Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Live food or feed trade (pathway cause)



Live food or feed trade (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Live food or feed trade (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Live food or feed trade (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail) Yes Yes
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes Grubben (2004)
Ambrosia confertiflora Yes Yes
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes Yes
Ameiurus nebulosus (brown bullhead)Known within native range in Canada (N Mandrak, DFO Canada, personal communication, 2009) Yes
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Asterias amurensis (northern Pacific seastar) Yes
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer) Yes Yes
Axonopus fissifolius Yes Yes
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)Northern Mariana Islands Yes Yes Waterhouse (1993)
Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly) Yes Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly)Egypt Yes Yes Meyer et al. (2007); NAPPO (2008)
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Yes Schloegel et al. (2009)
Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats) Yes Yes
Blattella germanica (German cockroach) Yes Yes Valles (1996)
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Cultivated commercially and sold at markets worldwide Yes Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2018)
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes Jehlik and Slavik (1968)
Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) Yes Vargas-Ayala et al. (2000)
Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (African greening)Fruit and seed (not pathways)
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (citrus greening)Country markets at border points Yes Yes
Carcinus maenas (European shore crab)Brought C. maenas from east to west coast of USA Yes Cohen and Carlton (1995)
Carposina sasakii (peach fruit moth)potential Yes
Channa argus argus (northern snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004)
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004); Froese and Pauly (2009)
Channa micropeltes (giant snakehead)In the USA and Asian countries Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004)
Cherax destructor (yabby) Yes Yes Souty-Grosset et al. (2006)
Cherax quadricarinatus (redclaw crayfish) Yes Lynas et al. (2007)
Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato) Yes Yes
Clavibacter sepedonicus (potato ring rot) Yes Yes
Columba livia (pigeons) Yes
Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)May be present in any wooden structures used to transport seedling Yes Yes
Corella eumyota (orange-tipped sea squirt)Contaminated living mussels or oysters Yes Yes El-Nagar et al. (2010)
Cornu aspersum (common garden snail) Yes
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Cromileptes altivelis (humpback grouper)For live food fish trade Yes Yes Rimmer et al. (2000); Sadovy (2000); Sadovy et al. (2007)
Crotalaria maypurensis (rattlebox weed)Leaves used as aromatic herb for cooking Yes Yes Avendaño (2011)
Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows)Possible virus acquisition by aphid vectors from infected fruit skin (very rare, accidental) Yes Yes
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (bacterial wilt of dry beans) Yes Yes
Deparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)Reportedly edible, but no literature on current usage. Yes Yes Kato (1984)
Didymosphenia geminata (didymo)Potential form of introduction Yes Yes
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Available at local markets Yes Badola (2010)
Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish)Live food fish Yes
Homarus americanus (American lobster) Yes Jørstad et al. (2011); Stebbing et al. (2012); van der Meeren et al. (2010)
Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) Yes Yes
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)Used as food and condiment. Yes Yes CONABIO (2016)
Lepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed) Yes Yes
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)On live sheep Yes Thompson et al. (1987)
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) Yes
Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass)Known within native range in Canada (N Mandrak, DFO, Canada, personal communication, 2009) Yes
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)Sold at local markets Yes Boonkerd et al. (1993)
Mytilicola intestinalis (mussel red worm) Yes Dare (1982)
Mytilicola orientalis (oyster redworm) Yes Minchin et al. (1993)
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Pads are sold to be eaten as a vegetable Yes
Oreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)Deliberate introduction. Please see distribution table and list for additional details Yes Yes Courtenay WR Jr (1989)
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits) Yes
Parmentiera aculeata (cucumber tree)Cultivated for its fruits Yes Gentry (1992)
Pectobacterium parmentieri (black leg disease of potato)
Pelophylax cf. bedriagaeFrom Turkish frog factories Yes
Pomacea maculataSome cultures may either rear snails or collect from local areas Yes
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Procambarus clarkii (red swamp crayfish) Yes
Procambarus fallax f. virginalis (Marmorkrebs)Madagascar Yes Jones et al. (2009)
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon) Yes Yes Copp et al. (2005b)
Rapana venosa (veined rapana whelk) Yes ICES (2004)
Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) Yes Yes DAISIE (2014)
Sander lucioperca (pike-perch) Yes Yes
Sicyos angulatus (burcucumber)Introduction into France and Japan from USA Yes Kurokawa et al. (2009); Larché (2004)
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Yes Smith (2002)
Styela plicata (pleated sea squirt) Yes Yes
Tilapia zillii (redbelly tilapia)Deliberate introduction Yes Yes Courtenay and Robins (1989)
Tridentiger trigonocephalus (chameleon goby)Through the importation of oysters containing fertilized eggs Yes Yes Courtenay et al. (1984); Courtenay et al. (1986); NIMPIS (2014)
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Seed contaminant; stock feed Yes Yes New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries (2015)
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. euvesicatoria (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. perforans (bacterial spot of tomato) Yes
Xanthomonas hortorum pv. gardneri (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes Yes
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)Tubers are consumed by humans Yes Yes Manner (2011)