Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Self-propelled (pathway cause)



Self-propelled (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Self-propelled (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Self-propelled (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail) Yes
Adoretus sinicus (Chinese rose beetle) Yes
Aethina tumida Yes OIE (2012)
Alopochen aegyptiaca (Egyptian goose) Yes Yes Lever (2005)
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) Yes Yes
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) Yes
Amylostereum areolatumFlight of vector Yes Yes Ciesla (2003)
Anolis wattsi (Watts' anole)Dispersal at rate of 100 m/year in Trinidad Yes White and Hailey (2006)
Anoplophora chinensis (black and white citrus longhorn)Adults can fly but generally do not spread far, usually being found within a few hundred metres of the tree from which they emerged. Yes Adachi (1990b); Cavagna et al. (2013)
Anser indicus (bar-headed goose) Yes Banks et al. (2008)
Aquila chrysaetos (golden eagle) Yes Yes
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato/potato psyllid) Yes
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome) Yes Petersen and Philipp (2001)
Branta canadensis (Canada goose) Yes Yes Lever (2005)
Brassica nigra (black mustard)natural Yes
Brassica tournefortii (African mustard)When plants die, dry and breakoff they tumble in the wind spreading seeds Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Rapidly spread unaided across Northern Australia Yes Long (2003); Petty et al. (2007)
Bubulcus ibis (cattle egret) Yes Yes
Cactoblastis cactorum (cactus moth) Yes Yes
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)Pods are dehiscent, exploding into 2 spiralling valves with 8-10 seeds Yes Pulle et al. (1976); Puy et al. (2002)
Capra hircus (goats) Yes
Caprella muticaCan swim short distances Yes Ashton (2006)
Castor canadensis (beaver) Yes
Cervus canadensis (wapiti) Yes
Cervus elaphus (red deer) Yes
Channa argus argus (northern snakehead) Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004)
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004); Froese and Pauly (2009)
Channa micropeltes (giant snakehead) Yes
Columba livia (pigeons) Yes
Copsychus malabaricus (White-rumped Shama)Has spread between islands in Hawaii Yes Pyle and Pyle (2009)
Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)Coptotermes gestroi can move in search for food and habitat. They also swarm long distances Yes Sornnuwat (1996)
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes Prezant and Chalermwat (1984); Voelz et al. (1998)
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus Yes
Cowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Adults may fly relatively short, < 10 km, distances. Yes Lapointe (2008); Subra (1981)
Cydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Up to 10km per year Yes Leuthardt et al. (2010)
Dacus ciliatus (lesser pumpkin fly) Yes
Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila) Yes
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Initial introductions are frequently to urban and residential areas and then spread by natural means Yes Alix et al. (2014); Crawford et al. (2011); Dundee (1994); Goin (1947); Meshaka (2011); Meshaka et al. (2009)
Equus caballus [ISC] (horse) Yes
Faxonius rusticus (rusty crayfish) Yes Hamr (2002)
Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug) Yes
Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)Adults are capable of flight and long range dispersal on wind currents. Yes Mound (1983)
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)Deliberate dispersal to seek host plants or overwintering sites. Yes Yes Wiman et al. (2013b)
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Herpestes auropunctatus (small Indian mongoose) Yes
Heterotheca grandiflora (telegraph weed)Wind-dispersed seeds Yes DiTomaso and Healy (2007)
Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam)upto 7 m Yes Beerling and Perrins (1993)
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam)Up to 3.4 m Yes Trepl (1984)
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Littorina littorea (common periwinkle)Planktonic larvae are a highly dispersive stage in life history Yes Yes FRETTER and GRAHAM (1962); Reid (1996)
Lumbricus rubellus Yes Hale et al. (2005b)
Lumbricus terrestris Yes Hale et al. (2005b); Ligthart and Peek (1997)
Lycorma delicatula (spotted lanternfly)Adults migrate short distances to find food sources Yes
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) Yes Harman (in press)
Microcosmus squamigerNatural dispersal capabilities poor Yes Rius et al. (2008b)
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes Yes
Monochamus leuconotus (white coffee stem borer)Pest is endemic and may move into coffee orchards from surrounding natural vegetation. Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Actively by crawlers and adults Yes
Mustela furo (ferret) Yes
Neolecanium cornuparvum (magnolia scale)Crawlers may wander between plants that are touching Yes
Odocoileus hemionus (black-tailed deer) Yes
Ovis aries musimon (European mouflon) Yes
Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp) Yes
Papuana huebneri (taro beetle) Yes
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Natural dispersal of first-instar crawlers Yes Macharia et al. (2017)
Philornis downsi Yes
Pinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster) Yes
Pluchea carolinensis (sourbush)Wind dispersed seeds Yes Francis (2004)
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon) Yes Yes Copp et al. (2005b)
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered bulbul) Yes
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)ELB can only fly short distances Yes
Python bivittatus (Burmese python)Capable of crossing expanses of salt or fresh water to reach islands, etc. Yes Harvey et al. (2008)
Rapana venosa (veined rapana whelk) Yes Yes ICES (2004)
Rhagoletis pomonella (apple maggot)Pacific northwest Yes
Rhinella marina (cane toad) Yes Yes
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac) Yes
Rutilus rutilus (roach) Yes Stokes et al. (2006)
Sciurus niger (fox squirrel) Yes Fitzgerald et al. (1994); Geluso (2004)
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes
Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna)Seed pods are dehiscent Yes Irwin and Barneby (1982)
Senna multijuga (November shower)Seed is adapted for wind dispersal Yes PIER (2014)
Senna spectabilis (whitebark senna)Pods burst and disburse seeds when they fall from the plant Yes PIER (2014)
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade)Species is a tumble-weed; deshiscent fruits burst and disburse after drying on plant Yes Whalen (1979)
Solidago nemoralis (grey goldenrod)Hypothetical Yes
Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass)Spreads along the American coastline via seed and rhizomes Yes Simenstad and Thom (1995)
Tapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)These ants will migrate by walking into new areas locally, especially if disturbed Yes Passera (1994)
Typha domingensis (southern cattail)Achenes with hairs are wind-dispersed. Yes Krattinger (1975)
Typha x glauca (hybrid cattail)Fruits disperse with the wind Yes Grace and Harrison (1986)
Tyto alba (Barn owl)To Bermuda, Australia and New Zealand Yes Hyde et al. (2009); Long (1981); Marti et al. (2005)
Ulex europaeus (gorse)Exploding pods Yes Hill et al. (1996)
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer)Adult moths have limited dispersal ability. Possible movement of >12 km over water. Yes Harris (1974); Morgan and Cobbinah (1977); Suckling et al. (2005)
Uromycladium spp. that cause gall rusts (Acacia gall rusts)Dispersed by wind from Australia to New Zealand. Likely also dispersed by wind between and within Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines Yes Yes McKenzie (1998); Lee (2004)
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes