Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)



Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Cultivated as ornamental for its attractive flowers Yes Yes GISD (2018)
Abrus precatorius (rosary pea) Yes Yes Motooka et al. (2003); Padua et al. (1999); Weber (2003)
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Sold over the internet as an ornamental plant. Yes Yes
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)Sold an ornamental plant on Internet and nurseries Yes Yes
Acacia angustissima (prairie acacia)Used as an ornamental and for ground cover Yes Yes Lloyd-Reilley (2011)
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle) Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Acacia decurrens (green wattle)Cultivated as ornamental trees Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); Henderson (2001)
Acacia glauca (wild dividivi) Yes Yes
Acacia longifolia (golden wattle)Valued as an ornamental in California. Yes Dreistadt and Hagen (1994)
Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) Yes Yes Wiersum (1991)
Acacia saligna (coojong)Spread as a street tree Yes Yes Cronk and Fuller (1995)
Acer rufinerve (grey snake-bark maple)Deliberately planted in parks and gardens Yes Yes
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)Ornamental cultivars available at nurseries and internet sites Yes Yes Mitich (1990)
Adenostoma fasciculatum (chamise) Yes
Adonidia merrillii (Christmas palm)Popular ornamental palm Yes Yes Lim (2012)
Agave americana (century plant)Widely planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Agave fourcroydes (henequen)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Badano and Pugnaire (2004)
Agave vivipara (Caribbean agave)Used as hedge plant and ornamental Yes Yes The Mansfeld’s World Database (2015)
Agdestis clematidea (rockroot) Yes Yes Vickery (2009)
Ageratina riparia (mistflower) Yes
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)Used as an ornamental over its range. Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Used as ornamental and for landscaping, sold at nurseries. Yes Thoden et al. (2009)
Agrostis capillaris (common bent)lawn grass Yes
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, deliberate Yes Yes Kowarik and Säumel (2007)
Akebia quinata (five-leaf akebia)Intentional introduction Yes ISSG (2012); USDA-ARS (2013)
Albizia adinocephala (cream albizia) Yes Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (2016)
Albizia chinensis (Chinese albizia) Yes
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris) Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Albizia niopoides (silk tree)Planted as ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Vozzo (2002)
Albizia procera (white siris)Planted as ornamental in parks and gardens and as shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Aleurotrachelus atratus (palm-infesting whitefly) Yes
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)Commonly planted in parks, gardens, and yards Yes Yes Francis (2000)
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Alocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro) Yes Yes Manner (2011)
Aloe vera (true aloe)Ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Alopochen aegyptiaca (Egyptian goose) Yes Lever (2005)
Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger) Yes Yes Ibrahim (2001)
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant)Common ornamental. Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)Used as aquarium plant and ornamental aquatic plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Planted in water-gardens Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Amaranthus caudatus (love-lies-bleeding)Grown for ornamental use and naturalized in Puerto Rico Yes Yes Liogier (1985)
Amaranthus cruentus (red amaranth) Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Ambrosia peruviana (Peruvian ragweed)Grown as a potted plant Yes Yes Pruski (2016)
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes Yes
Amelanchier spicata (dwarf serviceberry) Yes Kabuce (2006)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine)Used as ground cover, for walls, fences and trellises Yes Yes Kimbrough (2008); Wildflower Center (2016)
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)This species is ia popular ornamental Yes Yes Wolfe and Zajicek (1998)
Anethum graveolens (dill) Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2015); PFAF (2015)
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Cultivated worldwide as an ornamental fern Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen (2008)
Anredera baselloides (Madeira vine) Yes Yes
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine) Yes Yes
Anredera vesicaria (Texas madeira vine)Grown as an ornamental for the showy inflorescence and the fragrant flowers. Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)
Anser indicus (bar-headed goose) Yes Banks et al. (2008)
Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)Planted as a garden ornamental Yes Yes Burke and DiTommaso (2011)
Ardisia crenata (coral berry)International trade as an ornamental species has resulted in global spread Yes Yes Niu et al. (2012)
Ardisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia) Yes PIER (2009)
Ardisia humilis (low shoebutton) Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy) Yes Yes
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)Recommended as a garden plant to grow over fences. Yes Wynman (1944)
Aristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe)Occurs beyond native South American range in places where it is cultivated in gardens Yes Yes Flora of Pakistan (2015); Weeds of Australia (2015)
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)Has been intentionally introduced beyond its native range for use as an ornamental Yes Yes
Aronia x prunifolia Yes Yes
Arrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass)Grown and sold as an ornamental Yes Yes Hodgson (2005)
Arthurdendyus triangulatus (New Zealand flatworm)Associated with botanic gardens Yes Boag et al. (1994a); Willis and Edwards (1977)
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)Planted as shade tree in gardens Yes Yes Ragone (2006)
Arundo donax (giant reed) Yes Yes Dudley (2000)
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Yes Brookes and Barley (1992); Mulvaney (1991)
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes Yes
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)Used as an ornamental worldwide Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Planted in gardens, yards and as a potted ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes Yes
Baccharis pilularis (coyote brush) Yes
Bacopa monnieri (water hyssop)Cultivated as an ornamental of ponds, gardens, and aquaria Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Bambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo) Yes Yes Duriyaprapan and Jansen (1995)
