Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Nursery trade (pathway cause)



Nursery trade (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Nursery trade (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nursery trade (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Acer rufinerve (grey snake-bark maple)Widely raised and available from nurseries Yes
Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid)Adelges tsugae was inadvertently shipped to Maine from Connecticut on untreated nursery stock in 199 Yes
Adonidia merrillii (Christmas palm)Popular ornamental palm Yes Yes Lim (2012)
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) Yes
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Plants sold for gardens. Yes
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer) Yes Yes Cappaert et al. (2005); Poland and McCullough (2006)
Akebia quinata (five-leaf akebia)Intentional introduction Yes Swearingen et al. (2009); USDA-ARS (2013)
Albizia chinensis (Chinese albizia) Yes
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger)Ornamental Yes Yes
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger) Yes Yes Ibrahim (2001)
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant)Available at some nurseries. Yes
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine) Yes Yes
Amphisbaena fuliginosa (speckled worm lizard)Possible pathway Yes Murphy et al. (2010)
Amynthas agrestis (crazy worm)Movement with soil or other organic material accompanying plants Yes Yes Gates (1954; 1958); Görres and Melnichuk (2012)
Anolis cristatellus (Puerto Rican crested anole)In ornamental flowers Yes Perry et al. (2006); Yokoyama (2012)
Anolis extremus (Barbados anole)Possible for Florida, USA introduction Yes Bartlett and Bartlett (1998)
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant) Yes
Anoplophora chinensis (black and white citrus longhorn)Accidentally spread with woody plants for planting being shipped with eggs or larvae within infested hosts. Dozens of interceptions in Europe since 1980. Haack et al. (2010) EFSA (2019) Hérard and Maspero (2019). Yes Haack et al. (2010); EFSA (2019); Hérard and Maspero (2019)
Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)Seeds and plants sold online and in nurseries Yes Yes Burke and DiTommaso (2011)
Ardisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia) Yes PIER (2009)
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)Available at nurseries and advertised over internet Yes Wynman (1944)
Armillaria limonea Yes Yes
Armillaria novae-zelandiae Yes Yes
Aronia x prunifolia Yes Yes
Arthurdendyus triangulatus (New Zealand flatworm)Importation of containerised plants from New Zealand seems the most likely mechanism of invasion Yes Yes Blackshaw and Stewart (1992); Cannon et al. (1999); Dynes et al. (2001); Stewart and Blackshaw (1993); Willis and Edwards (1977)
Arundo donax (giant reed) Yes Yes Dudley (2000)
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Yes Brookes and Barley (1992); Mulvaney (1991)
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes Yes
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)Seeds and plants available for sale at nurseries and the Internet Yes Yes
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale) Yes Yes
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes Yes
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)Accidental, on infected plant material Yes Yes Carnegie and Cooper (2011); Kawanishi et al. (2009); Loope (2010); Loope et al. (2007); Zambino and Nolan (2012)
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato/potato psyllid) Yes Yes
Bambusa longispiculata (mahal bamboo)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Bambusa tuldoides (punting pole bamboo)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Plants available in nurseries in a number of contries Yes Yes
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes Connor (2002)
Bauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Begonia nelumbiifolia (lilypad begonia)Grown as an ornamental Yes
Blighia sapida (akee apple)Plants are sold in nurseries Yes Yes
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Popular ornamental. Widely commercialized Yes Yes
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Not documented but possible Yes Yes
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Seeds and plants available worldwide Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes Yes
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail)For use as medicinal plant or ornamental Yes Plants for a Future (2013)
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Widely commercialized in the horticulture trade Yes Yes Deng (2012)
Callisia fragrans (basketplant) Yes
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer) Yes Yes Gilbert et al. (2005)
Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (African greening)Propagation and sale of infected/infested plants Yes Yes
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (citrus greening)Deliberate introductions within countries Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (witches'-broom phytoplasma disease) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma solani (Stolbur phytoplasma)Transmission by vegetative multiplication of infected plant material is most important for the spread of phytoplasma diseases over long distances and the establishment of initial foci of infection in new growing areas Yes Belli et al. (2010)
Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma) Yes Yes
Canna indica (canna lilly) Yes Yes
Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)Grows as a weed in greenhouses Yes Yes ISSG (2019)
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes Henderson (2001)
