Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Medicinal use (pathway cause)

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Datasheet

Medicinal use (pathway cause)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Medicinal use (pathway cause)
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Medicinal use (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Abrus precatorius (rosary pea) Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003; Padua et al., 1999; Weber, 2003
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Various medicinal uses reported. Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)Used for traditional medicine in various countries Yes Pandikumar et al., 2011; Rout et al., 2009
Acacia angustissima (prairie acacia)Used in Mexico for traditional medicinal purposes. Yes Berlin and Berlin, 1996
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)Used in ethnobotany in Australia. Yes Contu, 2012
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)Long history of various medicinal uses; cultivated and introduced for medicinal uses Yes Yes Applequist and Moerman, 2011; Mitich, 1990
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip) Yes Yes Girach et al., 1992
Aeginetia indica (forest ghost flower)The species is used for traditional medicinal purposes Yes Yes Lemmens, 2003
Agave americana (century plant)Leaves and sap used in traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Agave fourcroydes (henequen)Leaves and roots sometimes used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Fern, 2014
Agave sisalana (sisal hemp) Yes Yes FAO, 2012
Agdestis clematidea (rockroot)Medicinal herb Yes Yes Abreu et al., 2008
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)Used in ethnobotany over its range Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, deliberate Yes Feret, 1985
Albizia adinocephala (cream albizia) Yes Ovenden et al., 2002
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)Leaves and seeds are used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Albizia niopoides (silk tree)Roots and bark used in traditional medicine in South America Yes Yes Vozzo, 2002
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)Leaves and roots are used in traditional herbal medicine as a purgative Yes Yes Liogier, 1990
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2019
Aloe vera (true aloe)One of the oldest known medicinal herbs Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)Popular medicinal plant Yes Yes Hurrell, 2018
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger) Yes Yes
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant)Used locally to treat various ailments. Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2016
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)Species is used in Ayurveda and SE Asian medicine Yes Duke, 1981; Hanelt et al., 2001; Quattrocchi, 2012
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort)Imported into North America as medicinal herb Yes Mosley, 2014
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) Yes Yes
Ambrosia peruviana (Peruvian ragweed)Often used as a medicinal herb Yes Yes Lans, 2007
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) Yes Yes
Anethum graveolens (dill) Yes Yes Jana and Shekhawat, 2010
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Shil and Choudhury, 2009
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)Plant parts known to have folkloric medicinal uses Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Jansen et al., 1991; UK Natural History Museum, 2014
Anredera vesicaria (Texas madeira vine)Used for traditional medicine Yes Yes Ankli et al., 1999; Burgos, 2014; Orwa et al., 2009
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy) Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper) Yes Yes
Aristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe) Yes Duke, 2015; Hance, 1873; USDA-ARS, 2015
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe) Yes Duke, 2015; Hance, 1873; USDA-ARS, 2015
Aronia x prunifolia Yes Yes
Arracacia xanthorrhiza (arracacha)With some local ethnobotanical and veterinary uses. Yes Hermann, 1997
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)Used in traditional medicine in the Pacific and Caribbean Yes Yes Ragone, 2006
Atriplex argentea (silverscale saltbush) Yes
Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)Used for a variety of traditional uses in local medicine Yes Orwa et al., 2009; Orwa et al., 2009; Orwa et al., 2009
Bacopa monnieri (water hyssop)Widely commercialized as medicinal herb Yes Yes PROSEA, 2017
Balanites aegyptiaca (simple-thorned torchwood)Used in traditional African medicine Yes PROTA, 2016
Bambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)Cultivated as medicinal herb Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal, 2016
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal, 2016
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Bauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)Used in Asian and African traditional medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2015
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)Bark is used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Bidens frondosa (beggarticks) Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009; Orwa et al., 2009
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Extensively used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Bixa orellana (annatto) Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Blighia sapida (akee apple)Used medicinally Yes Yes PROTA, 2019
Bocconia frutescens (plume poppy)Used and cultivated within native range for a variety of medicinal purposes Yes Duke, 2008
