Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)



Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Cultivated as ornamental for its attractive flowers Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Abrus precatorius (rosary pea) Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003; Padua et al., 1999; Weber, 2003
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Sold over the internet as an ornamental plant. Yes Yes
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)Sold an ornamental plant on Internet and nurseries Yes Yes
Acacia angustissima (prairie acacia)Used as an ornamental and for ground cover Yes Yes Lloyd-Reilley, 2011
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle) Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Acacia glauca (wild dividivi) Yes Yes
Acacia longifolia (golden wattle)Valued as an ornamental in California. Yes Dreistadt and Hagen, 1994
Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) Yes Yes Wiersum, 1991
Acacia saligna (Port Jackson wattle)Spread as a street tree Yes Yes Cronk and Fuller, 1995
Acer rufinerve (grey snake-bark maple)Deliberately planted in parks and gardens Yes Yes
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)Ornamental cultivars available at nurseries and internet sites Yes Yes Mitich, 1990
Adenostoma fasciculatum (chamise) Yes
Agave americana (century plant)Widely planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Agave fourcroydes (henequen)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Badano and Pugnaire, 2004
Agdestis clematidea (rockroot) Yes Yes Vickery, 2009
Ageratina riparia (mistflower) Yes
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)Used as an ornamental over its range. Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Used as ornamental and for landscaping, sold at nurseries. Yes Thoden et al., 2009
Agrostis capillaris (common bent)lawn grass Yes
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, deliberate Yes Yes Kowarik and Säumel, 2007
Akebia quinata (five-leaf akebia)Intentional introduction Yes ISSG, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2013
Albizia adinocephala (cream albizia) Yes Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 2016
Albizia chinensis (Chinese albizia) Yes
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris) Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Aleurotrachelus atratus (palm-infesting whitefly) Yes
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)Commonly planted in parks, gardens, and yards Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2019
Alocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro) Yes Yes Manner, 2011
Aloe vera (true aloe)Ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Alopochen aegyptiaca (Egyptian goose) Yes Lever, 2005
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger) Yes Yes Ibrahim, 2001
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant)Common ornamental. Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)Used as aquarium plant and ornamental aquatic plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Planted in water-gardens Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Ambrosia peruviana (Peruvian ragweed)Grown as a potted plant Yes Yes Pruski, 2016
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes Yes
Amelanchier spicata (dwarf serviceberry) Yes Kabuce, 2006
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush) Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine)Used as ground cover, for walls, fences and trellises Yes Yes Kimbrough, 2008; Wildflower Center, 2016
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)This species is ia popular ornamental Yes Yes Wolfe and Zajicek, 1998
Anethum graveolens (dill) Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; PFAF, 2015
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Cultivated worldwide as an ornamental fern Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
Anredera baselloides (Madeira vine) Yes Yes
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine) Yes Yes
Anser indicus (bar-headed goose) Yes Banks et al., 2008
Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)Planted as a garden ornamental Yes Yes Burke and DiTommaso, 2011
Ardisia crenata (coral berry)International trade as an ornamental species has resulted in global spread Yes Yes Niu et al., 2012
Ardisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia) Yes PIER, 2009
Ardisia humilis (low shoebutton) Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy) Yes Yes
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)Recommended as a garden plant to grow over fences. Yes Wynman, 1944
Aristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe)Occurs beyond native South American range in places where it is cultivated in gardens Yes Yes Flora of Pakistan, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)Has been intentionally introduced beyond its native range for use as an ornamental Yes Yes
Aronia x prunifolia Yes Yes
Arrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass)Grown and sold as an ornamental Yes Yes Hodgson, 2005
Arthurdendyus triangulatus (New Zealand flatworm)Associated with botanic gardens Yes Boag et al., 1994a; Willis and Edwards, 1977
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)Planted as shade tree in gardens Yes Yes Ragone, 2006
Arundo donax (giant reed) Yes Yes Dudley, 2000
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Yes Brookes and Barley, 1992; Mulvaney, 1991
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes Yes
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Planted in gardens, yards and as a potted ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes Yes
Baccharis pilularis (coyote brush) Yes
Bacopa monnieri (water hyssop)Cultivated as an ornamental of ponds, gardens, and aquaria Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Bambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo) Yes Yes Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995
Bambusa vulgaris (common bamboo) Yes Yes Dransfield and Widjaja, 1995
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)Widely moved by humans and cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)Widely spread by humans as ornamental planting Yes Yes Smith, 2002
