Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Stocking (pathway cause)



Stocking (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Stocking (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Stocking (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Alburnus alburnus (bleak) Yes
Alosa aestivalis (blueback herring) Yes USGS (2015)
Alosa pseudoharengus (alewife)Sanctioned and illicit within the USA Yes Yes
Ambrosia confertiflora Yes Yes
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes Yes
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Aspius aspius (asp) Yes Yes
Branta canadensis (Canada goose)Re-introductions Yes Lever (2005)
Carassius carassius (crucian carp) Yes
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam)Stocking fish activities Yes Gherardi et al. (2008); Karatayev et al. (2007)
Coregonus albula (vendace) Yes Yes
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Yes Yes Roberts and Ebner (1997)
Hemibarbus maculatus (spotted steed)Extensive stocking Yes Ma et al. (2003)
Hemiculter leucisculus (common sawbelly)Fries and fingerlings contaminated in stocks of Asian carps Yes Yes
Hemimysis anomala Yes Gasiunas (1964); Grigorovich et al. (2002); Zhuravel (1960)
Ictalurus furcatus (blue catfish)Deliberate Yes Higgins (2006)
Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)Expanded its eastward and westward range in the USA mainly due to accidental stocking Yes USGS (2013)
Lepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed) Yes Yes
Limnomysis benedeniInadvertent stocking with aquatic plants and with commercially interesting animals Yes Yes Aladin et al. (2003); Dumont (2006); Iftime and Tatole (2006); Velde et al. (2000); Wittmann and Ariani (2009)
Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Post-larvae and juveniles have been moved worldwide for stocking ponds Yes Yes Briggs et al. (2004)
Morone americana (white perch) Yes Yes Carlander (1997); Fuller et al. (1999); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994)
Mytilicola intestinalis (mussel red worm) Yes Yes Dare (1982)
Mytilicola orientalis (oyster redworm) Yes Lauckner (1983); Minchin et al. (1993)
Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease agent)Stocking of subclinically infected fish Yes Yes Bartholomew and Reno (2002)
Notropis stramineusAccidental stocking with largemouth bass from New Mexico to Arizona Yes USGS (2012)
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes Stuckey (1973)
Odontesthes bonariensis (pejerrey)Deliberate, frequently, see also Somoza et al. (2008) Yes Yes Reartes (1995)
Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) Yes Fuller (2011)
Pacifastacus leniusculus (American signal crayfish) Yes Johnsen and Taugbøl (2010)
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)Broodstock, post-larvae and juveniles have been moved worldwide for stocking ponds Yes Yes Shrimp News (2007)
Perca fluviatilis (perch)May be stocked as a sport fish Yes Yes ISSG (2011)
Perccottus glenii (Amur sleeper)Accidently introduced many times to many places as contamination of stocking material of Asian carp Yes Yes Bogutskaya and Naseka (2002); Miller and Vasil'eva (2003); Reshetnikov (2004)
Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Yes Yes Zimmer et al. (2001)
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes Stuckey (1979)
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon) Yes Yes Copp et al. (2005b)
Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Yes
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Thailand to Malaysia with livestock Yes Yes Anwar (2001)
Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout) Yes Yes
Scardinius erythrophthalmus (rudd) Yes
Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum)USA Yes
Squalius cephalus (European chub) Yes
Tinca tinca (tench) Yes Yes Nico and Fuller (2011)