Bambusa longispiculata (mahal bamboo)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Bambusa tuldoides (punting pole bamboo)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Bambusa vulgaris (common bamboo) Yes Yes Dransfield and Widjaja (1995)
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)Widely moved by humans and cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)Widely spread by humans as ornamental planting Yes Yes Smith (2002)
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)Widely spread by humans as ornamental planting Yes Francis (2004)
Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)Grown along streets for decorative and shade purposes in some parts of India Yes Yes Flowers of India (2014)
Basella alba (malabar spinach) Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Yes Yes Daszak et al. (1999); Groff et al. (1991)
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)Planted for showy flowers Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Bauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony) Yes Yes Smith (2010)
Begonia nelumbiifolia (lilypad begonia)Grown as an ornamental Yes
Bidens frondosa (beggarticks) Yes Yes Danuso et al. (2012)
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Introduced for ornamental and agricultural purposes and as a medicinal herb Yes Yes Sankaran and Suresh (2013)
Blighia sapida (akee apple)Used as an ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
Bocconia frutescens (plume poppy)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes DavesGarden (2013); Riffle (1998)
Bontia daphnoides (white alling) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Popular ornamental. Widely commercialized Yes Yes Salam et al. (2017)
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Not documented but possible Yes Yes
Branta canadensis (Canada goose) Yes Lever (2005)
Branta hutchinsii Yes Lever (2005)
Breynia disticha (snowbush) Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes Yes
Bromelia pinguin (wild pineapple) Yes
Bromus secalinus (rye brome) Yes Yes Oakes (1990)
Brugmansia candida (angel's trumpet) Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail) Yes Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Planted as ornamental garden and hedge plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower) Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua (2014); Flora of Panama (2014); PIER (2014)
Calacarus carinatus (purple tea mite) Yes Yes Oliver and Cancienne (1980)
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Very valuable in the horticulture trade for its colorful and variably-shaped leaves Yes Yes Deng (2012)
Calliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra)Planted for its red flowers Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Callisia fragrans (basketplant)Globally wide-spread ornamental Yes Graveson (2012)
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant)Planted as ornamental in gardens and yards Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Callosciurus erythraeus (Pallas's squirrel) Yes Novillo and Ojeda (2008)
Callosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson's squirrel) Yes Yes
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)Species grown in gardens and public areas as ornamentals Yes Yes Manner and Elevitch (2006)
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean)Grown as an ornamental Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma) Yes Yes
Canna indica (canna lilly) Yes Yes
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper) Yes Yes Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2014)
Carassius auratus auratus (goldfish) Yes FishBase (2004)
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes Henderson (2001)
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al. (2013)
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant) Yes Yes
Carpobrotus chilensis (sea fig)Sold as an ornamental at various nurseries and Internet sites Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2019); California Invasive Plant Council (2020)
Carpobrotus edulis (hottentot fig) Yes Yes
Cascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum) Yes Yes Bosch (2007); Duke (1983); Hanelt et al. (2001)
Cassia grandis (pink shower)Widely cultivated as an ornamental in urban and garden areas Yes Yes Toruan-Purba (1999)
Cassia javanica (pink shower)Widely used as an ornamental and roadside tree Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Cavanillesia platanifolia (cuipo)As an ornamental Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Centaurea macrocephala (giant knapweed) Yes
Centratherum punctatum (lark daisy)Commercialized as ornamental. Seeds sold online. ( Yes Yes
Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) Yes Yes
Ceratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)Used worldwide as an aquarium species Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine)Often planted for its showy and fragrant flowers Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine) Yes Yes
Chamaedorea elegans (parlour palm)Widely commercialized as house plant Yes Yes Hodel (1992)
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004); Froese and Pauly (2009)
Cheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )Widely commercialized as an ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Christella dentata (soft fern)Attractive ferns such as this could be spread intentionally in some cases. Yes Drummond (1959)
Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed)Original introductions as an ornamental, now very unlikely to be repeated Yes
Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)Occasionally planted as an ornamental Yes Yes Gnansounou et al. (2017)
Cinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia) Yes Yes Franck (2012)
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Planted as an ornamental and potted plant and for live fences Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Citharexylum ellipticum (anacahuita)Fences and gardens Yes Yes Fuentes (2012)
Citrus leprosis virus C (leprosis of citrus)Infected mite vector can be transported in ornamental host plants. Yes Yes
Clarias batrachus (walking catfish) Yes Welcomme (1988)
Clematis terniflora (sweet autumn clematis) Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2018); Missouri Botanical Garden (2018)
Clerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)Common in gardens Yes Yes PIER (2012)
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban)Introduced from Old Tropics to New Tropics for ornamental purposes Yes Yes
Clerodendrum lindleyi (clerodendrum)Grown as an ornamental plant Yes Yes Méndez Santos (2013)