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)Widely spread by humans as ornamental planting Yes Francis, 2004
Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)Grown along streets for decorative and shade purposes in some parts of India Yes Yes Flowers of India, 2014
Basella alba (malabar spinach) Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Yes Yes Daszak et al., 1999; Groff et al., 1991
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)Planted for showy flowers Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Bauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony) Yes Yes Smith, 2010
Bidens frondosa (beggarticks) Yes Yes Danuso et al., 2012
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Introduced for ornamental and agricultural purposes and as a medicinal herb Yes Yes Sankaran and Suresh, 2013
Bocconia frutescens (plume poppy)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes GISD, 2018; Riffle, 1998
Bontia daphnoides (white alling) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Popular ornamental. Widely commercialized Yes Yes Salam et al., 2017
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Not documented but possible Yes Yes
Branta canadensis (Canada goose) Yes Lever, 2005
Branta hutchinsii Yes Lever, 2005
Breynia disticha (snowbush) Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes Yes
Bromelia pinguin (wild pineapple) Yes
Bromus secalinus (rye brome) Yes Yes Oakes, 1990
Brugmansia candida (angel's trumpet) Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail) Yes Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Planted as ornamental garden and hedge plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower) Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Flora of Panama, 2014; PIER, 2014
Calacarus carinatus (purple tea mite) Yes Yes Oliver and Cancienne, 1980
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Very valuable in the horticulture trade for its colorful and variably-shaped leaves Yes Yes Deng, 2012
Calliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra)Planted for its red flowers Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Callisia fragrans (basketplant)Globally wide-spread ornamental Yes Graveson, 2012
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant)Planted as ornamental in gardens and yards Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2013
Callosciurus erythraeus (Pallas's squirrel) Yes Novillo and Ojeda, 2008
Callosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson's squirrel) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma) Yes Yes
Canna indica (canna lilly) Yes Yes
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper) Yes Yes Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2014
Carassius auratus auratus (goldfish) Yes FishBase, 2004
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes Henderson, 2001
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al., 2013
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant) Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Carpobrotus edulis (hottentot fig) Yes Yes
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum) Yes Yes Bosch, 2007; Duke, 1983; Hanelt et al., 2001
Cassia grandis (pink shower)Widely cultivated as an ornamental in urban and garden areas Yes Yes Toruan-Purba, 1999
Cassia javanica (pink shower)Widely used as an ornamental and roadside tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Centaurea macrocephala (giant knapweed) Yes
Centratherum punctatum (lark daisy)Commercialized as ornamental. Seeds sold online. ( Yes Yes
Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) Yes Yes
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine)Often planted for its showy and fragrant flowers Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine) Yes Yes
Chamaedorea elegans (parlour palm)Widely commercialized as house plant Yes Yes Hodel, 1992
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2009
Christella dentata (soft fern)Attractive ferns such as this could be spread intentionally in some cases. Yes Drummond, 1959
Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed)Original introductions as an ornamental, now very unlikely to be repeated Yes
Cinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia) Yes Yes Franck, 2012
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Planted as an ornamental and potted plant and for live fences Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Citharexylum ellipticum (anacahuita)Fences and gardens Yes Yes Fuentes, 2012
Citrus leprosis virus C (leprosis of citrus)Infected mite vector can be transported in ornamental host plants. Yes Yes
Clarias batrachus (walking catfish) Yes Welcomme, 1988
Clematis terniflora (sweet autumn clematis) Yes Yes GISD, 2018; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018
Clerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)Common in gardens Yes Yes PIER, 2012
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban)Introduced from Old Tropics to New Tropics for ornamental purposes Yes Yes
Clerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower) Yes Yes
Clerodendrum wallichii (Wallich's glorybower) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)Often used as ornamental Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Clusia rosea Yes Yes Balakrishna and Bhattacharjee, 1991
Cocos nucifera (coconut)Mostly coastal areas Yes Yes Chan and Elevitch, 2006
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton) Yes Hettiarachchi et al., 2003; Deng et al., 2010
Colocasia esculenta (taro)Occasionally planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Colubrina asiatica (latherleaf) Yes Yes McCormick, 2007
Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper) Yes Yes Britton, 1918; Britton and Wilson, 1925; Flora Mesoamericana, 2015; Liogier and Martorell, 2000; GISD, 2018
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant) Yes Yes
Coriandrum sativum (coriander) Yes Yes
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)Europe, Australia Yes GISD, 2018; Gardening Australia, 2009
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass) Yes Yes
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass) Yes Yes
Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum) Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)Popular garden plant Yes Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos) Yes Yes Kress et al., 2003; Jansen, 2005
Costus spicatus (spiked spiralflag ginger)Grown for its attractive foliage and bracts Yes Yes Gonçalves et al., 2005
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray) Yes Yes Dickoré and Kasperek, 2010
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (African cotton leaf curl begomovirus)
Crassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop) Yes Yes OEPP/EPPO, 2007
Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) Yes Yes Alverson and Sigg, 2008
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Many ornamental cultivars developed Yes Yes The Royal Horticultural Society, 2016
Cromileptes altivelis (humpback grouper)Mainly in South-East Asia Yes Yes GISD, 2018; Sadovy et al., 2007
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed)Planted in gardens to attract insects Yes Yes
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine) Yes Yes PIER, 2012
Cuphea hyssopifolia (false heather) Yes Yes Francis, 2004
Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress) Yes Yes Dirr, 2009
Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress) Yes Yes
Cyathea cooperi (australian tree fern)Used for outdoor growing Yes Yes Jones, 1987
Cydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Most likely pathway of introduction to Europe Yes Leuthardt et al., 2010
Cylindropuntia rosea (hudson pear) Yes Deltoro et al., 2014
Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)Cultivated as an ornamental in gardens and along roadsides Yes Yes Oyen, 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Careless disposal results in seeds being spread Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Garden ornamental in ponds and water features Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2013
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) Yes Yes
Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Yes Yes Hanchet, 1990; Moor and Bruton, 1988
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes Yes
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Dalbergia sissoo Yes Yes Morton, 2007
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes Yes
Delonix regia (flamboyant) Yes Yes PIER, 2009
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane) Yes Yes Croat, 2004
Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)ornamental in Brazil Yes PROTA, 2017
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes Yes
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball)Recommended for gardens and urban areas for the showy, fragrant flowers Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila) Yes
Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop) Yes Yes
Dypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)One of the world’s most commonly cultivated palms Yes Yes Ellison and Ellison, 2001
East Asian Passiflora virus Yes Yes
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) Yes Yes Bagi and Böszörményi, 2008; Tokarska-Guzik, 2005
Eichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth) Yes Gopal, 1987
Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) Yes Yes Katz and Shafroth, 2003
Elaeagnus pungens (thorny olive) Yes Yes Miller, 2003
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) Yes Yes Munger, 2003
Elephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)Assumed Yes Yes
Elodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed) Yes Yes GISD, 2018; GISD, 2018
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower) Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)Planted in gardens and yards as a ground cover Yes Yes Gilman, 2011
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)Deliberate introduction Yes Quattrocchi, 2006
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane)Used as an ornamental worldwide (F Barthelat, IUCN Caribbean, Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe, pers obs) Yes Yes
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Widely commercialized as ornamental/ shade tree/ hedge tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) Yes Yes Sakai et al., 2013
Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum) Yes Yes
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry) Yes Yes
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)Plants are sold for ornamental plantings Yes Yes Dirr, 1998
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge) Yes Yes
Euphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Widely planted for ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)Hedge plant and potted plant Yes Yes PIER, 2016
Euphorbia trigona (African milk weed)Widely commercialized as ornamental, hedge plant and potted plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Euphorbia umbellata (African milk bush) Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Falcataria moluccana (batai wood) Yes Yes
Fallopia x bohemica Yes
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue)Widely grown as a lawn grass Yes Yes
Ficus benghalensis (banyan)Planted in gardens, parks, and sidewalks Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014; Whistler, 2000; Wiersema and León, 1999
Ficus elastica (rubber plant)Intentionally cultivated worldwide for rubber production in the tropics and as an ornamental tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014; Whistler, 2000
Ficus lyrata (fiddle-leaf fig)Cultivated as an ornamental, specimen tree, or shade tree. Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Gilman and Watson, 2014; Hutchinson and Rendle, 1916; Madulid, 1995; Starr et al., 2003
Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree) Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
Ficus pumila (creeping fig) Yes Yes Britton, 1918; Floridata, 2014; Hooker, 1882
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes Mabberly, 2008; Starr et al., 2003; USDA-ARS, 2014; Whistler, 2000
Flemingia lineata (wild hops) Yes Yes ILDIS, 2016
Flemingia strobilifera (wild hops) Yes Yes ISSG, 2014
Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) Yes Yes
Furcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp)Xeric landscaping plant Yes Yes
