Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Smuggling (pathway cause)



Smuggling (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Smuggling (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Smuggling (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato/potato psyllid) Yes
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly) Yes Yes
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly) Yes Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly) Yes Yes
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Possible illegal trading of salamanders Yes Yes Martel et al. (2014)
Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (African greening)Tourists - illegal introduction of infected/infested plants/propagation material (budwood) Yes Yes
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (citrus greening)Tourists Yes
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004); Froese and Pauly (2009)
Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)May be present in any wooden structures used for transportation Yes Yes
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)Smuggling of bud wood or other plant parts which may have harboured E. amylovora has been suspected Yes Yes
Homarus americanus (American lobster)USA, Canada to Europe Yes Jørstad et al. (2011); van der Meeren et al. (2010)
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Likely to occur Yes
Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Has occurred, especially in Asian countries which still ban its culture Yes Yes Briggs et al. (2004)
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) Yes
Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot)Unregulated or non-enforced restrictions on movement of cocoa seeds and pods Yes
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)Smuggling has occured, especially into non-native countries where permission has not been granted Yes Yes Shrimp News (2007)
Plasmodium relictumTransport and accidental release of infected birds for pet trade Yes Moulton et al. (2001)
Plum pox virus (sharka)Budwood. Yes
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)Harvest time; sending parcels of fruits or plants without going through quarantine Yes Yes
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon) Yes Copp et al. (2005b)
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)Infected seedlings? Yes Polston and Anderson (1997)
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes Yes