Boerhavia coccinea (scarlet spiderling)Used in traditional medicine in Africa, Mexico, South America and India. Yes Filipov, 1994; Osuna et al., 2005; Ramabhimaiah et al., 1984; Struwig and Siebert, 2013
Boerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)Plant parts used medicinally in Asia Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
Bontia daphnoides (white alling)Used in traditional medicine Yes Wong, 1976; Liogier, 1990; Lans, 2006
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Potential pharmaceutical applications Yes Yes Xu et al., 2009
Brassica juncea (mustard) Yes Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Some ethnobotanical uses Yes Yes India Biodiversity Portal, 2018
Breynia disticha (snowbush)Ethnobotanical uses are reported Yes Okokon et al., 2015
Brugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Alvarez, 2008
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail) Yes Yes Plants for a Future, 2013
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes DeFilipps et al., 2004
Callisia fragrans (basketplant)Cultivated in Russia Yes Schvoong, 2012
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)Traded locally for use in medicine; species grown commercially for essential oils which are used in perfume and traditional medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) Yes Olowokudejo et al., 2008
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper) Yes Yes Basu and De, 2003; FAO EcoCrop, 2014
Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)Leaves and stems used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Flora of China, 2019
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Medicinal plant Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al., 2013
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum) Yes Yes Duke, 1983; Griffith, 1847
Cassia grandis (pink shower)Used extensively for local medicine in Latin America and Asia Yes Duke et al., 2009; Toruan-Purba, 1999
Cassia javanica (pink shower)Used in traditional Malesian medicine Yes Yes Toruan-Purba, 1999
Cavanillesia platanifolia (cuipo)Latex and seeds used for medicinal purposes Yes Hyde, 1925; EcuRed, 2019
Centella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort) Yes Yes
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)Species is reportedly used in traditional medicine Yes Hanelt et al., 2001
Channa micropeltes (giant snakehead)In Indonesia and Malaysia Yes Yes Ng and Lim, 1990; Lee and Ng, 1991; Courtenay and Williams, 2004
Cheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver )Roots, oil and leaves used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Gnansounou et al., 2017
Cinchona pubescens (quinine tree)Saint Helena, Hawaii, Galapagos Islands, French Polynesia Yes Cronk and Fuller, 1995; Meyer, 2004; Starr et al., 2003; Tye, 2001; Wagner et al., 1999
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Extensively used in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine)Roots used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2020
Clematis terniflora (sweet autumn clematis)Used in traditional Chinese medicine and sold in Chinese and Korean markets Yes Han et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2015
Cleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)Used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Clerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower)Used for traditional medicine in China Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Clerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)Use in traditional Chinese medicine Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban)Used in traditional medicine in Asia Yes
Clerodendrum lindleyi (clerodendrum)Medicinal plant in China Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes POWO, 2020
Clerodendrum wallichii (Wallich's glorybower)Used in traditional medicine in India Yes Deori et al., 2013
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Gomez and Kalamani, 2003
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (chaya)Used for traditional medicine Yes Yes PFAF, 2019
Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Used in traditional medicine in Asia, often cultivated for medicinal purposes Yes Yes Jain and Banerjee, 1974; van den Bergh and Iamsupasit, 1996
Colubrina asiatica (latherleaf)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes ISSG, 2005
Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper) Yes Yes Aguilar, 1999; Hanelt et al., 2001; USDA-ARS, 2015
Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) Yes Yes
Copaifera officinalis (copaiba balsam) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Cordia obliqua (clammy cherry)Fruits are used in traditional Indian medicine Yes Yes Parmar and Kaushal, 1982
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant) Yes Yes
Coriandrum sativum (coriander) Yes Yes
Cornu aspersum (common garden snail) Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)Used in China and Brazil in traditional medicine Yes Botsaris, 2007
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed)Leaves and flowers used in medicine Yes Yes Nuhu et al., 2009
Cucumis anguria (West Indian gherkin)Fruits and leaves used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Cuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed) Yes
Cuscuta japonica (Japanese dodder) Yes Yes Tidwell, 2008
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Used in African traditional herb medicine Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Cyathula prostrata (pasture weed)Widely used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Ibrahim et al., 2012
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Presumed cause. Medicinal uses known -- see text Yes Yes
Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)Medicinal herb Yes Yes Oyen, 1999
Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass) Yes Floridata, 2014
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (camel grass)Used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA, 2019
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes Yes
Datura metel (Hindu datura)Widely used in traditional medicine, particularly in Asia Yes Ratsch, 1998; USDA-ARS, 2014
Derris elliptica (tuba root)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass)Some ethnobotanical uses in Africa. Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato)Cultivated to manufacture steroidal hormones Yes Yes Hammer, 1998
Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)ethnobotanical uses in Africa Yes PROTA, 2017
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Used in traditional medicine Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2020
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball)A stomach medicine in Thailand Yes Anderson, 1986
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)This species is used worldwide as a vermifuge, analgesic, antiashmatic, and antifungal agent Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) Yes Bagi and Böszörményi, 2008
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2016
Elephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)Assumed Yes Yes
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Used in traditional African medicine Yes PROTA, 2018
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)Medicinal herb Yes Yes Gargiullo et al., 2008
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Flora of China, 2018
Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)Traditional medicine Yes Yes Chen and Turner, 1998
Erechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed)Used in traditional medicine Yes Darbyshire et al., 2012
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger)Plants used in traditional medicine mainly in Asia Yes Jackie et al., 2011
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Used in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Euphorbia umbellata (African milk bush)Used in traditional medicine Yes Luz et al., 2016; PROTA, 2017
Ficus benghalensis (banyan)Bark, seeds and leaves are used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Rojo et al., 1999
Ficus carica (common fig) Yes
Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree) Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; USDA-ARS, 2014
Ficus pumila (creeping fig) Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Quattrocchi, 2012; Rojo et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2014
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree)Used in traditional medicine in such places as Pakistan Yes Mabberly, 2008; Starr et al., 2003; USDA-ARS, 2014; Whistler, 2000
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) Yes Yes
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)Ethnobotanical uses are reported Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2018
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)Used in traditional Native-American medicine Yes Yes Turner and Whalen, 1975
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Galphimia glauca (goldshower )Used as a medicinal herb Yes Yes Sharma et al., 2012
Gambusia holbrooki (eastern mosquitofish)For mosquito control Yes
Glycosmis parviflora (flower axistree)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Flora of China, 2016
Gmelina arborea (candahar)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Medicinal plant Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth) Yes Flora of Pakistan, 2015
Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood) Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim, 2005
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Yes Quattrocchi, 2012
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes
Heliocarpus donnellsmithii (majagua)Used in traditional Mexican medicine Yes Yes Cook, 2016
Heliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)Used as medicinal herb Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Tested for medicinal/veterinary use but is not clear whether and on what scale it was ever used Yes Gadzhiev and Eminov, 1986; Kedzia et al., 1996; Kostecka-Madalska, 1962; Kostecka-Madalska and Bankowski, 1963; Lipnitskij, 1996; Mägi and Sahk, 2003; Tkachenko, 2006; Wolski et al., 1996
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady) Yes Yes Abere et al., 2010
Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)Used in traditional Caribbean medicine Yes Yes Weaver and Francis, 1989
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant) Yes Quattrocchi, 2012
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)important in traditional and conventional medicine Yes Yes NCBI, 2015
Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Used as medicinal herb Yes Yes Christenhusz, 2009
Indigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo) Yes
Indigofera tinctoria (true indigo)Tradtitional medicines Yes Duke, 1981
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo)Traditional medicine Yes Yes ILDIS, 2014
Inula britannica (british yellowhead) Yes
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROSEA, 2017
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Used as a medicinal herb Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Used as a medicinal herb Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Iris domestica (blackberry lily)Ethnobotanical uses reported Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes PROSEA, 2016
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Ethnobotanical uses reported Yes Yes O’rourke George, 1995; Bharali et al., 2017