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)Popular ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Clerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower) Yes Yes
Clerodendrum wallichii (Wallich's glorybower) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)Often used as ornamental Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Clusia rosea Yes Yes Balakrishna and Bhattacharjee (1991)
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (chaya)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes Little et al. (1974)
Cocos nucifera (coconut)Mostly coastal areas Yes Yes Chan and Elevitch (2006)
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton) Yes Hettiarachchi et al. (2003); Deng et al. (2010)
Colocasia esculenta (taro)Occasionally planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Colubrina asiatica (latherleaf) Yes Yes McCormick (2007)
Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper) Yes Yes Britton (1918); Britton and Wilson (1925); Flora Mesoamericana (2015); Liogier and Martorell (2000); Quisumbing (1951)
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant) Yes Yes
Coriandrum sativum (coriander) Yes Yes
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)Europe, Australia Yes EPPO (2009); Gardening Australia (2009)
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass) Yes Yes
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass) Yes Yes
Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum) Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)Popular garden plant Yes Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos) Yes Yes Kress et al. (2003); Jansen (2005)
Costus spicatus (spiked spiralflag ginger)Grown for its attractive foliage and bracts Yes Yes Gonçalves et al. (2005)
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray) Yes Yes Dickoré and Kasperek (2010)
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus
Cowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)
Crassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop) Yes Yes OEPP/EPPO (2007)
Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) Yes Yes Alverson and Sigg (2008)
Crescentia cujete (calabash tree)Used as an ornamental throughout the tropics worldwide Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Many ornamental cultivars developed Yes Yes The Royal Horticultural Society (2016)
Cromileptes altivelis (humpback grouper)Mainly in South-East Asia Yes Yes Sadovy (2000); Sadovy et al. (2007)
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed)Planted in gardens to attract insects Yes Yes
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine) Yes Yes PIER (2012)
Cucumis dipsaceus (hedgehog gourd) Yes Yes Křístková et al. (2003)
Cuphea hyssopifolia (false heather) Yes Yes Francis (2004)
Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress) Yes Yes Dirr (2009)
Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress) Yes Yes
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (bacterial wilt of dry beans) Yes Yes
Cyathea cooperi (australian tree fern)Used for outdoor growing Yes Yes Jones (1987)
Cydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Most likely pathway of introduction to Europe Yes Leuthardt et al. (2010)
Cylindropuntia rosea (hudson pear) Yes Deltoro et al. (2014)
Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)Cultivated as an ornamental in gardens and along roadsides Yes Yes Oyen (1999); USDA-ARS (2016)
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Careless disposal results in seeds being spread Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Garden ornamental in ponds and water features Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) Yes Yes
Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Yes Yes Hanchet (1990); Moor and Bruton (1988)
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes Yes
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Dalbergia sissoo Yes Yes Morton (2007)
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes Yes
Delonix regia (flamboyant) Yes Yes PIER (2009)
Desmodium cajanifolium (tropical tick trefoil)AltReported as an ornamental Yes Yes Wester (1992)
Diaporthe gulyae (Phomopsis stem canker of sunflower)Identified on the seed of ornamental sunflower Yes Yes Brumpton Thompson (2020)
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane) Yes Yes Croat (2004)
Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)ornamental in Brazil Yes PROTA (2017)
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Used as an ornamental Yes Yes PIER (2020)
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes Yes
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball)Recommended for gardens and urban areas for the showy, fragrant flowers Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2017)
Dracaena fragrans (corn plant)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2019)
Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila) Yes
Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop) Yes Yes
Dypsis decaryi (triangle palm)Deliberate Yes PIER (2018)
Dypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)One of the world’s most commonly cultivated palms Yes Yes Ellison and Ellison (2001)
East Asian Passiflora virus Yes Yes
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) Yes Yes Bagi and Böszörményi (2008); Tokarska-Guzik (2005)
Eichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth) Yes Gopal (1987)
Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) Yes Yes Katz and Shafroth (2003)
Elaeagnus pungens (thorny olive) Yes Yes Miller (2003)
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) Yes Yes Munger (2003)
Elephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)Assumed Yes Yes
Elodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed) Yes Yes Bowmer et al.; 1995
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower) Yes Yes Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee (2014)
Entada gigas (sea-bean) Yes Yes
Epidendrum radicans (crucifix orchid) Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Lim (2014)
Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)Planted in gardens and yards as a ground cover Yes Yes Gilman (2011)
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)Deliberate introduction Yes Quattrocchi (2006)
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane)Used as an ornamental worldwide (F Barthelat, IUCN Caribbean, Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe, pers obs) Yes Yes
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Widely commercialized as ornamental/ shade tree/ hedge tree Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) Yes Yes Sakai et al. (2013)
Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum) Yes Yes
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry) Yes Yes
