Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)



Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    CAB International
    OX10 8DE

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

Top of page
SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Alburnus alburnus (bleak) Yes Welcomme (1988)
Alosa aestivalis (blueback herring) Yes Owens et al. (1998)
Alosa pseudoharengus (alewife)Within the USA and Canada Yes Yes
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)Aquatic dispersal is apparently occurring along streams. Invades water courses in S. Africa. Yes Yes Henderson (2001); Oppenheimer (2008)
Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)Moved via water and channels used for irrigation Yes Menges (1987); EPPO (2019)
Ambrosia confertiflora Yes
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes Yes
Ameiurus nebulosus (brown bullhead) Yes
Amphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle)On vessels Yes Yes Carlton et al. (2011)
Anguillicoloides crassusNatural movements of eels Yes Yes
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Artemisia biennis (biennial wormwood)Ports and shipping yards Yes Jehlík (1984)
Aspius aspius (asp) Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly) Yes Yes
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Possible dispersal of pathogen by interconnected waterways Yes Yes
Bergia capensis (white water fire)It is reported to occur along stream banks and irrigation channels Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2019); New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Botrylloides perspicuus Yes Yes
Botrylloides violaceus (violet tunicate) Yes Pederson et al. (2005)
Brachidontes pharaonisOpening of the Suez Canal Yes Yes Sarà et al. (2000); Sarà et al. (2006); Zenetos et al. (2005)
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes Klinge (1887a); Klinge (1887b); Klinge (1887c)
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes Yes Les and Mehrhoff (1999)
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)Grows along waterways and in floodplains Yes Yes Graveson (2012)
Ceratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)Possible movement through water channels Yes Carey et al. (2018)
Cercopagis pengoi (fishhook waterflea)Russia, Ukraine Yes Glamazda (1971)
Channa argus argus (northern snakehead) Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004)
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004); Froese and Pauly (2009)
Charybdis hellerii Yes Galil and Zenetos (2002)
Chelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp) Yes Yes Jazdzewski and Konopacka (2002); Vaate et al. (2002)
Cichlasoma urophthalmum (Mayan cichlid)Naturally dispersed through interconnected canal systems in south and central Florida Yes Schofield et al. (2016)
Ciona intestinalis (sea vase) Yes
Ciona savignyi Yes
Codium parvulumDispersed along the Suez Canal Yes Israel et al. (2010); ISPRA (2018)
Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)On boats or ship Yes Yes
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes Karatayev et al. (2007); Panov et al. (2007)
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes
Crassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop) Yes CAPM-CEH (2004)
Cuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed) Yes Technigro (2011)
Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Yes Jackel (1996)
Didemnum vexillum (carpet sea squirt) Yes Pederson et al. (2005)
Didymosphenia geminata (didymo)Potential form of introduction Yes Yes
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp) Yes Yes Jazdzewski and Konopacka (2002); Vaate et al. (2002)
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Its dispersal by water is possible as it grows near waterways Yes HEAR (2020)
Diplosoma listerianum Yes Pederson et al. (2005)
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) Yes
Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel)Facilitating the natural spread via downstream drift of planktonic larvae Yes Yes Orlova et al. (2005); Son (2007)
Drymaria arenarioides (alfombrilla)Possible, as it is reported to be spreading through watercourses Yes Allison (1977)
Eichhornia paniculata (Brazilian water hyacinth) Yes Yes Husband and Barrett (1998)
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane) Yes
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab)Natural dispersal though canal systems Yes Yes
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed) Yes
Fallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)During flood events Yes
Fallopia x bohemica Yes
Faxonius limosus (Spiny-cheek crayfish)Reached a number of European countries in this way Yes Holdich et al. (2006)
Faxonius rusticus (rusty crayfish)The species can disperse quite fast Yes Hamr (2002); Olden et al. (2006); Gunderson (2008)
Ficopomatus enigmaticus (tubeworm)The opening of the Volga-Don Canal in 1952 allowed the entrance of several exotic species Yes Yes Zevina and Kuznetsova (1965)
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)It is believed to be dispersed along waterways in Martinique Yes Fleriag (2010)
Gammarus tigrinusSpreading via waterways, including canals, in France, Germany and USA Yes Yes Piscart et al. (2007); Grigorovich et al. (2008); Piscart et al. (2008)
Glyceria declinata (small sweet grass) Yes
Glyceria maxima (reed sweet-grass)Moved in flowing water Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Grateloupia turuturuSolent (UK), Thau Lagoon (France), Cape Cod Canal (USA) Yes Cabioch et al. (1997); Clerck et al. (2005); Farnham (1978); Farnham (1980); Marston and Villalard-Bohnsack (2002); Mathieson et al. (2008a); Mathieson et al. (2008b); Simon et al. (2001)
Gymnocephalus cernuus (ruffe) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes
Hemibarbus labeo (barbel steed) Yes Yes Kottelat (2000)
Hemichromis letourneuxi (African jewelfish)Natural dispersal in Florida through drainage canals/waterways Yes Loftus et al. (2006)
Hemimysis anomala Yes Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Bij et al. (2002); Stubbington et al. (2008); Wittmann (2007); Wittmann and Ariani (2009)
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Yes USGS-NAS (2002)
Hygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed) Yes DCR (2003)
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)Spread with water flow through natural and engineered waterways Yes Yes Australian Weeds Committee (2012)
Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) Yes Yes
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga) Yes Yes MPI (2016)
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea) Yes ISSG (2006)
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Could be moved in a slow-moving water flow Yes
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed)A. Mikulyuk, Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, USA, personal communcation, 2010 Yes
Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed) Yes
Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)Expanded its range to several US states Yes Yes USGS (2013)
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop)Seeds dispersed by water Yes Osca (2013)
Leuciscus leuciscus (common dace) Yes
Limnomysis benedeniVia the Main-Danube Canal and the Mittellandkanal in Germany. Yes Yes
Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel)From China to Hong Kong Yes Morton (1975)
Littorina littorea (common periwinkle) Yes Reid (1996)
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Okada et al. (2009); Ruaux et al. (2009)
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Ruaux et al. (2009)
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Accidental Yes Yes Timmins and MacKenzie (1995)
Magallana gigas (Pacific oyster) Yes Pollard and Hutchings (1990)
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)Associated with flood debris, especially that of dislodged aquatic plants Yes
Melanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania) Yes
Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) Yes
Mnemiopsis leidyi (sea walnut) Yes Shiganova et al. (2001)
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)As a possible way for entering Pakistan Yes Yes Ali et al. (2018)
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Accidental introduction, rare pathway Yes
Morone americana (white perch)Into the Great Lakes Yes Yes Fuller et al. (2008)
Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather) Yes
Myriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil) Yes Yes
Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease agent)Natural fish migration Yes Bartholomew and Reno (2002)
Neogobius fluviatilis (monkey goby)Migration upstream in rivers is facilitated by man-made alteration of the river Yes Ahnelt et al. (1998); Grabowska et al. (2008); Pinchuk et al. (2003); Semenchenko et al. (2011)
Neogobius melanostomus (round goby) Yes Yes Pinchuk et al. (2003)
Nerium oleander (oleander)Seeds dispersed through water after heavy rainfalls Yes Herrera (1991)
Nymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus) Yes
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes ISSG (2006)
Parmentiera aculeata (cucumber tree)Seeds can be dispersed by water Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass)Possibly as it is reported as water dispersed Yes Hitchcock (1936); FAO (2012b)
Pelophylax cf. bedriagaeImmigration from Switzerland and France to Germany Yes Ohst (2008)
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Seed dispersal Yes Florabase (2012)
Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey)Adults. Believed to have migrated through Erie Canal, Welland, and St Lawrence canal systems Yes Fuller et al. (2008)
Phoxinus phoxinus (European minnow) Yes
Phragmites australis (common reed) Yes
Phytophthora alni species complex (alder Phytophthora)Spreads rapidly downstream in invaded watercourses Yes Gibbs et al. (1999); Jung and Blaschke (2004)
Phytophthora kernoviaeMovement of diseased abscised plant materials in local waterways Yes Benson et al. (2010)
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)Grows by streams; water dispersal is likely Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
Polistes dominula (European paper wasp) Yes Royal BC Museum (2011)
Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)Can be transported passively downstream and can crawl upstream to a limited extent Yes
Pomacea maculataAs the snails are aquatic they can easily move between water bodies Yes Yes
Pontogammarus robustoidesDistrbution through Europe via system of interconnected channels Yes Yes Panov et al. (2009)
Portunus segnis Yes Yes Galil (2011)
Potamocorbula amurensis (Amur River clam)Spread throughout San Francisco Estuary Yes Carlton et al. (1990)
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes ISSG (2006)
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon) Yes Yes Copp et al. (2005a)
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Spores reported as possibly transported via water Yes UF-IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2019)
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes
Rapana venosa (veined rapana whelk) Yes ICES (2004)
Rhamphicarpa fistulosaUncontrolled flooding of contaminated fields can cause seed dispersal into streams and rivers Yes
Rhopilema nomadica (nomad jellyfish)Known from the Red Sea and east coast of Africa Yes Yes Galil et al. (1990)
Rutilus rutilus (roach)Accidental, probably in water diverted during a flood event, or dredging the outflow of lakes. Yes Stokes et al. (2006); Volta and Jepsen (2008)
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG (2009)
Salvinia biloba (giant salvinia)Although there is no information available, it is highly possible that flooding events could disperse the species into interconnected waterways Yes
Salvinia minima Yes Yes
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed) Yes McFarland et al. (2004)
Sander lucioperca (pike-perch) Yes Yes
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Pettit and Froend (2001)
Siganus luridus (dusky spinefoot)From Red Sea to Mediterranean through Suez Canal Yes Yes Ben-Tuvia (1964)
Siganus rivulatus (marbled spinefoot)From Red Sea to Mediterranean through Suez Canal Yes Yes Por (1978)
Silurus asotus (Amur catfish) Yes Yes Manchin and Dgebuadze (2010)
Silybum marianum (variegated thistle) Yes
Spirodela polyrrhiza (giant duckweed)Dispersed with high waters into interconnected waterways Yes Les (2020); PIER (2020)
Squalius cephalus (European chub) Yes
Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass) Yes
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes
Typha domingensis (southern cattail)Achenes and rhizomes disperse with water currents. Yes Grace and Harrison (1986); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes Hansen and Clevenger (2005)
Typha x glauca (hybrid cattail)Masses of fruits and hairs or rhizome fragments disperse with water currents Yes Grace and Harrison (1986); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Umbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow)Dispersal between southern Netherlands and northern Belgium Yes Verreycken et al. (2010)
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Species is tolerant of waterlogged soils Yes Yes Kissmann (1997)
Varanus niloticus (Nile monitor)Dispersed naturally Yes Enge et al. (2004)