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket) Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Contaminant in common ornamental plants Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Galphimia glauca (goldshower )Cultivated and commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Floridata, 2015
Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish)Ornamental fish Yes Yes
Garcia nutans (false tung oil tree)Planted as ornamental in the Caribbean Yes Yes Broome et al., 2007
Gaultheria shallon (salal) Yes Yes GISD, 2018; Pojar and Mackinnon, 2004
Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy) Yes Yes
Glycosmis parviflora (flower axistree)Often cultivated as an ornamental in gardens and parks Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Gmelina arborea (candahar)Planted as ornamental and shade tree in parks and avenues Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth) Yes Flora of Pakistan, 2015
Gracilaria tikvahiae (graceful red weed) Yes Yes Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, 2008
Grevillea robusta (silky oak)Ornamental shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant)As a pond plant Yes Yes Weeds CRC, 2008
Gypsophila paniculata (baby’s breath) Yes Yes Darwent, 1975
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Yes Branney, 2005
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Heliconia bihai (macaw flower) Yes Yes Kress and Whittemore, 2000
Heliocarpus americanus (white moho)for reforestation Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Heliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)Sometimes planted as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Hemigraphis alternata (red ivy)Often planted as ornamental and as ground cover in gardens Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Yes Tiley et al., 1996
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant Yes Yes Kabuce, 2006
Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)Garden and shade tree Yes Yes Weaver and Francis, 1989
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood) Yes Yes
Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage) Yes Yes PIER, 2007
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant) Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Yes Yes CWS, 2003
Hygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed) Yes Yes FNW Disseminules, 2007
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit) Yes Yes
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)Sometimes grown as an ornamental Yes Knight, 2007
Hypogeococcus pungens (cactus mealybug) Yes Mazzeo et al., 2014; Pellizzari and Porcelli, 2014
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam) Yes Beerling and Perrins, 1993
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam) Yes Yes Trepl, 1984
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Extensively cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Adamowski, 2008
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes Yes
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo) Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Ipomoea alba (white moonflower )Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Cultivated as ornamental for its showy flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )Often cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Often cultivated as ornamental for its attractive flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Ipomoea ochracea (fence morning-glory)Widely cultivated throughout the tropics Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Often planted as an ornamental for its colorful flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Ipomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Iris domestica (blackberry lily) Yes Yes GISD, 2018; PROTA, 2018
Ixora finlaysoniana (white jungle flame) Yes Yes Little et al., 1974
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda) Yes Yes
Jasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)Commonly planted in gardens, yards and as a hedge plant Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Francis, 2004
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)extensively cultivated as an ornamental shrub Yes Yes Green, 2003; Parker and Parsons, 2012
Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Occasionally used as an ornamental Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Deliberately introduced outside native range as an attractive feature for ponds & bog gardens Yes
Juncus planifolius (broadleaf rush) Yes
Justicia pectoralis (freshcut)Planted in gardens - common in Cuban gardens Yes Perez et al., 2001
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Popular ornamental/ houseplant Yes Yes Kalanchoe Growers, 2016
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (devil's backbone)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Moran, 2009
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant) Yes Yes Moran, 2009
Kalanchoe integra (Never die)Introduced to various countries as an ornamental Yes Yes New York Botanical Garden, 2016
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 1997
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Commercialized as an ornamental tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Lantana camara (lantana) Yes Yes
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea) Yes Yes Branca and Donnini, 2011
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet) Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Some Lemna species are used as ornamentals Yes Yes
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch, 2004
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Planted in gardens Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Lepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed) Yes Yes
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid) Yes Yes
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes Yes
Leuciscus idus (ide) Yes Yes
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Widely used as ornamental and hedge plants Yes Swarbrick et al., 1999
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)Widespread hedging plant Yes
Ligustrum vulgare (common privet)Introduced mainly as a hedge and ornamental plant Yes Yes Zhao, 2012
Limnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant)This plant was introduced to North American waterways through use as ornamental plant in aquariums a Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2016
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes Yes
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle)Ebay, Amazon, Yes Yes
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes Dandelot et al., 2005; Okada et al., 2009
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Yes Dandelot et al., 2005
Lupinus plattensis (Nebraska lupine)Sometimes introduced as an ornamental and honey flora plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Accidental Yes Yes NOBANIS, 2015
Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern) Yes Ferriter, 2001
Lygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern) Yes Yes
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) Yes GISD, 2018
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree) Yes Yes
Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern) Yes Yes Diggs and Lipscomb, 2014
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape) Yes Ross et al., 2009
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Often planted as ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla) Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)Cultivated as an ornamental. Cultivars with colourful leaves have been developed Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Martynia annua (tiger's claw)Grown as ornamental for its flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree) Yes Dray et al., 2006
Melanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania) Yes
Merremia aegyptia (hairy woodrose)main spread through intentional release as an ornamental creeper Yes Yes Smith, 2002
Merremia cissoides (roadside woodrose)cultivated in botanic gardens and home gardens Yes Yes Catalogue des Herbiers de Genève, 2016; Sunshine Seeds, 2016
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Commonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
Merremia umbellata (hogvine)Introduced as an ornamental in several countries Yes Yes Smith, 1991
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (crystalline iceplant) Yes GISD, 2018
Miconia calvescens (miconia)Sold as a garden plant in Tahiti in the early 1980s Yes Yes Meyer, 1998a
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower) Yes Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2016
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)Cultivated as an ornamental, ground cover and fence cover Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Morella faya (firetree) Yes
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry) Yes Yes Nelson, 2006
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree) Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Morus nigra (black mulberry)Cultivated for ornamental purposes in home gardens and roadsides Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Planted as an ornamental shade tree Yes Yes NAS, 1980
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes Ogbu, 2011
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Alejandro et al., 2016
Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather) Yes
Myroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam) Yes
Nandina domestica (Nandina)Fruits used in flower arrangements Yes Yes Li, 2002
Neomarica caerulea (walking iris) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Neyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed) Yes Gordon, 1998; Guala, 1990; Majtkowski and Majtkowsk, 2000
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus) Yes Yes
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus) Yes
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes NWCB, 2007
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Ornamental, aromatic, culinary plant Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike) Yes Yes Daniel, 1995
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard) Yes Yes Daniel, 1995
Odontonema nitidum (shrubby toothedthread)listed as ornamental in Cuba Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Oeceoclades maculata (monk orchid) Yes Yes Stern, 1988
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (wild olive) Yes Yes
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive) Yes Yes
Opogona sacchari (banana moth) Yes
Opuntia aurantiaca (jointed cactus)Ornamental trade Yes Yes
Opuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear) Yes Yes
Opuntia engelmannii (cactus apple) Yes Yes
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) Yes Yes
Opuntia monacantha (common prickly pear) Yes Yes
Opuntia stricta (erect prickly pear)As an ornamental Yes Yes
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel) Yes Yes
Pachira aquatica (pachira nut)Cultivated and introduced as an ornamental in many Old World (and some New World) countries Yes Yes GISD, 2018; Duff, 2012
Pachira insignis (wild chestnut)Introduced in the West Indies as an ornamental tree Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000
Pachystachys coccinea (Cardinal's guard)Planted and commercialized as ornamental and garden plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Paederia foetida (skunkvine)Grown as an ornamental climbing vine Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes Yes
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Long distance and local trade in infested ornamental plants Yes Yes Macharia et al., 2017
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)Widely cultivated as ornamental creeper Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Planted as lawn grass Yes Yes Manidool, 1992
Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)Several commercial cultivars are available Yes Yes Heuzé and Tran, 2016
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass) Yes GISD, 2018
Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower) Yes Yes
Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia) Yes Yes SE-EPPC, 2003
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)Species has been cultivated beyond its native range as an ornamental Yes Yes Dasuki, 2002; Hanelt et al., 2001; USDA-ARS, 2014
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Species exported from South Africa in 1700s for ornamental cultivation. Yes Yes Miller, 1996; GISD, 2018