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Used medicinally by the Hoh and Quileute peoples of Washington state Yes Yes Reagan, 1936
Justicia pectoralis (freshcut) Yes Yes Joseph et al., 1988
Kalanchoe integra (Never die) Yes Yes Sharma et al., 2011
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)Used in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)Used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)Used in traditional Asian and African medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Used in herbal traditional medicine Yes Yes Teo and Pin, 2001
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort)Used medicinally where native Yes Ridley, 1908; Schmidt et al., 2013
Lepidagathis alopecuroidea (pata de gallina)Local ethnobotanical uses reported in the Lesser Antilles Yes PROTA, 2020
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)Various medicinal uses are reported. Yes Yes CONABIO, 2016
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes Yes
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Linaria vulgaris (common toadflax) Yes Yes
Litsea glutinosa (Indian laurel)deliberate Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019
Lonicera confusa Yes
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)It is used for traditional medicinal purposes Yes Yadav et al., 2012
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)Immigrants bringing it as a medicinal plant Yes
Malva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)Medicinal herb Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Used in traditional medicine – medicinal herb Yes Yes Lim, 2014
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla) Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Marrubium vulgare (horehound) Yes Yes
Martynia annua (tiger's claw)Widely used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Kenwat et al., 2013
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)Used as medicinal herb Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Roots are used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
Mesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)Deliberate Yes Yes
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes Yes
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)With ethnobotanical uses. Yes PROTA, 2016
Momordica balsamina (common balsam apple)Deliberate Yes Singh, 2017
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)Stems used in traditional Asian and African medicine Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)Used in traditional medicine Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2019
Morella faya (firetree) Yes
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)Widely used for medicinal purposes Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Commercial and ethnobotanical uses Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Morus nigra (black mulberry) Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Orwa et al., 2009
Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) Yes Duke, 1981; Flora of Pakistan, 2014; Fox, 1952
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Used in traditional African medicine Yes PROTA, 2018
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Used in African traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Nephrolepis hirsutula (sword fern)Ethnobotanical use reported Yes Whistler, 1990
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco)Used in ethnobotany in India Yes Rothe, 2011; Singh et al., 2014
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)Used in traditional medicine, especially in the Americas and Asia Yes Yes
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Several uses in traditional medicine Yes Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2017; Useful Tropical Plants, 2017
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus) Yes
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Extensively used in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil) Yes Yes
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Patel et al., 2014
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)Used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes Burkill, 1985
Parmentiera aculeata (cucumber tree)Used medicinally Yes Morales-Sánchez et al., 2015
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)Local ethnobotanical uses Yes Joshi et al., 2016
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Used as medicinal herb Yes Yes Manidool, 1992
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)Known to have traditional medicinal use Yes PFAF, 2014
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Species known to be used for local traditional medicine Yes SANBI, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2015; Wiersema and Leon, 2013
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Used for traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2019
Plantago asiatica mosaic virusDetected in first greenhouse-grown, and then field-grown, plants of R. glutinosa in Korea Yes Kwak et al., 2018; Kwon et al., 2017
Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage)Used medicinally in Africa, Asia, Pacific and Americas Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Roux, 2003; USDA-ARS, 2014
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus) Yes Duke, 2002; USDA-ARS, 2014
Pluchea carolinensis (sourbush)Used medicinally and available in herbal shops Yes Francis, 2004; Hodges and Bennett, 2006
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes Duke, 2008
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal)Used by herbalists for medicines in Europe and China. Also used as an anti-cancer drug in China Yes Yes WCSP, 2016
