Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Nursery trade (pathway cause)



Nursery trade (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Nursery trade (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nursery trade (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Acer rufinerve (grey snake-bark maple)Widely raised and available from nurseries Yes
Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid)Adelges tsugae was inadvertently shipped to Maine from Connecticut on untreated nursery stock in 199 Yes
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) Yes
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Plants sold for gardens. Yes
Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer) Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005; Poland and McCullough, 2006
Akebia quinata (five-leaf akebia)Intentional introduction Yes Swearingen et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2013
Albizia chinensis (Chinese albizia) Yes
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2019
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger)Ornamental Yes Yes
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger) Yes Yes Ibrahim, 2001
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant)Available at some nurseries. Yes
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine) Yes Yes
Amphisbaena fuliginosa (speckled worm lizard)Possible pathway Yes Murphy et al., 2010
Amynthas agrestis (crazy worm)Movement with soil or other organic material accompanying plants Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005; Görres and Melnichuk, 2012
Anolis cristatellus (Puerto Rican crested anole)In ornamental flowers Yes Perry et al., 2006; Yokoyama, 2012
Anolis extremus (Barbados anole)Possible for Florida, USA introduction Yes Bartlett and Bartlett, 1998
Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant) Yes
Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)Seeds and plants sold online and in nurseries Yes Yes Burke and DiTommaso, 2011
Ardisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia) Yes PIER, 2009
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)Available at nurseries and advertised over internet Yes Wynman, 1944
Armillaria limonea Yes Yes
Armillaria novae-zelandiae Yes Yes
Aronia x prunifolia Yes Yes
Arthurdendyus triangulatus (New Zealand flatworm)Importation of containerised plants from New Zealand seems the most likely mechanism of invasion Yes Yes Blackshaw and Stewart, 1992; Cannon et al., 1999; Dynes et al., 2001; Stewart and Blackshaw, 1993; Willis and Edwards, 1977
Arundo donax (giant reed) Yes Yes Dudley, 2000
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Yes Brookes and Barley, 1992; Mulvaney, 1991
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes Yes
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale) Yes Yes
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes Yes
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)Accidental, on infected plant material Yes Yes Carnegie and Cooper, 2011; Kawanishi et al., 2009; Loope, 2010; Loope et al., 2007; Zambino and Nolan, 2012
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato/potato psyllid) Yes
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Plants available in nurseries in a number of contries Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes Connor, 2002
Bauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Popular ornamental. Widely commercialized Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Not documented but possible Yes Yes
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Seeds and plants available worldwide Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes Yes
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail)For use as medicinal plant or ornamental Yes Plants for a Future, 2013
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Widely commercialized in the horticulture trade Yes Yes Deng, 2012
Callisia fragrans (basketplant) Yes
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2013
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer) Yes Yes Gilbert et al., 2005
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (witches'-broom phytoplasma disease) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma solani (Stolbur phytoplasma)Transmission by vegetative multiplication of infected plant material is most important for the spread of phytoplasma diseases over long distances and the establishment of initial foci of infection in new growing areas Yes Belli et al., 2010
Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma) Yes Yes
Canna indica (canna lilly) Yes Yes
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes Henderson, 2001
Carpobrotus edulis (hottentot fig) Yes Yes
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Often commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Centaurea macrocephala (giant knapweed) Yes
Chilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer) Yes Yes
Chrysomyxa abietis (needle rust of fir) Yes Spaulding, 1961
Chrysomyxa rhododendri (European Rhododendron rust) Yes Yes Bennell, 1985; Gould et al., 1955
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Commercialized as an ornamental and medicinal plant Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) Yes Yes
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant) Yes
Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)Popular garden plant Yes Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos) Yes Yes Jansen, 2005
Costus spicatus (spiked spiralflag ginger)Plants commercialized as ornamentals Yes Yes
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray) Yes Yes
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (African cotton leaf curl begomovirus)
Crassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop) Yes Yes OEPP/EPPO, 2007
Crassula ovata (jade plant)Collected from wild for illegal succulent trade Yes Yes Fragoso et al., 1999
Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) Yes Yes Alverson and Sigg, 2008
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Many ornamental cultivars developed Yes Yes The Royal Horticultural Society, 2016
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine)This species is still sold in the nursery and landscape trade Yes Yes PIER, 2012
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusImportant method of movement of the virus between regions or across adjacent national land borders Yes Yes
Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows)Possible through movement of infected seedlings (rare, accidental) Yes Yes
Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress) Yes Yes Dirr, 2009
Cuscuta campestris (field dodder) Yes Yes
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Presumed cause. Congeners known to be transported between greenhouses as contaminants Yes Yes Murakami et al., 2007
Cydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Likely pathway of introduction to Europe Yes Leuthardt et al., 2010
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not) Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2013
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes Yes
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes Yes
Deparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)Nursery culture may result in spore distribution in new and distant regions Yes Yes
Desmodium incanum (creeping beggerweed)If promoted for forage and erosion control, it could be a weedy contaminant of other plants and soil Yes Yes
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane) Yes Croat, 2004
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes Yes
Discus rotundatus (rotund disc)Sylviculture nurseries Yes Herbert, 2010
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball)Available at nurseries and for trade by gardeners Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop) Yes Yes
East Asian Passiflora virus Yes Yes
Eichhornia paniculata (Brazilian water hyacinth)Water gardens Yes Yes Hériteau and Thomas, 1994
Elaeagnus pungens (thorny olive) Yes Yes Miller, 2003
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Adults, juveniles and eggs are shipped over long distances and locally to nursery sites Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005; Dinsmore, 2004; Jensen et al., 2008; Kraus et al., 1999; Cappaert et al., 2005
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth) Yes
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita)Weed in potted nursery plants Yes Yes Fried and Dumbardon-Martial, 2015
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Widely commercialized as ornamental/ shade tree/ hedge tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Erionota torus (banana skipper)Local movement of planting material will facilitate the movement of associated early stages. Yes Cock, 2015
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)See introduction to Bologna (Italy) for example. Yes Yes Bonn and Zwet, 2000
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger)Widely commercialized Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry) Yes Yes
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)Many nurseries stock the plant Yes Yes ISSG, 2013
Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree) Yes Yes
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Widely planted for ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)Ornamental Yes Yes Arnold, 2010
Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug)Accidental introduction on plants, and also on machinery, tools and workers Yes Yes
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes Mabberly, 2008; Starr et al., 2003; USDA-ARS, 2014; Whistler, 2000
Flacourtia indica (governor's plum) Yes
Forficula auricularia (European earwig)accidental; nymphs and adults Yes Yes Crumb et al., 1941; Weems and Skelley, 2010
Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)Inadvertently transported in infested plant material. Commonly intercepted on transported plant mate Yes Yes Nickle, 2003; Vierbergen, 1995
Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) Yes
Furcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp)Xeric landscaping plant Yes Yes
Fusicladium effusum (pecan scab) Yes Yes
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Weed in nurseries Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)Common weed in nurseries Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
Galphimia glauca (goldshower )Cultivated and commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Floridata, 2015
Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy) Yes Yes
Glyceria maxima (reed sweet-grass)Seedlings sold in Victoria in the 1940s Yes Yes Gippsland and Northern Co-operative CoLtd, 1940
Grapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus) Yes Yes Cieniewicz et al., 2017a; Sudarshana et al., 2015
Gunnera tinctoria (giant rhubarb)Nurseries selling the species in UK can be found by an internet search. Available in nurseries in Au Yes Plant and Robertson, 2008
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant) Yes
Haplaxius crudus (American palm cixiid) Yes
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Yes Tiley et al., 1996
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes Yes
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)Garden ornamental Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood) Yes Yes
Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage) Yes Yes PIER, 2007
Holcus lanatus (common velvet grass) Yes Yes
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)Grown worldwide as a medicinal plant and sometimes as an ornamental Yes Yes
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam) Yes Yes van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Extensively cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Adamowski, 2008
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes Yes
Indigofera spicata (creeping indigo)Soil with cuttings and seeds are transported between sites Yes Yes Morton, 1989
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )Often cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Extensively commercialized as an ornamental vine Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Ipomoea ochracea (fence morning-glory)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Potential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Iris domestica (blackberry lily)Available at various nurseries Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Iris yellow spot virus (iris yellow spot) Yes Yes Gent et al., 2006; Pappu et al., 2009
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda) Yes Yes
Jasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)Plants and seeds are sold online Frequently used as ornamental and hedge plant Yes Yes
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Some vendors have it available Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Nursery stock sold in USA & Europe Yes
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Widely commercialized as indoor and outdoor plant Yes Yes Kalanchoe Growers, 2016
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Plants and seedlings commercialized as ornamentals Yes Yes Moran, 2009