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium) Yes Yes Miller, 1996; SANBI, 2014; GISD, 2018
Pelophylax cf. bedriagae Yes Holsbeek et al., 2008
Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass)As a turf grass Yes Yes
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Widely cultivated as a garden ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) Yes Yes
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Used as an ornamental worldwide Yes Yes PROTA, 2019; GISD, 2018
Phaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid) Yes Yes Ackerman, 2012
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug) Yes
Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm) Yes Yes DiTomaso and Healy, 2006
Phragmites australis (common reed) Yes Yes
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo) Yes Yes Gucker, 2009
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo) Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Phyllostachys flexuosa (drooping timber bamboo)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry) Yes Yes
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Yes Zobel et al., 1985
Pimenta dioica (allspice)Often used as an ornamental species in many countries. Yes
Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree) Yes Yes
Pinus elliottii (slash pine) Yes Yes
Piper aduncum (spiked pepper) Yes Yes Hartemink, 2010
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Yes Yes Gherardi, 2007
Pittosporum undulatum (Australian cheesewood) Yes Yes Gleadow and Ashton, 1981
Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage)Widely cultivated in home gardens and commercially for culinary, medicinal, and ornamental use Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus) Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014b
Poecilia reticulata (guppy) Yes
Populus alba (silver-leaf poplar) Yes Yes Jobling, 1990
Populus nigra (black poplar) Yes Yes
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes Yes
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes Stuckey, 1979
Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite)As a urban/street tree in native range Yes Pasiecznik et al., 2001
Prosopis juliflora (mesquite)Planted as a street tree Yes Pasiecznik et al., 2001
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal) Yes Yes Godoy et al., 2011
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry)Popular ornamental tree for both private gardens and public areas Yes Yes GISD, 2018; GISD, 2011
Prunus serotina (black cherry)Until the late 18th century, P. serotina was sparsely planted in parks and gardens in several Europe Yes GISD, 2018; Vanhellemont et al., 2009
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On ornamental nursery plants Yes Yes
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Ornamental vine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon) Yes Yes Copp et al., 2005b
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) Yes Samson, 1989
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Pterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)Ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)In gardens, parks and indoors Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Ptychosperma macarthurii (Macarthur palm)One of the most widely grown and popular palm species Yes Yes Dowe, 2007
Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu) Yes Yes Shurtleff and Aoyagi, 1977
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn) Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)Reproducing European gardens (USA, Australia) Yes Yes
Raoiella indica (red palm mite)Dept. of Homeland Security Custom and Border Control found palm handicrafts to carry eggs and adults Yes
Rauvolfia caffra (quinine tree )Sometimes grown as ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Host plants as ornamentals Yes
Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus (rosy bitterling) Yes Yes
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Deliberate, occasional Yes Yes Campbell, 1977; Staples and Herbst, 2005
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac) Yes Yes
Rivina humilis (bloodberry) Yes Yes
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) Yes Yes Bruun, 2005
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Yes
Roystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)The species has been widely cultivated worldwide since the 1500s Yes GISD, 2018
Rubus ellipticus (yellow Himalayan raspberry) Yes Gardner, 1999
Rubus racemosus (black raspberry) Yes Yes Lim, 2012
Rudbeckia laciniata (cutleaf coneflower) Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Ruellia macrophylla (large leaved ruellia)Occasionally planted as ornamental Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia) Yes Yes Hupp et al., 2013
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Sold as an ornamental at internet sites and at local nurseries Yes Yes
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes Yes
Sagittaria latifolia (broadleaf arrowhead) Yes DAISIE, 2009; NOBANIS, 2009
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage) Yes Stone et al., 1992
Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) Yes Yes DAISIE, 2014
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG, 2009
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed) Yes Yes McFarland et al., 2004
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel, 1995
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp)Commonly planted in gardens and yards Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Scaevola taccada (beach naupaka)Gardens in coastal areas Yes Yes Kaufman and Kaufman, 2007
Schefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree) Yes Yes Gucker, 2011
Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree) Yes Yes
Sciurus niger (fox squirrel) Yes Yes Aprile and Chicco, 1999
Securigera varia (crown vetch)Sold over the internet and locally for ornamental purposes Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes Yes
Senna alata (candle bush)Planted as an ornamental in gardens and cultivated plots near houses Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna) Yes Yes Merrill, 1923; Pelser et al., 2014; Standley and Steyermark, 1946