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)Plants are sold for ornamental plantings Yes Yes Dirr (1998)
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge) Yes Yes
Euphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Euphorbia leucocephala (white Christmas bush)Widely used as an ornamental Yes Yes Steinmann (2014)
Euphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)Popular ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Euphorbia neriifolia (Indian spurge tree)Widely used as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Widely planted for ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)Hedge plant and potted plant Yes Yes PIER (2016)
Euphorbia trigona (African milk weed)Widely commercialized as ornamental, hedge plant and potted plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Euphorbia umbellata (African milk bush) Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Falcataria moluccana (batai wood) Yes Yes
Fallopia x bohemica Yes
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue)Widely grown as a lawn grass Yes Yes
Ficus benghalensis (banyan)Planted in gardens, parks, and sidewalks Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014); Whistler (2000); Wiersema and León (1999)
Ficus elastica (rubber plant)Intentionally cultivated worldwide for rubber production in the tropics and as an ornamental tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014); Whistler (2000)
Ficus lyrata (fiddle-leaf fig)Cultivated as an ornamental, specimen tree, or shade tree. Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua (2014); Gilman and Watson (2014); Hutchinson and Rendle (1916); Madulid (1995); Starr et al. (2003)
Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree) Yes Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
Ficus pumila (creeping fig) Yes Yes Britton (1918); Floridata (2014); Hooker (1882)
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes Mabberly (2008); Starr et al. (2003); USDA-ARS (2014); Whistler (2000)
Flemingia lineata (wild hops) Yes Yes ILDIS (2016)
Flemingia strobilifera (wild hops) Yes Yes ISSG (2014)
Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) Yes Yes
Fumaria muralis (common ramping-fumitory) Yes Maroyi (2017)
Furcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp)Xeric landscaping plant Yes Yes
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket) Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Contaminant in common ornamental plants Yes Yes Damalas (2008)
Galphimia glauca (goldshower)Cultivated and commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Floridata (2015)
Galphimia gracilis (goldshower)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Anderson (2007)
Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish)Ornamental fish Yes Yes
Garcia nutans (false tung oil tree)Planted as ornamental in the Caribbean Yes Yes Broome et al. (2007)
Gaultheria shallon (salal) Yes Yes Discover Life (2015); Pojar and Mackinnon (2004)
Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy) Yes Yes
Glycosmis parviflora (flower axistree)Often cultivated as an ornamental in gardens and parks Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Gmelina arborea (candahar)Planted as ornamental and shade tree in parks and avenues Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth) Yes Flora of Pakistan (2015)
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton) Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2017)
Gracilaria tikvahiae (graceful red weed) Yes Yes Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute (2008)
Grevillea robusta (silky oak)Ornamental shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant)As a pond plant Yes Yes Weeds CRC (2008)
Gypsophila paniculata (baby’s breath) Yes Yes Darwent (1975)
Hakea sericea (silky hakea) Yes Yes
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Yes Branney (2005)
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Helenium amarum (bitterweed)Deliberate introduction Yes Yes
Helianthus debilis (beach sunflower)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Gilman and Park-Brown (1999)
Heliconia bihai (macaw flower) Yes Yes Kress and Whittemore (2000)
Heliocarpus americanus (white moho)for reforestation Yes Motooka et al. (2003)
Heliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)Sometimes planted as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Hemigraphis alternata (red ivy)Often planted as ornamental and as ground cover in gardens Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Yes Tiley et al. (1996)
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant Yes Yes Kabuce (2006)
Heteropogon contortus (spear grass) Yes Yes
Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf) Yes Wunderlin et al. (2020)
Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)Garden and shade tree Yes Yes Weaver and Francis (1989)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood) Yes Yes
Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage) Yes Yes PIER (2007)
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant) Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Humulus scandens (Japanese hop) Yes Yes
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Yes Yes CWS (2003)
Hygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed) Yes Yes FNW Disseminules (2007)
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit) Yes Yes
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)Sometimes grown as an ornamental Yes Knight (2007)
Hypogeococcus pungens (cactus mealybug) Yes Mazzeo et al. (2014); Pellizzari and Porcelli (2014)
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam) Yes Beerling and Perrins (1993)
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam) Yes Yes Trepl (1984)
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Extensively cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Adamowski (2008)
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes Yes
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo) Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Ipomoea alba (white moonflower )Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)Grown as a garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Cultivated as ornamental for its showy flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )Often cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Often cultivated as ornamental for its attractive flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Ipomoea ochracea (fence morning-glory)Widely cultivated throughout the tropics Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Often planted as an ornamental for its colorful flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Ipomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Iris domestica (blackberry lily) Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2018); PROTA (2018)
