Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Smuggling (pathway cause)



Smuggling (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Smuggling (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Smuggling (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly) Yes Yes
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly) Yes Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly) Yes Yes
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Possible illegal trading of salamanders Yes Yes Martel et al., 2014
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2009
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)Smuggling of bud wood or other plant parts which may have harboured E. amylovora has been suspected Yes Yes
Homarus americanus (American lobster)USA, Canada to Europe Yes Jørstad et al., 2011; Martel et al., 2014
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Likely to occur Yes
Liberibacter africanus (African greening)Tourists Yes
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening)Tourists Yes
Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Has occurred, especially in Asian countries which still ban its culture Yes Yes Briggs et al., 2004
Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot)Unregulated or non-enforced restrictions on movement of cocoa seeds and pods Yes
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)Smuggling has occured, especially into non-native countries where permission has not been granted Yes Yes Shrimp News, 2007
Plasmodium relictumTransport and accidental release of infected birds for pet trade Yes Moulton et al., 2001
Plum pox virus (sharka)Budwood. Yes
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)Harvest time; sending parcels of fruits or plants without going through quarantine Yes Yes
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon) Yes Copp et al., 2005b
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)Infected seedlings? Yes Polston and Anderson, 1997
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes Yes