and juveniles Yes
Silurus asotus (Amur catfish) Yes Yes Manchin and Dgebuadze (2010)
Styela clava (Asian tunicate) Yes Yes
Tilapia zillii (redbelly tilapia)All life stages Yes Yes Grabowski et al. (1984)
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes Yes Hummel and Kiviat (2004)
Tricellaria inopinata Yes Yes Occhipinti-Ambrogi (2000a)
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2010)
Ulva pertusa Yes Yes Baamonde et al. (2007); Verlaque (2001); Verlaque et al. (2002)
Ulva reticulata (ribbon sea lettuce) Yes Yes Ask et al. (2003)
Umbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow) Yes Verreycken et al. (2010)
Undaria pinnatifida (Asian kelp)Attached to oysters as microscopic gametophytes/sporophytes Yes Forrest et al. (2000); Voisin et al. (2005)
Urosalpinx cinerea (American oyster drill) Yes
Xenohaliotis californiensis Yes Crosson et al. (2014)