Senna multijuga (November shower)Primary reason for introduction to areas outside of species’ native range Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Hanelt et al., 2001; PIER, 2014
Senna occidentalis (coffee senna) Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Senna septemtrionalis (smooth senna) Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; Sosef and Maesen, 1997
Senna siamea (yellow cassia) Yes Yes Hassain, 1999
Senna spectabilis (whitebark senna) Yes Yes
Senna surattensis (golden senna)Species widely introduced throughout Old and New World tropics as an ornamental Yes Yes PIER, 2014; Sosef and Maesen, 1997
Sesbania grandiflora (sesbania) Yes Yes
Sicyos angulatus (burcucumber)In the 1800s it was introduced into Europe for ornamental purposes Yes Hulina, 1996
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry)Introduced intentionally for its attractive and bright coloured fruit Yes Staples and Herbst, 2005
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Intentionally cultivated as an ornamental or curiosity plant worldwide Yes Yes PBI Solanum Project, 2014
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Gallagher et al., 2010
Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) Yes Yes
Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod) Yes Yes Weber and Jakobs, 2005
Solidago nemoralis (grey goldenrod)Hypothetical Yes Yes
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Spathodea campanulata (African tulip tree) Yes ICRAF, 2008
Spathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid) Yes Yes
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes Yes
Sphagneticola trilobata (wedelia) Yes Yes
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet) Yes Yes
Sporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)Reported as used as an ornamental in some countries Yes Yes Duistermaat, 2004
Stachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail) Yes Yes Kuo, 2003
Sterculia apetala (Panama tree)As an ornamental and shade tree in towns and residential areas Yes Rodríguez-Vargas, 2007
Sturnus vulgaris (common starling) Yes
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (New York aster) Yes Yes
Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)Popular ornamental plant Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Syzygium cumini (black plum) Yes Morton, 1987
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple) Yes Yes Little and Skolmen, 1989; Panggabean, 1991; Whistler and Elevitch, 2006
Tabebuia heterophylla (pink trumpet tree) Yes Yes Weaver, 1990
Tabebuia rosea (pink poui)Used as an ornamental tree in urban areas Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar)Introduction and local spread Yes
Tamias sibiricus (Siberian chipmunk)Cause of at least one population in Belgium Yes Verbeylen, 2002; Verbeylen, 2003
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)Commercialized as ornamental and hedge plant Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Tephrosia candida (white tephrosia) Yes Yes
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)Widely commercialized as ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Thaumetopoea processionea (oak processionary moth) Yes Evans, 2007
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Cultivated in gardens, parks and as a houseplant Yes Yes
Thespesia populnea (portia tree) Yes Yes
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan) Yes Yes Whistler, 2000
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady) Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Thunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)Plants are commonly planted in gardens and yards as ornamentals Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Tibouchina herbacea (cane tibouchina)May have been introduced to Hawaii as an ornamental Yes Frohlich and Lau, 2007
Tibouchina urvilleana (princessflower) Yes Starr et al., 2003
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower) Yes Yes Palm et al., 1996
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Garden ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)Trade of ornamental plant material Yes Yes
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Cultivated for its brightly coloured autumn foliage van Oosterhout et al., 2014
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Ornamental and ground cover Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen) Yes Yes Foxcroft et al., 2007
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily) Yes Yes Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011; PIER, 2012
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes Yes Hummel and Kiviat, 2004
Trimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris) Yes Yes
Triplaris americana (ant tree) Yes Yes Grandtner and Chevrette, 2013
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass)Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental Yes Cook et al., 2005
Tuberose mild mottle virus (tuberose mild mottle virus)Accidental Yes Yes Lin et al., 2004; Kulshrestha et al., 2005; Dey et al., 2018
Turbina corymbosa (Christmas vine) Yes Yes Austin, 1980; Austin and Staples, 1991; Bosser and Heine, 2000
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)Often grown as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes USDA-NRCS, 2010
Typha x glauca (hybrid cattail)Inflorescences are sold as decorative objests Yes Yes Morton, 1975
Umbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow) Yes Grabowska et al., 2010
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) Yes Yes Gross and Werner, 1978
Vernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)Occasionally grown as ornamental for its showy flowers Yes Yes Miller et al., 2010
Viguiera dentata (sunflower goldeneye)Sometimes planted as ornamental in gardens Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria) Yes Trusty et al., 2008
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)Sometimes planted in gardens Yes Yes Manner, 2011
Xyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass)Grown as a pond plant Yes
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Sometimes planted as ornamental Yes Yes Loewenstein and Loewenstein, 2005
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) Yes Smith et al., 2012
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes Yes
Zoysia matrella (Manila grass) Yes Yes