Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Medicinal use (pathway cause)

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Datasheet

Medicinal use (pathway cause)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Medicinal use (pathway cause)
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Medicinal use (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Abrus precatorius (rosary pea) Yes Yes Motooka et al. (2003); Padua et al. (1999); Weber (2003)
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Various medicinal uses reported. Yes Achigan-Dako (2010)
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)Used for traditional medicine in various countries Yes Pandikumar et al. (2011); Rout et al. (2009)
Acacia angustissima (prairie acacia)Used in Mexico for traditional medicinal purposes. Yes Berlin and Berlin (1996)
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)Used in ethnobotany in Australia. Yes Contu (2012)
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)Long history of various medicinal uses; cultivated and introduced for medicinal uses Yes Yes Applequist and Moerman (2011); Mitich (1990)
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip) Yes Yes Girach et al. (1992)
Aeginetia indica (forest ghost flower)The species is used for traditional medicinal purposes Yes Yes Lemmens (2003)
Agave americana (century plant)Leaves and sap used in traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Agave fourcroydes (henequen)Leaves and roots sometimes used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Fern (2014)
Agave sisalana (sisal hemp) Yes Yes FAO (2012)
Agdestis clematidea (rockroot)Medicinal herb Yes Yes Abreu et al. (2008)
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)Used in ethnobotany over its range Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, deliberate Yes Feret (1985)
Albizia adinocephala (cream albizia) Yes Ovenden et al. (2002)
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)Leaves and seeds are used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Albizia niopoides (silk tree)Roots and bark used in traditional medicine in South America Yes Yes Vozzo (2002)
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)Leaves and roots are used in traditional herbal medicine as a purgative Yes Yes Liogier (1990)
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Aloe vera (true aloe)One of the oldest known medicinal herbs Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)Popular medicinal plant Yes Yes Hurrell (2018)
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger) Yes Yes
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant)Used locally to treat various ailments. Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2016)
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)Species is used in Ayurveda and SE Asian medicine Yes Duke (1981); Hanelt et al. (2001); Quattrocchi (2012)
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort)Imported into North America as medicinal herb Yes Mosley (2014)
Amaranthus cruentus (red amaranth)Amaranth oil is a powerful antioxidant used as a dietary supplement for diabetes and those suffering from hypertension and metabolic disorders Yes Yes Pal and Khoshoo (1974); Teutonico and Knorr (1985)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) Yes Yes
Ambrosia peruviana (Peruvian ragweed)Often used as a medicinal herb Yes Yes Lans (2007)
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) Yes Yes
Anethum graveolens (dill) Yes Yes Jana and Shekhawat (2010)
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Shil and Choudhury (2009)
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)Plant parts known to have folkloric medicinal uses Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); Jansen et al. (1991); UK Natural History Museum (2014)
Anredera vesicaria (Texas madeira vine)Used for traditional medicine Yes Yes Ankli et al. (1999); Burgos (2014); Cruz Frías et al. (2016)
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy) Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper) Yes Yes
Aristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe) Yes Duke (2015); Hance (1873); USDA-ARS (2015)
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe) Yes Duke (2015); Hance (1873); USDA-ARS (2015)
Aronia x prunifolia Yes Yes
Arracacia xanthorrhiza (arracacha)With some local ethnobotanical and veterinary uses. Yes Hermann (1997)
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)Used in traditional medicine in the Pacific and Caribbean Yes Yes Ragone (2006)
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)Ethnobotanical uses reported Yes PROTA (2020)
Atriplex argentea (silverscale saltbush) Yes
Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)Used for a variety of traditional uses in local medicine Yes Orwa et al. (2009); Quisumbing (1951); Samson (1991)
Bacopa monnieri (water hyssop)Widely commercialized as medicinal herb Yes Yes PROSEA (2017)
Balanites aegyptiaca (simple-thorned torchwood)Used in traditional African medicine Yes PROTA (2016)
Bambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)Cultivated as medicinal herb Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal (2016)
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal (2016)
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Bauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)Used in Asian and African traditional medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009); PROTA (2015)
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)Bark is used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Begonia nelumbiifolia (lilypad begonia)In its native range in Mexico Yes Alonso-Castro et al. (2012)
Bidens frondosa (beggarticks) Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2014); Online Atlas of British and Irish Flora (2014)
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Extensively used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Bixa orellana (annatto) Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Blighia sapida (akee apple)Used medicinally Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
Bocconia frutescens (plume poppy)Used and cultivated within native range for a variety of medicinal purposes Yes Duke (2008)
Boerhavia coccinea (scarlet spiderling)Used in traditional medicine in Africa, Mexico, South America and India. Yes Filipov (1994); Osuna et al. (2005); Ramabhimaiah et al. (1984); Struwig and Siebert (2013)
Boerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)Plant parts used medicinally in Asia Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Bontia daphnoides (white alling)Used in traditional medicine Yes Wong (1976); Liogier (1990); Lans (2006)
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Potential pharmaceutical applications Yes Yes Xu et al. (2009)
Brassica juncea (mustard) Yes Canadian Food Inspection Agency (2008)
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Some ethnobotanical uses Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal (2018)
Breynia disticha (snowbush)Ethnobotanical uses are reported Yes Okokon et al. (2015) (2017)
Brugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Alvarez (2008)
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail) Yes Yes Plants for a Future (2013)
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes DeFilipps et al. (2004)
Callisia fragrans (basketplant)Cultivated in Russia Yes Schvoong (2012)
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)Traded locally for use in medicine; species grown commercially for essential oils which are used in perfume and traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) Yes Olowokudejo et al. (2008)
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper) Yes Yes Basu and De (2003); FAO EcoCrop (2014)
Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)Leaves and stems used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Flora of China (2019)
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Medicinal plant Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al. (2013)
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum) Yes Yes Duke (1983); Griffith (1847)
Cassia grandis (pink shower)Used extensively for local medicine in Latin America and Asia Yes Duke et al. (2009); Toruan-Purba (1999)
Cassia javanica (pink shower)Used in traditional Malesian medicine Yes Yes Toruan-Purba (1999)
Cavanillesia platanifolia (cuipo)Latex and seeds used for medicinal purposes Yes Hyde (1925); EcuRed (2019)
Centella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort) Yes Yes
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)Species is reportedly used in traditional medicine Yes Hanelt et al. (2001)
Channa micropeltes (giant snakehead)In Indonesia and Malaysia Yes Yes Ng and Lim (1990); Lee and Ng (1991); Courtenay and Williams (2004)
Cheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)Roots, oil and leaves used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Gnansounou et al. (2017)
Cinchona pubescens (quinine tree)Saint Helena, Hawaii, Galapagos Islands, French Polynesia Yes Cronk and Fuller (1995); Meyer (2004); Starr et al. (2003); Tye (2001); Wagner et al. (1999)
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Extensively used in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine)Roots used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Clematis terniflora (sweet autumn clematis)Used in traditional Chinese medicine and sold in Chinese and Korean markets Yes Han et al. (2013); Liu et al. (2015)
Cleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)Used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Clerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower)Used for traditional medicine in China Yes Duke (2014)
Clerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)Use in traditional Chinese medicine Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban)Used in traditional medicine in Asia Yes
Clerodendrum lindleyi (clerodendrum)Medicinal plant in China Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020)
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Clerodendrum wallichii (Wallich's glorybower)Used in traditional medicine in India Yes Deori et al. (2013)
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Gomez and Kalamani (2003)
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (chaya)Used for traditional medicine Yes Yes PFAF (2019)
Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Used in traditional medicine in Asia, often cultivated for medicinal purposes Yes Yes Jain and Banerjee (1974); van den Bergh and Iamsupasit (1996)
Colubrina asiatica (latherleaf)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes ISSG (2005)
Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper) Yes Yes Aguilar (1999); Hanelt et al. (2001); USDA-ARS (2015)
Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) Yes Yes
Copaifera officinalis (copaiba balsam) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Cordia obliqua (clammy cherry)Fruits are used in traditional Indian medicine Yes Yes Parmar and Kaushal (1982)
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant) Yes Yes
Coriandrum sativum (coriander) Yes Yes
Cornu aspersum (common garden snail) Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)Used in China and Brazil in traditional medicine Yes Botsaris (2007)
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed)Leaves and flowers used in medicine Yes Yes Nuhu et al. (2009)
Cucumis anguria (West Indian gherkin)Fruits and leaves used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Cucumis dipsaceus (hedgehog gourd) Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2017)
Cuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed) Yes
Cuscuta japonica (Japanese dodder) Yes Yes Tidwell (2008)
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Used in African traditional herb medicine Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Cyathula prostrata (pasture weed)Widely used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Ibrahim et al. (2012)
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Presumed cause. Medicinal uses known -- see text Yes Yes
Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)Medicinal herb Yes Yes Oyen (1999)
Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass) Yes Floridata (2014)
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (camel grass)Used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes Yes
Datura metel (Hindu datura)Widely used in traditional medicine, particularly in Asia Yes Ratsch (1998); USDA-ARS (2014)
Derris elliptica (tuba root)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass)Some ethnobotanical uses in Africa. Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato)Cultivated to manufacture steroidal hormones Yes Yes Hammer (1998)
Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)ethnobotanical uses in Africa Yes PROTA (2017)
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Used in traditional medicine Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball)A stomach medicine in Thailand Yes Anderson (1986)
Dracaena fragrans (corn plant)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)This species is used worldwide as a vermifuge, analgesic, antiashmatic, and antifungal agent Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) Yes Bagi and Böszörményi (2008)
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2016)
Elephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)Assumed Yes Yes
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Used in traditional African medicine Yes PROTA (2018)
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)Medicinal herb Yes Yes Gargiullo et al. (2008)
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Flora of China (2018)
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus)Used in traditional medicine and homeopathy Yes Yes Lim (2014)
Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)Traditional medicine Yes Yes Chen and Turner (1998)
Erechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed)Used in traditional medicine Yes Darbyshire et al. (2012)
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger)Plants used in traditional medicine mainly in Asia Yes Jackie et al. (2011)
Euphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020)
Euphorbia neriifolia (Indian spurge tree)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Used in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Euphorbia umbellata (African milk bush)Used in traditional medicine Yes Luz et al. (2016); PROTA (2017)
Ficus benghalensis (banyan)Bark, seeds and leaves are used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Rojo et al. (1999)
Ficus carica (common fig) Yes
Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree) Yes Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); USDA-ARS (2014)
Ficus pumila (creeping fig) Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); Quattrocchi (2012); Rojo et al. (1999); USDA-ARS (2014)
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree)Used in traditional medicine in such places as Pakistan Yes Mabberly (2008); Starr et al. (2003); USDA-ARS (2014); Whistler (2000)
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) Yes Yes
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)Ethnobotanical uses are reported Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2018)
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)Used in traditional Native-American medicine Yes Yes Turner and Whalen (1975)
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes Damalas (2008)
Galphimia glauca (goldshower)Used as a medicinal herb Yes Yes Sharma et al. (2012)
Gambusia holbrooki (eastern mosquitofish)For mosquito control Yes
Garcinia dulcis (yellow mangosteen)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Glycosmis parviflora (flower axistree)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Flora of China (2016)
Gmelina arborea (candahar)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Medicinal plant Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth) Yes Flora of Pakistan (2015)
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton) Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood) Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim (2005)
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Yes Quattrocchi (2012)
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes
Heliocarpus donnellsmithii (majagua)Used in traditional Mexican medicine Yes Yes Cook (2016)
Heliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)Used as medicinal herb Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Tested for medicinal/veterinary use but is not clear whether and on what scale it was ever used Yes Gadzhiev and Eminov (1986); Kedzia et al. (1996); Kostecka-Madalska (1962); Kostecka-Madalska and Bankowski (1963); Lipnitskij (1996); Mägi and Sahk (2003); Tkachenko (2006); Wolski et al. (1996)
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady) Yes Yes Abere et al. (2010)
Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)Used in traditional Caribbean medicine Yes Yes Weaver and Francis (1989)
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant) Yes Quattrocchi (2012)
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)important in traditional and conventional medicine Yes Yes NCBI (2015)
Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Used as medicinal herb Yes Yes Christenhusz (2009)
Indigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo) Yes
Indigofera tinctoria (true indigo)Tradtitional medicines Yes Duke (1981)
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo)Traditional medicine Yes Yes ILDIS (2014)
Inula britannica (british yellowhead) Yes
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROSEA (2017)
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Used as a medicinal herb Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Used as a medicinal herb Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Iris domestica (blackberry lily)Ethnobotanical uses reported Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Ixora casei (giant red ixora)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Fosberg et al. (1993)
Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes PROSEA (2016)