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Commercialized as an ornamental tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)Ornamental Yes Yes Branca and Donnini, 2011
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Some Lemna species are available for sale at aquaria and nurseries Yes Yes Pott, 2002
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes Maki and Galatowitsch, 2004
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Used in herbal traditional medicine Yes Yes Teo and Pin, 2001
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid)The most relevant pathway Yes Yes
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes Yes
Liberibacter africanus (African greening)Deliberate introductions within countries Yes
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening)Deliberate introductions within countries Yes
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Widely used as ornamental and hedge plants Yes Swarbrick et al., 1999
Ligustrum obtusifolium (border privet) Yes Maddox et al., 2010
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)Widespread hedging plant Yes
Lilioceris lilii (lily leaf beetle) Yes Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Accidental transport with vegetation, soil, machinery and packaging Yes Yes
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Lonicera confusa Yes San Marcos Growers, 2016
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) Yes Yes Swearingen et al., 2010
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes Okada et al., 2009
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Lumbricus rubellus Yes Yes
Lumbricus terrestris Yes Yes
Lygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern) Yes Yes
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Often planted as ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)Cultivated and commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)Associated with aquatic plants Yes Yes
Megaplatypus mutatus Yes
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree) Yes Dray et al., 2006
Melinis repens (natal redtop)Sold as an ornamental Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Movement of infected plants. Yes Yes
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Ornamental Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Commercially cultivated and available as an ornamental. Yes Yes DAISIE, 2016
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)Species available via nurseries in North America and Australia Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Accidental introduction, rare pathway Yes
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Traded as an ornamental and fruit tree. The tiny seeds can travel inadvertently in horticultural substrates Yes Yes Hrusa et al., 2002
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Seeds and plants Yes Yes Ogbu, 2011
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Alejandro et al., 2016
Mycosphaerella gibsonii (needle blight of pine) Yes Yes
Myriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil) Yes Yes Gregory, 2003
Nandina domestica (Nandina)Widely sold at wholesale and retail nurseries Yes Yes Trueblood, 2009; Wirth et al., 2004
Neolecanium cornuparvum (magnolia scale) Yes Yes
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Available at various nurseries and online sites Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes NWCB, 2007
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Ornamental, aromatic, culinary plant Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)Commercialised as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel, 1995
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard) Yes Daniel, 1995
Oeceoclades maculata (monk orchid)Seeds and plants sold online Yes Yes
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive) Yes
Opogona sacchari (banana moth) Yes
Opuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear) Yes Yes
Opuntia engelmannii (cactus apple) Yes Yes
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) Yes Yes
Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog) Yes Yes
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel) Yes Yes
Pachira aquatica (pachira nut)Propagated and sold in nurseries and exported Yes Yes Duff, 2012; Lee et al., 2002
Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp) Yes
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes
Pantherophis guttatus (corn snake)This species has been introduced via cargo and nurseries. Yes Yes Kraus, 2009
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Long distance and local trade in infested plants Yes Yes Macharia et al., 2017
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit) Yes Yes
Paysandisia archon (South American palm borer)From Argentina to Italy, France and Spain. Yes Riolo et al., 2004; Sarto and Aguilar, 2001
Pear blister canker viroid Yes Yes
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium) Yes Yes Miller, 1996; SANBI, 2014; Cappaert et al., 2005
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Ornamental plants Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Cultivated and commercialized as an ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes
Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)Widely planted for traditional medicine purposes Yes Yes Alegre and Clavo, 2007
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Plants and cuttings available over the internet and at nurseries worldwide Yes Yes PROTA, 2019; Cappaert et al., 2005
Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm) Yes DiTomaso and Healy, 2006
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Sold as an ornamental Yes Gucker, 2009
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo)Sold as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry) Yes Yes
Phytophthora alni species complex (alder Phytophthora)Spread by planting infected nursery material Yes Jung and Blaschke, 2004; Schumacher et al., 2005; Jung et al., 2016
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)Probably very common Yes Yes Davison et al., 2006
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Yes Brasier et al., 2012; Zobel et al., 1985
Pinus elliottii (slash pine) Yes Yes
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Yes Yes Gherardi, 2007
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug)Accidental introduction on imported plants, transport on workers, tools and machinery Yes Yes Gerson, 2016
Plantago asiatica mosaic virusDistribution of infected plants of cultivars of N. domestica through the nursery trade Yes Yes
Plantago coronopus (Buck's-horn plantain) Yes Yes