Ixora casei (giant red ixora)Ornamental, hedge plant Yes Yes Keeler et al. (2003)
Ixora coccinea (flame-of-the-woods)Deliberate sales. Widely cultivated in New World tropical countries and lower 48 United States Yes Yes Floridata (2017); Missouri Botanical Garden (2017)
Ixora finlaysoniana (white jungle flame) Yes Yes Little et al. (1974)
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda) Yes Yes
Jasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)Commonly planted in gardens, yards and as a hedge plant Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005); Francis (2004)
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)extensively cultivated as an ornamental shrub Yes Yes Green (2003); Parker and Parsons (2012)
Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Occasionally used as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2018)
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Jatropha integerrima (peregrina)It is widely used as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical areas Yes Yes HEAR (2017)
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Deliberately introduced outside native range as an attractive feature for ponds & bog gardens Yes
Juncus planifolius (broadleaf rush) Yes
Justicia pectoralis (freshcut)Planted in gardens - common in Cuban gardens Yes Perez et al. (2001)
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Popular ornamental/ houseplant Yes Yes Kalanchoe Growers (2016)
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (devil's backbone)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Moran (2009)
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant) Yes Yes Moran (2009)
Kalanchoe integra (Never die)Introduced to various countries as an ornamental Yes Yes New York Botanical Garden (2016)
Kigelia africana (sausage tree)Grown as an ornamental tree and introduced to many countries with this purpose Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Laelia rubescens (flor de la concepción) Yes Morales (2010); García-González and Riverón-Giró (2015)
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (1997)
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2014)
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Commercialized as an ornamental tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Lantana camara (lantana) Yes Yes
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea) Yes Yes Branca and Donnini (2011)
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet) Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Some Lemna species are used as ornamentals Yes Yes
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch (2004)
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Planted in gardens Yes Yes eFloras (2014)
Lepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed) Yes Yes
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid) Yes Yes
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes Yes
Leuciscus idus (ide) Yes Yes
Leucophyllum frutescens (Texas barometer bush)Popular ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)Used as an ornamental species Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Widely used as ornamental and hedge plants Yes Swarbrick et al. (1999)
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)Widespread hedging plant Yes
Ligustrum vulgare (common privet)Introduced mainly as a hedge and ornamental plant Yes Yes Zhao (2012)
Limnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant)This plant was introduced to North American waterways through use as ornamental plant in aquariums a Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2016)
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes Yes
Litsea glutinosa (Indian laurel)deliberate Yes EPPO (2019)
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle)Ebay, Amazon, Yes Yes
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes Dandelot et al. (2005); Okada et al. (2009)
Ludwigia palustris (marsh seedbox)Aquatic ornamental, aquarium plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2020)
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Yes Dandelot et al. (2005)
Lupinus plattensis (Nebraska lupine)Sometimes introduced as an ornamental and honey flora plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2017)
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Accidental Yes Yes NOBANIS (2015)
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)Used as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)
Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern) Yes Ferriter (2001)
Lygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern) Yes Yes
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) Yes USDA-NRCS (2007)
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree) Yes Yes
Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern) Yes Yes Diggs and Lipscomb (2014)
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape) Yes Ross et al. (2009)
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Often planted as ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes Henny et al. (1994, publ. 1995)
Malvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)Garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla) Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)Cultivated as an ornamental. Cultivars with colourful leaves have been developed Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Martynia annua (tiger's claw)Grown as ornamental for its flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree) Yes Dray et al. (2006)
Melanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania) Yes
Merremia aegyptia (hairy woodrose)main spread through intentional release as an ornamental creeper Yes Yes Smith (2002)
Merremia cissoides (roadside woodrose)cultivated in botanic gardens and home gardens Yes Yes Catalogue des Herbiers de Genève (2016); Sunshine Seeds (2016)
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Commonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Mansur (2001)
Merremia umbellata (hogvine)Introduced as an ornamental in several countries Yes Yes Smith (1991)
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (crystalline iceplant) Yes Cal-IPC (California Invasive Plant Council) (2015)
Miconia calvescens (miconia)Sold as a garden plant in Tahiti in the early 1980s Yes Yes Meyer (1998a)
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower) Yes Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2016)
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)Cultivated as an ornamental, ground cover and fence cover Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)Occasionally used as an ornamental Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Morella faya (firetree) Yes
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry) Yes Yes Nelson (2006)