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Ethnobotanical uses reported Yes Yes O’rourke George (1995); Bharali et al. (2017)
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Used medicinally by the Hoh and Quileute peoples of Washington state Yes Yes Reagan (1936)
Justicia pectoralis (freshcut) Yes Yes Joseph et al. (1988)
Kalanchoe integra (Never die) Yes Yes Sharma et al. (2011)
Kigelia africana (sausage tree)Used medicinally Yes Jackson and Beckett (2012); PROTA (2020)
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)Used in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)Used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)Used in traditional Asian and African medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Used in herbal traditional medicine Yes Yes Teo and Pin (2001)
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort)Used medicinally where native Yes Ridley (1908); Schmidt et al. (2013)
Lepidagathis alopecuroidea (pata de gallina)Local ethnobotanical uses reported in the Lesser Antilles Yes PROTA (2020)
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)Various medicinal uses are reported. Yes Yes CONABIO (2016)
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes Yes
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Linaria vulgaris (common toadflax) Yes Yes
Litsea glutinosa (Indian laurel)deliberate Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2019)
Lonicera confusa Yes
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)It is used for traditional medicinal purposes Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)Immigrants bringing it as a medicinal plant Yes
Malva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)Medicinal herb Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Used in traditional medicine – medicinal herb Yes Yes Lim (2014)
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla) Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Marrubium vulgare (horehound) Yes Yes
Martynia annua (tiger's claw)Widely used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Kenwat et al. (2013)
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)Used as medicinal herb Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Roots are used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Mansur (2001)
Mesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)Deliberate Yes Yes
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes Yes
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)With ethnobotanical uses. Yes PROTA (2016)
Momordica balsamina (common balsam apple)Deliberate Yes Singh (2017)
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)Stems used in traditional Asian and African medicine Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)Used in traditional medicine Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Morella faya (firetree) Yes
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)Widely used for medicinal purposes Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Commercial and ethnobotanical uses Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Morus nigra (black mulberry) Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); Orwa et al. (2009)
Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) Yes Duke (1981); Flora of Pakistan (2014); Fox (1952)
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Used in traditional African medicine Yes PROTA (2018)
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Used in African traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Nephrolepis hirsutula (sword fern)Ethnobotanical use reported Yes Whistler (1990)
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco)Used in ethnobotany in India Yes Rothe (2011); Singh et al. (2014)
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)Used in traditional medicine, especially in the Americas and Asia Yes Yes
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Several uses in traditional medicine Yes Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2017); Useful Tropical Plants (2017)
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus) Yes
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Extensively used in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil) Yes Yes
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Patel et al. (2014)
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)Used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes Burkill (1985)
Parmentiera aculeata (cucumber tree)Used medicinally Yes Morales-Sánchez et al. (2015)
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)Local ethnobotanical uses Yes Joshi et al. (2016)
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Used as medicinal herb Yes Yes Manidool (1992)
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)Known to have traditional medicinal use Yes PFAF (2014)
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Species known to be used for local traditional medicine Yes SANBI (2004); USDA-ARS (2015); Wiersema and Leon (2013)
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Used for traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Plantago asiatica mosaic virusDetected in first greenhouse-grown, and then field-grown, plants of R. glutinosa in Korea Yes Kwak et al. (2018); Kwon et al. (2017)
Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage)Used medicinally in Africa, Asia, Pacific and Americas Yes Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); Roux (2003); USDA-ARS (2014)
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus) Yes Duke (2002); USDA-ARS (2014)
Pluchea carolinensis (sourbush)Used medicinally and available in herbal shops Yes Francis (2004); Hodges and Bennett (2006)
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PFAF (2020)
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes Duke (2008)
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal)Used by herbalists for medicines in Europe and China. Also used as an anti-cancer drug in China Yes Yes WCSP (2016)
Pseudelephantopus spicatus (false elephant’s foot) Yes Ward (1975)
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Rauvolfia caffra (quinine tree )Widely used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) Yes Yes Weidema (2006)
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Yes
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry) Yes Yes ISSG (2010)
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Used for traditional medicinal purposes Yes PROTA (2016)
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage) Yes Jaime-Vasconcelos et al. (2011)
Sambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Stevens (2001)
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp)Used in traditional medicine Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)Used in traditional medicine Yes Sunilson et al. (2009)
Scaevola taccada (beach naupaka)Asian traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Sechium edule (chayote)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Securigera varia (crown vetch)Used for traditional medicinal uses in some countries Yes PFAF (2016)
Senna alata (candle bush)Used for medicinal purposes in many of the countries where it occurs. Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna)Species is used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Duke and Vasquez (1994); ILDIS (2014); Toruan-Purba (1999)
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna) Yes Yes
Senna italica (Senegal senna)Extensively used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Okeyo and Bosch (2007)
Senna multijuga (November shower)One of the Senna species locally used for traditional medicine Yes Flora of Nicaragua (2014); Hanelt et al. (2001); PIER (2014)
Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)Traded for the seeds and medicinal purposes between Africa and Europe Yes Yes PROSEA (2016)
Senna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)Species is used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); Wagner et al. (2014)
Senna surattensis (golden senna)Leaves, flowers, roots and bark of the plant are reportedly used locally for traditional medicine Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); Little and Skolmen (1989); Motooka et al. (2003); Sosef and Maesen (1997)
Sesbania sesban (sesban) Yes Yes Usman et al. (2013)
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Yes Karou et al. (2007); Waterhouse and Norris (1987)
Sida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals)Various traditional medicinal uses are reported Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Sisymbrium irio Yes Yes Chopra et al. (1956); PFAF (2013)
Solanum erianthum (potato tree)Used in local folk medicine, especially in South-east Asia and Asia-Pacific Yes Modise and Mogotsi (2008); Wiart (2006)
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Used in traditional medicine in tropical areas including Southeast Asia-Pacific and Central America Yes Lim (2013)
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)Leaves are used in traditional medicine Yes ISSG (2020)
Solidago nemoralis (grey goldenrod)hypothetical Yes Yes
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)Planted for use in traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes Yes
Sterculia apetala (Panama tree)Ethnobotanical purposes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2017)
Syzygium grande (sea apple)Seeds, fruit, and bark are used in local traditional medicine Yes National University of Singapore (2015); Rahman (1977)
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple) Yes Duke (2015); Morton (1987); Quisumbing (1951)
Tabebuia rosea (pink poui)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Tamarindus indica (tamarind)Extensively used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Tephrosia candida (white tephrosia) Yes Yes
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)Fruits and leaves Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Tibouchina urvilleana (princessflower) Yes Yoshida et al. (1986)
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower) Yes Kuo and Chen (1997)
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Fruits and wax used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Aggarwal (2001)
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Used in traditional medicine in Mexico and South East Asia Yes Yes Rosales-Reyes et al. (2008)
Triphasia trifolia (limeberry) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Triplaris americana (ant tree)Traditional medicine Yes Grandtner and Chevrette (2013)
Triumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark)Used in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)Cultivated as a medicinal herb for its leaves Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Urena lobata (caesar weed) Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Urena sinuata (bur mallow) Yes Yes Ong (2001)
Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)Roots used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Gupta (2013)
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) Yes Yes PFAF (2015)
Vachellia macracantha (porknut)used in traditional Mexican medicine Yes Seigler and Ebinger (1988)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) Yes Yes Gross and Werner (1978)
Vigna marina (beach bean)Several medicinal uses are documented in Micronesia and elsewhere in the Pacific Yes Yes NYBG (2016)
Viguiera dentata (sunflower goldeneye)Medicinal herb Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear) Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2018)
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Ethnobotanical uses reported Yes Shibu et al. (2013); Philippine Alternative Medicine (2018)
Zingiber capitatum (wild ginger) Yes Joshi (2011)
Zingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger) Yes Yes Chirangini and Sharma (2005); Ravindran and Babu (2005); Wolff et al. (1999)
Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger)Cultivated in tropical regions worldwide for culinary and medicinal use Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube)Traditional medicine Yes Yes Neuwinger (2000)