Carpobrotus chilensis (sea fig)Sold as an ornamental at various nurseries and Internet sites Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2019); California Invasive Plant Council (2020)
Carpobrotus edulis (hottentot fig) Yes Yes
Cascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Cassytha filiformis (love-vine)An accidental introduction into USA on ornamental Protea plants has been reported Yes Yes USDA (2007)
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Often commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Cavanillesia platanifolia (cuipo)Seeds available at the Tropical Agricultural Experiment Station Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Centaurea macrocephala (giant knapweed) Yes
Ceratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)Sold by nurseries as an aquarium species Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Chilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer) Yes Yes
Chrysomyxa abietis (needle rust of fir) Yes Spaulding (1961)
Chrysomyxa rhododendri (European Rhododendron rust) Yes Yes Bennell (1985); Gould et al. (1955)
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Commercialized as an ornamental and medicinal plant Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato) Yes Yes
Clerodendrum lindleyi (clerodendrum)Grown as an ornamental plant Yes Yes Méndez Santos (2013)
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)Popular ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (chaya)Plants and cuttings available for sale Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2019)
Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) Yes Yes
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant) Yes
Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)Popular garden plant Yes Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos) Yes Yes Jansen (2005)
Costus spicatus (spiked spiralflag ginger)Plants commercialized as ornamentals Yes Yes
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray) Yes Yes
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus
Cowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)
Crassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop) Yes Yes OEPP/EPPO (2007)
Crassula ovata (jade plant)Collected from wild for illegal succulent trade Yes Yes Fragoso et al. (1999)
Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) Yes Yes Alverson and Sigg (2008)
Crescentia cujete (calabash tree)Available in some nurseries and on internet sites as an ornamental Yes Yes Gilman and Watson (1993)
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Many ornamental cultivars developed Yes Yes The Royal Horticultural Society (2016)
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine)This species is still sold in the nursery and landscape trade Yes Yes PIER (2012)
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusImportant method of movement of the virus between regions or across adjacent national land borders Yes Yes
Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows)Possible through movement of infected seedlings (rare, accidental) Yes Yes
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Yes
Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress) Yes Yes Dirr (2009)
Cuscuta campestris (field dodder) Yes Yes
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Presumed cause. Congeners known to be transported between greenhouses as contaminants Yes Yes Murakami et al. (2007)
Cydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Likely pathway of introduction to Europe Yes Leuthardt et al. (2010)
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not) Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes Yes
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes Yes
Deparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)Nursery culture may result in spore distribution in new and distant regions Yes Yes
Desmodium cajanifolium (tropical tick trefoil)Although not currently available, it appears on some horticultural Internet sites Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2020)
Desmodium incanum (creeping beggerweed)If promoted for forage and erosion control, it could be a weedy contaminant of other plants and soil Yes Yes
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane) Yes Croat (2004)
Dimorphotheca sinuata (Cape marigold)Popular ornamental plant due to attractive flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Used as an ornamental and available in nurseries Yes Yes Huttleston (1962)
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes Yes
Discus rotundatus (rotund disc)Sylviculture nurseries Yes Herbert (2010)
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball)Available at nurseries and for trade by gardeners Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2017)
Dracaena fragrans (corn plant)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2019)
Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop) Yes Yes
East Asian Passiflora virus Yes Yes
Eichhornia paniculata (Brazilian water hyacinth)Water gardens Yes Yes Hériteau and Thomas (1994)
Elaeagnus pungens (thorny olive) Yes Yes Miller (2003)
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Adults, juveniles and eggs are shipped over long distances and locally to nursery sites Yes Yes Christy et al. (2007); Dinsmore (2004); Jensen et al. (2008); Kraus et al. (1999); Olson et al. (2012)
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Epidendrum radicans (crucifix orchid) Yes Yes
Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth) Yes
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Lim (2014)
Eranthemum pulchellum (blue-sage)Deliberate Yes Gilman (1999)
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita)Weed in potted nursery plants Yes Yes Fried and Dumbardon-Martial (2015)