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree) Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Morus nigra (black mulberry)Cultivated for ornamental purposes in home gardens and roadsides Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Planted as an ornamental shade tree Yes Yes NAS (1980)
Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)Used as an ornamental and in landscaping Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes Ogbu (2011)
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Alejandro et al. (2016)
Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather) Yes
Myroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam) Yes
Nandina domestica (Nandina)Fruits used in flower arrangements Yes Yes Li (2002)
Neomarica caerulea (walking iris) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Nerium oleander (oleander)Used as an ornamental and as a landscape species Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Neyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed) Yes Gordon (1998); Guala (1990); Majtkowski and Majtkowsk (2000)
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus) Yes Yes
Noronhia emarginata (Madagascar olive)Deliberate Yes PIER (2018)
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus) Yes
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes NWCB (2007)
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Ornamental, aromatic, culinary plant Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike) Yes Yes Daniel (1995)
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard) Yes Yes Daniel (1995)
Odontonema nitidum (shrubby toothedthread)listed as ornamental in Cuba Yes Yes Gomez de la Maza and Roig (1914)
Oeceoclades maculata (monk orchid) Yes Yes Stern (1988)
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (wild olive) Yes Yes
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive) Yes Yes
Opogona sacchari (banana moth) Yes
Opuntia aurantiaca (jointed cactus)Ornamental trade Yes Yes
Opuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear) Yes Yes
Opuntia engelmannii (cactus apple) Yes Yes
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) Yes Yes
Opuntia monacantha (common prickly pear) Yes Yes
Opuntia stricta (erect prickly pear)As an ornamental Yes Yes
Orbea variegata (carrion-flower) Yes Hamilton et al. (2013)
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel) Yes Yes
Pachira aquatica (pachira nut)Cultivated and introduced as an ornamental in many Old World (and some New World) countries Yes Yes Robyns (1963); Duff (2012)
Pachira insignis (wild chestnut)Introduced in the West Indies as an ornamental tree Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000)
Pachystachys coccinea (Cardinal's guard)Planted and commercialized as ornamental and garden plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Paederia foetida (skunkvine)Grown as an ornamental climbing vine Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Pandanus dubius (bakong)Used as an ornamental outside its native range Yes Yes Hanelt (2020); Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Pandanus gracilis (pandan delgado)Deliberate Yes McKenzie et al. (2002)
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes Yes
Pandanus utilis (common screw pine)Deliberate Yes PROTA (2020)
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Long distance and local trade in infested ornamental plants Yes Yes Macharia et al. (2017)
Parmentiera aculeata (cucumber tree)Grown as an ornamental tree Yes Yes Little et al. (1974)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)Widely cultivated as ornamental creeper Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Planted as lawn grass Yes Yes Manidool (1992)
Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)Several commercial cultivars are available Yes Yes Heuzé and Tran (2016)
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass) Yes
Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower) Yes Yes
Passion fruit woodiness virus (passionfruit woodiness disease)Accidental with exchange of live Passiflora plant material Yes Baker et al. (2014)
Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia) Yes Yes SE-EPPC (2003)
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)Species has been cultivated beyond its native range as an ornamental Yes Yes Dasuki (2002); Hanelt et al. (2001); USDA-ARS (2014)
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Species exported from South Africa in 1700s for ornamental cultivation. Yes Yes Miller (1996); Walt JJAvan der (1977)
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium) Yes Yes Miller (1996); SANBI (2014); Walt JJAvan der (1977)
Pelophylax cf. bedriagae Yes Holsbeek et al. (2008)
Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass)As a turf grass Yes Yes
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Florabase (2012)
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Widely cultivated as a garden ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) Yes Yes
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Used as an ornamental worldwide Yes Yes PROTA (2019); Dave's Garden (2019)
Phaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid) Yes Yes Ackerman (2012)
Phalaris canariensis (canary grass) Yes Grounds (1989); Cogliatti (2012)
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug) Yes Arif et al. (2012)
Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm) Yes Yes DiTomaso and Healy (2006)
Phragmites australis (common reed) Yes Yes
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo) Yes Yes Gucker (2009)
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo) Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Phyllostachys flexuosa (drooping timber bamboo)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Phyllostachys reticulata (giant timber bamboo)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry) Yes Yes
Phytophthora kernoviaeFoliage or cut branches of susceptible foliar hosts Yes Yes EPPO (2013)
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Yes Zobel et al. (1985)
Pimenta dioica (allspice)Often used as an ornamental species in many countries. Yes
Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree) Yes Yes
Pinus elliottii (slash pine) Yes Yes
Piper aduncum (spiked pepper) Yes Yes Hartemink (2010)
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Yes Yes Gherardi (2007)
Pittosporum undulatum (Australian cheesewood) Yes Yes Gleadow and Ashton (1981)
Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage)Widely cultivated in home gardens and commercially for culinary, medicinal, and ornamental use Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus) Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2014b)
Plumbago auriculata (cape leadwort) Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)Popular ornamental tree Yes Yes Criley (2005)
