Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Self-propelled (pathway cause)



Self-propelled (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Self-propelled (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Self-propelled (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail) Yes
Adoretus sinicus (Chinese rose beetle) Yes
Aethina tumida Yes OIE, 2012
Alopochen aegyptiaca (Egyptian goose) Yes Yes Lever, 2005
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) Yes Yes
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) Yes
Amylostereum areolatumFlight of vector Yes Yes Ciesla, 2003
Anolis wattsi (Watts' anole)Dispersal at rate of 100 m/year in Trinidad Yes White and Hailey, 2006
Anser indicus (bar-headed goose) Yes Banks et al., 2008
Aquila chrysaetos (golden eagle) Yes Yes
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome) Yes Petersen and Philipp, 2001
Branta canadensis (Canada goose) Yes Yes Lever, 2005
Brassica nigra (black mustard)natural Yes
Brassica tournefortii (African mustard)When plants die, dry and breakoff they tumble in the wind spreading seeds Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Rapidly spread unaided across Northern Australia Yes Long, 2003; Petty et al., 2007
Bubulcus ibis (cattle egret) Yes Yes
Cactoblastis cactorum (cactus moth) Yes Yes
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)Pods are dehiscent, exploding into 2 spiralling valves with 8-10 seeds Yes Pulle et al., 1976; Puy et al., 2002
Capra hircus (goats) Yes
Caprella muticaCan swim short distances Yes Ashton, 2006
Castor canadensis (beaver) Yes
Cervus canadensis (wapiti) Yes
Cervus elaphus (red deer) Yes
Channa argus argus (northern snakehead) Yes Courtenay and Williams, 2004
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2009
Channa micropeltes (giant snakehead) Yes
Columba livia (pigeons) Yes
Copsychus malabaricus (White-rumped Shama)Has spread between islands in Hawaii Yes Pyle and Pyle, 2009
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes Prezant and Chalermwat, 1984; Voelz et al., 1998
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (African cotton leaf curl begomovirus) Yes
Culex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Adults may fly relatively short, < 10 km, distances. Yes Lapointe, 2008; Subra, 1981
Cydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Up to 10km per year Yes Leuthardt et al., 2010
Dacus ciliatus (lesser pumpkin fly) Yes
Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila) Yes
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Initial introductions are frequently to urban and residential areas and then spread by natural means Yes Alix et al., 2014; Crawford et al., 2011; Dundee, 1994; Goin, 1947; Meshaka, 2011; Meshaka et al., 2009
Equus caballus [ISC] (horse) Yes
Faxonius rusticus (rusty crayfish) Yes Hamr, 2002
Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug) Yes
Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)Adults are capable of flight and long range dispersal on wind currents. Yes Mound, 1983
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)Deliberate dispersal to seek host plants or overwintering sites. Yes Yes Wiman et al., 2013b
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Herpestes auropunctatus (small Indian mongoose) Yes
Heterotheca grandiflora (telegraph weed)Wind-dispersed seeds Yes DiTomaso and Healy, 2007
Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam)upto 7 m Yes Beerling and Perrins, 1993
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam)Up to 3.4 m Yes Trepl, 1984
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Littorina littorea (common periwinkle)Planktonic larvae are a highly dispersive stage in life history Yes Yes OIE, 2012; Reid, 1996
Lumbricus rubellus Yes Hale et al., 2005b
Lumbricus terrestris Yes Hale et al., 2005b; Ligthart and Peek, 1997
Microcosmus squamigerNatural dispersal capabilities poor Yes Rius et al., 2008b
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes Yes
Monochamus leuconotus (white coffee stem borer)Pest is endemic and may move into coffee orchards from surrounding natural vegetation. Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Actively by crawlers and adults Yes
Mustela furo (ferret) Yes
Neolecanium cornuparvum (magnolia scale)Crawlers may wander between plants that are touching Yes
Odocoileus hemionus (black-tailed deer) Yes
Ovis aries musimon (European mouflon) Yes
Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp) Yes
Papuana huebneri (taro beetle) Yes
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Natural dispersal of first-instar crawlers Yes Macharia et al., 2017
Philornis downsi Yes
Pinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster) Yes
Pluchea carolinensis (sourbush)Wind dispersed seeds Yes Francis, 2004
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon) Yes Yes Copp et al., 2005b
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered bulbul) Yes
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)ELB can only fly short distances Yes
Python bivittatus (Burmese python)Capable of crossing expanses of salt or fresh water to reach islands, etc. Yes Harvey et al., 2008
Rapana venosa (veined rapana whelk) Yes Yes ICES, 2004
Rhagoletis pomonella (apple maggot)Pacific northwest Yes
Rhinella marina (cane toad) Yes Yes
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac) Yes
Rutilus rutilus (roach) Yes Stokes et al., 2006
Sciurus niger (fox squirrel) Yes Fitzgerald et al., 1994; Geluso, 2004
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes
Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna)Seed pods are dehiscent Yes Irwin and Barneby, 1982
Senna multijuga (November shower)Seed is adapted for wind dispersal Yes PIER, 2014
Senna spectabilis (whitebark senna)Pods burst and disburse seeds when they fall from the plant Yes PIER, 2014
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade)Species is a tumble-weed; deshiscent fruits burst and disburse after drying on plant Yes Whalen, 1979
Solidago nemoralis (grey goldenrod)Hypothetical Yes
Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass)Spreads along the American coastline via seed and rhizomes Yes Simenstad and Thom, 1995
Tapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)These ants will migrate by walking into new areas locally, especially if disturbed Yes Passera, 1994
Typha domingensis (southern cattail)Achenes with hairs are wind-dispersed. Yes Krattinger, 1975
Typha x glauca (hybrid cattail)Fruits disperse with the wind Yes Grace and Harrison, 1986
Tyto alba (Barn owl)To Bermuda, Australia and New Zealand Yes Hyde et al., 2009; Long, 1981; Marti et al., 2005
Ulex europaeus (gorse)Exploding pods Yes Hill et al., 1996
Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer)Adult moths have limited dispersal ability. Possible movement of >12 km over water. Yes Harris, 1974; Morgan and Cobbinah, 1977; Suckling et al., 2005
Uromycladium spp. that cause gall rusts (Acacia gall rusts)Dispersed by wind from Australia to New Zealand. Likely also dispersed by wind between and within Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines Yes Yes McKenzie, 1998; Lee, 2004
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes