Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


People sharing resources (pathway cause)



People sharing resources (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • People sharing resources (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • People sharing resources (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid) Yes
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito)Movement of habitat material Yes Yes
African cassava mosaic virus (African cassava mosaic)Farmers frequently share cassava cuttings oblivious of their virus status Yes Yes Thottappilly et al. (2003); Alabi et al. (2011; 2015)
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)Green vegetable Yes PROTA (2015)
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Apis mellifera scutellata (africanized bee) Yes Piereira and Chaud-Netto (2005)
Bactrocera musae (banana fruit fly)Potential for domestic travellers to carry infested bananas from mainland Papua New Guinea Yes Yes Putulan et al. (2004)
Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats) Yes
Blattella germanica (German cockroach) Yes Sommer (1974)
Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (African greening)Informal sharing or trading of host plants/propagation material infected/infested with the pathogen and/or vector Yes Yes
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (citrus greening)Deliberate between friends and family Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (witches'-broom phytoplasma disease) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma) Yes Yes
Ceratitis quinaria (five-spotted fruit fly)Sharing of host fruit Yes Yes
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004); Froese and Pauly (2009)
Chilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer) Yes
Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)May be present in any wooden structures used for transportation Yes Yes
Cowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (bacterial wilt of dry beans) Yes Yes
Cylindropuntia rosea (hudson pear) Yes Deltoro et al. (2014)
Epidendrum radicans (crucifix orchid) Yes Ackerman; pers. comm.
Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth) Yes
Eragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)Before it was recognized as an invasive species in Brazil Yes Reis (1993); Kissmann (1997)
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Widely commercialized for its edible fruit Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug)Plant fanciers sharing plant material Yes Yes
Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy) Yes Yes
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode) Yes
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode) Yes
Harpophora maydis (late wilt of maize)on locally exchanged seed Yes Saleh et al. (2003)
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)a potential source of invasion, as seed is available online Yes
Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
Indian cassava mosaic virus (Indian cassava mosaic)Farmers typically exchange cassava stem cuttings which are largely untested for viruses. Yes Yes
Inga punctata (ice cream bean tree) Yes Yes González-Oliva (2015)
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush) Yes Yes Gunther (1973); Schenck and Gifford (1952)
Kigelia africana (sausage tree)Widely used by African communities Yes PROTA (2020)
Ligustrum vulgare (common privet)Ornamental use, shade Yes
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) Yes
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Sharing plants that are infected. Sharing soil that are infested Yes Yes
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes Yes
Monomorium destructor (Singapore ant) Yes Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Accidental introduction, common pathway Yes Yes
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel) Yes Yes
Pectobacterium parmentieri (black leg disease of potato)
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Philippine downy mildew of maize)Movement of infected seeds Yes Yes Murray (2009)
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Observation of problem infestations - origin Yes Yes EDDMapS (2016)
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo) Yes Yes EDDMapS (2016)
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes ISSG (2006)
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)Harvest time; sharing produce with friends and relatives Yes Yes
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle) Yes Yes
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes Yes
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Infested fruits, pupae in transportation units Yes
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes ISSG (2009)
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed) Yes Yes McFarland et al. (2004)
Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum)USA to Taiwan Yes
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna) Yes
Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma (grassy shoot of sugarcane) Yes Yes
sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma (white leaf of sugarcane) Yes Yes
Thecaphora solani (potato smut)seed pieces/tubers Yes Zachmann and Baumann (1975)
Tomato apical stunt viroid Yes Yes
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Forage Yes New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries (2015)
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. perforans (bacterial spot of tomato) Yes Yes