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Widely commercialized as ornamental/ shade tree/ hedge tree Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Erionota torus (banana skipper)Local movement of planting material will facilitate the movement of associated early stages. Yes Cock (2015)
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)See introduction to Bologna (Italy) for example. Yes Yes Bonn and Zwet (2000)
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger)Widely commercialized Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry) Yes Yes
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)Many nurseries stock the plant Yes Yes ISSG (2013)
Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree) Yes Yes
Euphorbia leucocephala (white Christmas bush)Widely used as an ornamental Yes Yes Steinmann (2014)
Euphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)Popular ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Euphorbia neriifolia (Indian spurge tree)Widely used as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Widely planted for ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)Ornamental Yes Yes Arnold (2010)
Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug)Accidental introduction on plants, and also on machinery, tools and workers Yes Yes
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes Mabberly (2008); Starr et al. (2003); USDA-ARS (2014); Whistler (2000)
Flacourtia indica (governor's plum) Yes
Forficula auricularia (European earwig)accidental; nymphs and adults Yes Yes Crumb et al. (1941); Weems and Skelley (2010)
Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)Inadvertently transported in infested plant material. Commonly intercepted on transported plant mate Yes Yes Nickle (2003); Vierbergen (1995)
Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) Yes
Furcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp)Xeric landscaping plant Yes Yes
Fusicladium effusum (pecan scab) Yes Yes
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Weed in nurseries Yes Yes Damalas (2008)
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)Common weed in nurseries Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede (2010)
Galphimia glauca (goldshower)Cultivated and commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Floridata (2015)
Galphimia gracilis (goldshower)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Anderson (2007)
Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy) Yes Yes
Glyceria maxima (reed sweet-grass)Seedlings sold in Victoria in the 1940s Yes Yes Gippsland and Northern Co-operative CoLtd (1940)
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton) Yes Yes
Grapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus) Yes Yes Cieniewicz et al. (2017a); Sudarshana et al. (2015)
Gunnera tinctoria (giant rhubarb)Nurseries selling the species in UK can be found by an internet search. Available in nurseries in Au Yes Plant and Robertson (2008)
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant) Yes
Haplaxius crudus (American palm cixiid) Yes
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2014)
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes
Helianthus debilis (beach sunflower)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Gilman and Park-Brown (1999)
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Yes Tiley et al. (1996)
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes Yes
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)Garden ornamental Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood) Yes Yes
Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage) Yes Yes PIER (2007)
Holcus lanatus (common velvet grass) Yes Yes
Humulus scandens (Japanese hop) Yes Yes
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)Grown worldwide as a medicinal plant and sometimes as an ornamental Yes Yes
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam) Yes Yes van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Extensively cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Adamowski (2008)
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes Yes
Indigofera spicata (creeping indigo)Soil with cuttings and seeds are transported between sites Yes Yes Morton (1989)
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)Grown as a garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )Often cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Extensively commercialized as an ornamental vine Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2017)
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Ipomoea ochracea (fence morning-glory)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Potential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Iris domestica (blackberry lily)Available at various nurseries Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2018)
Iris yellow spot virus (iris yellow spot) Yes Yes Gent et al. (2006); Pappu et al. (2009)
Ixora casei (giant red ixora)Ornamental, hedge plant Yes Yes Keeler et al. (2003)
Ixora coccinea (flame-of-the-woods)Deliberate sales Yes Yes
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda) Yes Yes
Jasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)Plants and seeds are sold online Frequently used as ornamental and hedge plant Yes Yes
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Some vendors have it available Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2018)
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Jatropha integerrima (peregrina)The species is widely used as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical areas and available at nurseries worldwide Yes Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Nursery stock sold in USA & Europe Yes
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Widely commercialized as indoor and outdoor plant Yes Yes Kalanchoe Growers (2016)
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Plants and seedlings commercialized as ornamentals Yes Yes Moran (2009)
Kigelia africana (sausage tree)Available in the nursery trade Yes Yes
Laelia rubescens (flor de la concepción) Yes
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2014)
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Commercialized as an ornamental tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)Ornamental Yes Yes Branca and Donnini (2011)
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Some Lemna species are available for sale at aquaria and nurseries Yes Yes Pott (2002)
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes Maki and Galatowitsch (2004)
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Used in herbal traditional medicine Yes Yes Teo and Pin (2001)
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid)The most relevant pathway Yes Yes
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes Yes
Lespedeza cuneata (sericea lespedeza)Available from horticultural suppliers Yes Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes Yes
Leucophyllum frutescens (Texas barometer bush)Popular ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)Available at nurseries and internet sites Yes Yes
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Widely used as ornamental and hedge plants Yes Swarbrick et al. (1999)
Ligustrum obtusifolium (border privet) Yes Maddox et al. (2010)
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)Widespread hedging plant Yes
Lilioceris lilii (lily leaf beetle) Yes Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Accidental transport with vegetation, soil, machinery and packaging Yes Yes
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Lonicera confusa Yes San Marcos Growers (2016)
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) Yes Yes Swearingen et al. (2010)
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes Okada et al. (2009)
Ludwigia palustris (marsh seedbox)Aquatic ornamental, aquarium plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2020)
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Yes Washington State Department of Ecology (1994-2009)
Lumbricus rubellus Yes Yes
Lumbricus terrestris Yes Yes
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)It is sold at nurseries Yes Yes USDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)
Lygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern) Yes Yes
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) Yes USDA-NRCS (2007)
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) Yes Yes Harman (in press)
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Often planted as ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes Henny et al. (1994, publ. 1995)
Malvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)Garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)Cultivated and commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)Associated with aquatic plants Yes Yes
Megaplatypus mutatus Yes
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree) Yes Dray et al. (2006)
Melinis repens (natal redtop)Sold as an ornamental Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Movement of infected plants. Yes Yes
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Ornamental Yes Yes Mansur (2001)
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Commercially cultivated and available as an ornamental. Yes Yes DAISIE (2016)
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)Species available via nurseries in North America and Australia Yes
Molineria capitulata (palm-grass)Deliberate Yes Burkill (1985)
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Accidental introduction, rare pathway Yes
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Traded as an ornamental and fruit tree. The tiny seeds can travel inadvertently in horticultural substrates Yes Yes Hrusa et al. (2002)
Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)Available at nurseries and stores Yes Yes Bové (2006)
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Seeds and plants Yes Yes Ogbu (2011)
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Alejandro et al. (2016)
Mycosphaerella gibsonii (needle blight of pine) Yes Yes
Myriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil) Yes Yes Gregory (2003)
Nandina domestica (Nandina)Widely sold at wholesale and retail nurseries Yes Yes Trueblood (2009); Wirth et al. (2004)
Neolecanium cornuparvum (magnolia scale) Yes Yes
Nerium oleander (oleander)For use as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2020)
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Available at various nurseries and online sites Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2017)
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes NWCB (2007)
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Ornamental, aromatic, culinary plant Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)Commercialised as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel (1995)
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard) Yes Daniel (1995)
Oeceoclades maculata (monk orchid)Seeds and plants sold online Yes Yes
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive) Yes
Opogona sacchari (banana moth) Yes
Opuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear) Yes Yes
Opuntia engelmannii (cactus apple) Yes Yes
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) Yes Yes
Orbea variegata (carrion-flower) Yes
Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog) Yes Yes
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel) Yes Yes
Pachira aquatica (pachira nut)Propagated and sold in nurseries and exported Yes Yes Duff (2012); Lee et al. (2002)
Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp) Yes
Pandanus dubius (bakong)Propagated at various nurseries for ornamental purposes Yes Yes
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes
Pandanus utilis (common screw pine)Deliberate Yes PROTA (2020)
Pantherophis guttatus (corn snake)This species has been introduced via cargo and nurseries. Yes Yes Kraus (2009)
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Long distance and local trade in infested plants Yes Yes Macharia et al. (2017)
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit) Yes Yes
Passion fruit woodiness virus (passionfruit woodiness disease)Accidental with exchange of live Passiflora plant material Yes Baker et al. (2014)
Paysandisia archon (South American palm borer)From Argentina to Italy, France and Spain. Yes Riolo et al. (2004); Sarto and Aguilar (2001)
Pear blister canker viroid Yes Yes
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium) Yes Yes Miller (1996); SANBI (2014); Walt JJAvan der (1977)
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Ornamental plants Yes Yes Florabase (2012)
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Cultivated and commercialized as an ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes
Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)Widely planted for traditional medicine purposes Yes Yes Alegre and Clavo (2007)
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Plants and cuttings available over the internet and at nurseries worldwide Yes Yes PROTA (2019); Dave's Garden (2019)
Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm) Yes DiTomaso and Healy (2006)
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Sold as an ornamental Yes Gucker (2009)
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo)Sold as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry) Yes Yes
Phytophthora alni species complex (alder Phytophthora)Spread by planting infected nursery material Yes Jung and Blaschke (2004); Schumacher et al. (2005); Jung et al. (2016)
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)Probably very common Yes Yes Davison et al. (2006)
Phytophthora kernoviaePrimary method of concern for spread of disease; on plant material and rootstock Yes Yes EPPO (2013)
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Yes Brasier et al. (2012); Zobel et al. (1985)
Pinus elliottii (slash pine) Yes Yes
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Yes Yes Gherardi (2007)
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug)Accidental introduction on imported plants, transport on workers, tools and machinery Yes Yes Gerson (2016)
Plantago asiatica mosaic virusDistribution of infected plants of cultivars of N. domestica through the nursery trade Yes Yes
Plantago coronopus (Buck's-horn plantain) Yes Yes
Platydemus manokwari (New guinea flatworm)P. manokwari can be readily transported in soil on potted plants Yes Yes Sugiura (2008)
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus) Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2014b)
Plum pox virus (sharka)Nursery stock. Yes
Plumbago auriculata (cape leadwort) Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)Popular ornamental tree Yes Yes Criley (2005)
Polyscias balfouriana (Balfour aralia)Cultivated as a landscape ornamental and indoor potted plant Yes Yes Lowry and Plunkett (2010)
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia)Ornamental and hedge plant Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Polyscias guilfoylei (geranium aralia)Popular ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech) Yes Cooper et al. (2019)
Populus alba (silver-leaf poplar) Yes Jobling (1990)
Poranopsis paniculata (bridal bouquet)Deliberate Yes Staples (2006)
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes Yes
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch (2004)
Pseuderanthemum carruthersii (false eranthemum)Deliberate Yes Dave's Garden (2019)
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On ornamental plants, shrubs and trees Yes Yes
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Ornamental vine Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) Yes Samson (1989)
Pteris multifida (spider brake)Available at nurseries Yes Yes Keener et al. (2020)
Pteris tripartita (giant brake)Introduced to Florida through nursery trade Yes Yes Huttleston (1962)
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Available at some nurseries. Rare Yes Yes
Puccinia buxiAnticipated possibility Yes Yes NAPPO (2006)
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)Sold in nurseries Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)From Europe to USA and Australia probably with European settlements Yes Yes
Raoiella indica (red palm mite)PPQ Plant Inspection required for untreated shipments in N. Atlantic/N.Pacific ports, USA Yes
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Deliberate, occasional Yes Yes Campbell (1977); Staples and Herbst (2005)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac) Yes Yes
Rivina humilis (bloodberry)Assumed Yes Yes
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Yes
Roystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm) Yes Yes
Rubus ellipticus (yellow Himalayan raspberry) Yes Gardner (1999)
Rubus niveus (Mysore raspberry) Yes Yes ISSG (2014)
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)Commercialised as ornamental Yes Yes ISSG (2010)
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia)Grown as ornamental Yes Yes Hupp et al. (2013)
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Ornamental plant available at nurseries Yes Yes
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG (2009)
Salvinia biloba (giant salvinia)The species is used locally as an ornamental Yes San Pedro Naturaleza (2020)