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)Used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Rauvolfia caffra (quinine tree )Widely used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) Yes Yes Weidema, 2006
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Yes
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry) Yes Yes ISSG, 2010
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Used for traditional medicinal purposes Yes PROTA, 2016
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage) Yes Jaime-Vasconcelos et al., 2011
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp)Used in traditional medicine Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)Used in traditional medicine Yes Sunilson et al., 2009
Scaevola taccada (beach naupaka)Asian traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Sechium edule (chayote)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Securigera varia (crown vetch)Used for traditional medicinal uses in some countries Yes PFAF, 2016
Senna alata (candle bush)Used for medicinal purposes in many of the countries where it occurs. Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna)Species is used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Duke and Vasquez, 1994; ILDIS, 2014; Toruan-Purba, 1999
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna) Yes Yes
Senna multijuga (November shower)One of the Senna species locally used for traditional medicine Yes Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Hanelt et al., 2001; PIER, 2014
Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)Traded for the seeds and medicinal purposes between Africa and Europe Yes Yes PROSEA, 2016
Senna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)Species is used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Wagner et al., 2014
Senna surattensis (golden senna)Leaves, flowers, roots and bark of the plant are reportedly used locally for traditional medicine Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Little and Skolmen, 1989; Motooka et al., 2003; Sosef and Maesen, 1997
Sesbania sesban (sesban) Yes Yes Usman et al., 2013
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Yes Karou et al., 2007; Waterhouse and Norris, 1987
Sida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals)Various traditional medicinal uses are reported Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Sisymbrium irio Yes Yes Chopra et al., 1956; PFAF, 2013
Solanum erianthum (potato tree)Used in local folk medicine, especially in South-east Asia and Asia-Pacific Yes Modise and Mogotsi, 2008; Wiart, 2006
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Used in traditional medicine in tropical areas including Southeast Asia-Pacific and Central America Yes Lim, 2013
Solidago nemoralis (grey goldenrod)hypothetical Yes Yes
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)Planted for use in traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes Yes
Sterculia apetala (Panama tree)Ethnobotanical purposes Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2017
Syzygium grande (sea apple)Seeds, fruit, and bark are used in local traditional medicine Yes National University of Singapore, 2015; Rahman, 1977
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple) Yes Duke, 2015; Morton, 1987; Orwa et al., 2009
Tabebuia rosea (pink poui)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Tephrosia candida (white tephrosia) Yes Yes
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)Fruits and leaves Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Used in traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Tibouchina urvilleana (princessflower) Yes Yoshida et al., 1986
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower) Yes Kuo and Chen, 1997
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Fruits and wax used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Aggarwal, 2001
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Used in traditional medicine in Mexico and South East Asia Yes Yes Rosales-Reyes et al., 2008
Triphasia trifolia (limeberry) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Triplaris americana (ant tree)Traditional medicine Yes Grandtner and Chevrette, 2013
Triumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark)Used in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)Cultivated as a medicinal herb for its leaves Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Urena lobata (caesar weed) Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Urena sinuata (bur mallow) Yes Yes Ong, 2001
Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)Roots used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Gupta, 2013
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) Yes Yes PFAF, 2015
Vachellia macracantha (porknut)used in traditional Mexican medicine Yes Seigler and Ebinger, 1988
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) Yes Yes Gross and Werner, 1978
Vigna marina (beach bean)Several medicinal uses are documented in Micronesia and elsewhere in the Pacific Yes Yes NYBG, 2016
Viguiera dentata (sunflower goldeneye)Medicinal herb Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear) Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2018
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Ethnobotanical uses reported Yes Shibu et al., 2013; Philippine Alternative Medicine, 2018
Zingiber capitatum (wild ginger) Yes Joshi, 2011
Zingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger) Yes Yes Chirangini and Sharma, 2005; Ravindran and Babu, 2005; Wolff et al., 1999
Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger)Cultivated in tropical regions worldwide for culinary and medicinal use Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube)Traditional medicine Yes Yes Neuwinger, 2000