Poecilia reticulata (guppy) Yes
Polyalthia suberosa (corky debbar tree) Yes Yes Frohlich and Lau (2010)
Polyscias balfouriana (Balfour aralia)Cultivated as a landscape ornamental and indoor potted plant Yes Yes Lowry and Plunkett (2010)
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia)Ornamental and hedge plant Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Polyscias guilfoylei (geranium aralia)Popular ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech) Yes Cooper et al. (2019)
Populus alba (silver-leaf poplar) Yes Yes Jobling (1990)
Populus nigra (black poplar) Yes Yes
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes Yes
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes Stuckey (1979)
Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite)As a urban/street tree in native range Yes Pasiecznik et al. (2001)
Prosopis juliflora (mesquite)Planted as a street tree Yes Pasiecznik et al. (2001)
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal) Yes Yes Godoy et al. (2011)
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry)Popular ornamental tree for both private gardens and public areas Yes Yes Song (2007); GISD (2011)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)Until the late 18th century, P. serotina was sparsely planted in parks and gardens in several Europe Yes Starfinger et al. (2003); Vanhellemont et al. (2009)
Pseuderanthemum carruthersii (false eranthemum)Deliberate Yes Whistler (2000)
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On ornamental nursery plants Yes Yes
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Ornamental vine Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon) Yes Yes Copp et al. (2005b)
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) Yes Samson (1989)
Pteris multifida (spider brake)Used as an ornamental worldwide Yes Yes Keener et al. (2020)
Pteris tripartita (giant brake)Used as an ornamental in tropical areas Yes Yes Morton (1957); Flora and Fauna Web (2019); PROSEA (2019)
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Recorded as escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Pterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)Ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)In gardens, parks and indoors Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)
Ptychosperma macarthurii (Macarthur palm)One of the most widely grown and popular palm species Yes Yes Dowe (2007)
Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu) Yes Yes Shurtleff and Aoyagi (1977)
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn) Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)Reproducing European gardens (USA, Australia) Yes Yes
Raoiella indica (red palm mite)Dept. of Homeland Security Custom and Border Control found palm handicrafts to carry eggs and adults Yes
Rauvolfia caffra (quinine tree )Sometimes grown as ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Host plants as ornamentals Yes
Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus (rosy bitterling) Yes Yes
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Deliberate, occasional Yes Yes Campbell (1977); Staples and Herbst (2005)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac) Yes Yes
Rivina humilis (bloodberry) Yes Yes
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) Yes Yes Bruun (2005)
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Yes
Roystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)The species has been widely cultivated worldwide since the 1500s Yes Zucaratto and dos Santos Pires (2014)
Rubus buergeriDeliberate Yes Yes Useful Temperate Plants (2019)
Rubus ellipticus (yellow Himalayan raspberry) Yes Gardner (1999)
Rubus racemosus (black raspberry) Yes Yes Lim (2012)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cutleaf coneflower) Yes Yes National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) (2015)
Ruellia macrophylla (large leaved ruellia)Occasionally planted as ornamental Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2017)
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia) Yes Yes Hupp et al. (2013)
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Sold as an ornamental at internet sites and at local nurseries Yes Yes
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes Yes
Sagittaria latifolia (broadleaf arrowhead) Yes DAISIE (2009); NOBANIS (2009)
Salix humboldtiana (pencil willow)Deliberate Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage) Yes Stone et al. (1992)
Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) Yes Yes DAISIE (2014)
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG (2009)
Salvinia biloba (giant salvinia)The species is used locally as an ornamentalSan Pedro Naturaleza (2020)
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed) Yes Yes McFarland et al. (2004)
Sambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Charlebois et al. (2010)
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel (1995)
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp)Commonly planted in gardens and yards Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Scaevola taccada (beach naupaka)Gardens in coastal areas Yes Yes Kaufman and Kaufman (2007)
Schefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree) Yes Yes Gucker (2011)
Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree) Yes Yes
Sciurus niger (fox squirrel) Yes Yes Aprile and Chicco (1999)
Securigera varia (crown vetch)Sold over the internet and locally for ornamental purposes Yes Yes Gucker (2009); Minnesota Wildflowers (2016); PFAF (2016)
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes Yes
Senna aculeata (senna)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Castellanos and Lewis (2012)
Senna alata (candle bush)Planted as an ornamental in gardens and cultivated plots near houses Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna) Yes Yes Merrill (1923); Pelser et al. (2014); Standley and Steyermark (1946)
Senna multijuga (November shower)Primary reason for introduction to areas outside of species’ native range Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua (2014); Hanelt et al. (2001); PIER (2014)
Senna occidentalis (coffee senna) Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Senna septemtrionalis (smooth senna) Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2014); Sosef and Maesen (1997)
Senna siamea (yellow cassia) Yes Yes Hassain (1999)
Senna spectabilis (whitebark senna) Yes Yes
Senna surattensis (golden senna)Species widely introduced throughout Old and New World tropics as an ornamental Yes Yes PIER (2014); Sosef and Maesen (1997)
Sesbania grandiflora (sesbania) Yes Yes
Sicyos angulatus (burcucumber)In the 1800s it was introduced into Europe for ornamental purposes Yes Hulina (1996)