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed) Yes Yes McFarland et al. (2004)
Sambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)Commercialized for its fruits and as an ornamental Yes Yes Charlebois et al. (2010)
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Ornamental plant Yes Yes Daniel (1995)
Sanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)Widely commercialized Yes Yes Paydar et al. (2013)
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp) Yes Yes ISSG (2012)
Schefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree) Yes Yes Gucker (2011)
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes
Senna alata (candle bush)Plants sold locally and over the internet for ornamental purposes Yes Yes
Sesbania grandiflora (sesbania) Yes Yes
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes Yes
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry) Yes Yes
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Gallagher et al. (2010)
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Equipment, planting material - accidental Yes ISSG (2014)
Solenopsis richteri (black imported fire ant) Yes Yes Lofgren et al. (1975); Wilson and Brown (1958)
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom) Yes Yes
Spathodea campanulata (African tulip tree) Yes ICRAF (2008)
Spathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)Used as ornamentals and potted-plants Yes Yes
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes Yes
Sphaerodactylus vincenti (Saint Vincent dwarf gecko)Possible invasion pathway by humans Yes Daltry (2009)
Sphagneticola trilobata (wedelia) Yes Yes
Spirodela polyrrhiza (giant duckweed)As an ornamental for fish tanks and ponds Yes Aquagreen (2020); Les (2020)
Sporobolus junceus (pineywoods dropseed)In a few local native plant nurseries in Florida, USA Yes Institute for Regional Conservation (2020)
Stachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail) Yes Yes Kuo (2003)
Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma (grassy shoot of sugarcane) Yes Yes
sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma (white leaf of sugarcane) Yes Yes
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (New York aster) Yes Yes
Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine) Yes Yes ISSG (2012); PIER (2012)
Tabebuia rosea (pink poui) Yes Yes
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar)Still on sale Yes
Tapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)Due to its tendency to nest in potted plants, these must be considered a risk Yes Yes Appel et al. (2004)
Terminalia muelleri (Australian almond)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Gilman and Watson (1993)
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan) Yes Yes Whistler (2000)
Thunbergia erecta (bush clockvine)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)Cultivated as ornamental for its attractive flowers Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Thunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)Plants are used as ornamentals Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Thymophylla tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy)Seeds are available at various internet sites worldwide Yes Yes
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Widely commercialized as garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tomato brown rugose fruit virus)Could be more important for local distribution of the virus Yes Yes
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)Trade of seedlings Yes Yes
Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt) Yes Yes
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)Export/import of infected seedlings. Yes Polston and Anderson (1997)
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Ornamental and ground cover Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)Commonly planted as an ornamental Yes Yes Foxcroft et al. (2007)
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Plants used as ornamentals Yes Yes ISSG (2012)
Tradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)Commonly sold Yes Biosecurity Queensland (2012)
Trimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris)Ornamental Yes Yes
Triphasia trifolia (limeberry) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes USDA-NRCS (2010)
Verbena officinalis (vervain)Mainly for its use as a herbal remedy Yes Yes PFAF (2020); PROTA (2020)
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes Yes Royal Horticultural Society (2015)
Veronicella cubensis (Cuban slug) Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2010)
Vespula pensylvanica (western yellowjacket)Christmas tree trade Yes Yes
Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree)Often cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex)Excepting North Carolina, it is legal to propagate in the USA and remains in the nursery trade Yes Yes Cousins et al. (2010a); North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (2015)
Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) Yes Yes
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Popular ornamental plant, widely sold internationally Yes Yes Trusty et al. (2008)
Xylophilus ampelinus (bacterial blight of grapevine) Yes Yes
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) Yes Smith et al. (2012)
Yucca gigantea (spineless yucca)Popular indoor and outdoor ornamental Yes Yes Smith and Figueiredo (2016)
Zachrysia provisoria (Cuban brown snail)Occasional, accidental Yes Yes Robinson and Fields (2004)
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Unintentionally with other species in nursery pots Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2018)
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes Yes