Platydemus manokwari (New guinea flatworm)P. manokwari can be readily transported in soil on potted plants Yes Yes Sugiura, 2008
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus) Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014b
Plum pox virus (sharka)Nursery stock. Yes
Populus alba (silver-leaf poplar) Yes Jobling, 1990
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes Yes
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch, 2004
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On ornamental plants, shrubs and trees Yes Yes
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Ornamental vine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) Yes Samson, 1989
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Available at some nurseries. Rare Yes Yes
Puccinia buxiAnticipated possibility Yes Yes NAPPO, 2006
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)Sold in nurseries Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Pyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)From Europe to USA and Australia probably with European settlements Yes Yes
Raoiella indica (red palm mite)PPQ Plant Inspection required for untreated shipments in N. Atlantic/N.Pacific ports, USA Yes
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Deliberate, occasional Yes Yes Campbell, 1977; Staples and Herbst, 2005
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac) Yes Yes
Rivina humilis (bloodberry)Assumed Yes Yes
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Yes
Roystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm) Yes Yes
Rubus ellipticus (yellow Himalayan raspberry) Yes Gardner, 1999
Rubus niveus (Mysore raspberry) Yes Yes ISSG, 2014
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)Commercialised as ornamental Yes Yes ISSG, 2010
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia)Grown as ornamental Yes Yes Hupp et al., 2013
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Ornamental plant available at nurseries Yes Yes
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG, 2009
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed) Yes Yes McFarland et al., 2004
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Ornamental plant Yes Yes Daniel, 1995
Sanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)Widely commercialized Yes Yes Paydar et al., 2013
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp) Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Schefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree) Yes Yes Gucker, 2011
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes
Senna alata (candle bush)Plants sold locally and over the internet for ornamental purposes Yes Yes
Sesbania grandiflora (sesbania) Yes Yes
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes Yes
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry) Yes Yes
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Gallagher et al., 2010
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Equipment, planting material - accidental Yes ISSG, 2014
Solenopsis richteri (black imported fire ant) Yes Yes Lofgren et al., 1975; Wilson and Brown, 1958
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom) Yes Yes
Spathodea campanulata (African tulip tree) Yes ICRAF, 2008
Spathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)Used as ornamentals and potted-plants Yes Yes
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes Yes
Sphaerodactylus vincenti (Saint Vincent dwarf gecko)Possible invasion pathway by humans Yes Daltry, 2009
Sphagneticola trilobata (wedelia) Yes Yes
Stachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail) Yes Yes Kuo, 2003
Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma (grassy shoot of sugarcane) Yes Yes
sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma (white leaf of sugarcane) Yes Yes
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (New York aster) Yes Yes
Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine) Yes Yes ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012
Tabebuia rosea (pink poui) Yes Yes
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar)Still on sale Yes
Tapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)Due to its tendency to nest in potted plants, these must be considered a risk Yes Yes Appel et al., 2004
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan) Yes Yes Whistler, 2000
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)Cultivated as ornamental for its attractive flowers Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Thunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)Plants are used as ornamentals Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Widely commercialized as garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)Trade of seedlings Yes Yes
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)Export/import of infected seedlings. Yes Polston and Anderson, 1997
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Ornamental and ground cover Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)Commonly planted as an ornamental Yes Yes Foxcroft et al., 2007
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Plants used as ornamentals Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Tradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)Commonly sold Yes Biosecurity Queensland, 2012
Trimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris)Ornamental Yes Yes
Triphasia trifolia (limeberry) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes USDA-NRCS, 2010
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes Yes Royal Horticultural Society, 2015
Veronicella cubensis (Cuban slug) Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Vespula pensylvanica (western yellowjacket)Christmas tree trade Yes Yes
Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex)Excepting North Carolina, it is legal to propagate in the USA and remains in the nursery trade Yes Yes Cousins et al., 2010a; North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2015
Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) Yes Yes
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Popular ornamental plant, widely sold internationally Yes Yes Trusty et al., 2008
Xylophilus ampelinus (canker of grapevine) Yes Yes
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) Yes Smith et al., 2012
Zachrysia provisoria (Cuban brown snail)Occasional, accidental Yes Yes Robinson and Fields, 2004
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Unintentionally with other species in nursery pots Yes Yes Cappaert et al., 2005
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes Yes