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry)Introduced intentionally for its attractive and bright coloured fruit Yes Staples and Herbst (2005)
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Intentionally cultivated as an ornamental or curiosity plant worldwide Yes Yes PBI Solanum Project (2014)
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Gallagher et al. (2010)
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes PBI Solanum Project (2020)
Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) Yes Yes
Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod) Yes Yes Weber and Jakobs (2005)
Solidago nemoralis (grey goldenrod)Hypothetical Yes Yes
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Spathodea campanulata (African tulip tree) Yes ICRAF (2008)
Spathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid) Yes Yes
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes Yes
Sphagneticola trilobata (wedelia) Yes Yes
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet) Yes Yes
Spirodela polyrrhiza (giant duckweed)As an ornamental for fish tanks and ponds Yes Aquagreen (2020); Les (2020)
Sporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)Reported as used as an ornamental in some countries Yes Yes Duistermaat (2004)
Stachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail) Yes Yes Kuo (2003)
Sterculia apetala (Panama tree)As an ornamental and shade tree in towns and residential areas Yes Rodríguez-Vargas (2007)
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)Possible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes Yes PIER (2019)
Sturnus vulgaris (common starling) Yes
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (New York aster) Yes Yes
Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)Popular ornamental plant Yes Yes ISSG (2012)
Syzygium cumini (black plum) Yes Morton (1987)
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple) Yes Yes Little and Skolmen (1989); Panggabean (1991); Whistler and Elevitch (2006)
Tabebuia heterophylla (pink trumpet tree) Yes Yes Weaver (1990)
Tabebuia rosea (pink poui)Used as an ornamental tree in urban areas Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Tamarindus indica (tamarind)Ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar)Introduction and local spread Yes
Tamias sibiricus (Siberian chipmunk)Cause of at least one population in Belgium Yes Verbeylen (2002); Verbeylen (2003)
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)Commercialized as ornamental and hedge plant Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Tephrosia candida (white tephrosia) Yes Yes
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)Widely commercialized as ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Terminalia muelleri (Australian almond)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Gilman and Watson (1993)
Thaumetopoea processionea (oak processionary moth) Yes Evans (2007)
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Cultivated in gardens, parks and as a houseplant Yes Yes
Thespesia populnea (portia tree) Yes Yes
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan) Yes Yes Whistler (2000)
Thunbergia erecta (bush clockvine)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady) Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Thunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)Plants are commonly planted in gardens and yards as ornamentals Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Thymophylla tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy)Used as ground cover, in flower beds, edges, in hanging baskets and as a potted plant Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2019); Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)
Tibouchina herbacea (cane tibouchina)May have been introduced to Hawaii as an ornamental Yes Frohlich and Lau (2007)
Tibouchina urvilleana (princessflower) Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower) Yes Yes Palm et al. (1996)
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Garden ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)Trade of ornamental plant material Yes Yes
Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt) Yes Yes
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Cultivated for its brightly coloured autumn foliage van Oosterhout et al. (2014)
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Ornamental and ground cover Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen) Yes Yes Foxcroft et al. (2007)
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily) Yes Yes Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (2011); PIER (2012)
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes Yes Hummel and Kiviat (2004)
Trimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris) Yes Yes
Triplaris americana (ant tree) Yes Yes Grandtner and Chevrette (2013)
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass)Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Tuberose mild mottle virus (tuberose mild mottle virus)Accidental Yes Yes Lin et al. (2004); Kulshrestha et al. (2005); Dey et al. (2018)
Turbina corymbosa (Christmas vine) Yes Yes Austin (1980); Austin and Staples (1991); Bosser and Heine (2000)
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)Often grown as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes USDA-NRCS (2010)
Typha x glauca (hybrid cattail)Inflorescences are sold as decorative objests Yes Yes Morton (1975)
Umbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow) Yes Grabowska et al. (2010)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) Yes Yes Gross and Werner (1978)
Verbena officinalis (vervain)Used occasionally as an ornamental, mostly in herb gardens Yes Yes PFAF (2020); PROTA (2020)
Vernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)Occasionally grown as ornamental for its showy flowers Yes Yes Miller et al. (2010)
Viguiera dentata (sunflower goldeneye)Sometimes planted as ornamental in gardens Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)
Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree)Often cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Vitex parviflora (molave)As an attractive ornamental species Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria) Yes Trusty et al. (2008)
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)Sometimes planted in gardens Yes Yes Manner (2011)
Xyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass)Grown as a pond plant Yes
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Sometimes planted as ornamental Yes Yes Loewenstein and Loewenstein (2005)
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) Yes Smith et al. (2012)
Yucca gigantea (spineless yucca)Popular indoor and outdoor ornamental Yes Yes Smith and Figueiredo (2016)
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes Yes
Zoysia matrella (Manila grass) Yes Yes