Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)



Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aegilops cylindrica Yes Yes
Alitta succinea (pile worm)Possibly, via sport fishing Yes
Alosa pseudoharengus (alewife)Release of alewives used as live bait Yes
Ambloplites rupestris (rock bass) Yes Yes
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes
Ameiurus natalis Yes Welcomme, 1988
Ameiurus nebulosus (brown bullhead) Yes
Amynthas agrestis (crazy worm)Intentional and accidental introduction for bait Yes Yes Gates, 1958; Tandy, 1969; Callaham et al., 2003
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Yes Oidtmann et al., 2002
Aspius aspius (asp) Yes Yes
Astronotus ocellatus (oscar)Principally Florida and Hawaii (USA) Yes Yes USGS NAS, 2014
Bos bison (American bison)Occasional, deliberate Yes Yes
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome) Yes Yes Heinken and Raudnitschka, 2002
Branta canadensis (Canada goose) Yes Lever, 2005
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Introduced to Argentina for hunting; hunting also popular in Brazil and Australia Yes Albrecht et al., 2009; Cockrill, 1977; Long, 2003
Campylopus introflexusTourists (hikers along the levadas on Madeira) Yes Nieuwkoop and Arts, 1995
Canis lupus familiaris (dogs) Yes
Carassius carassius (crucian carp) Yes
Cervus elaphus (red deer) Yes Yes
Cervus nippon (sika)In various parts of North America and Europe Yes McCullough et al., 2009b
Channa argus argus (northern snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams, 2004
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2009
Cherax destructor (yabby) Yes Horwitz, 1990; Lynas et al., 2007
Cherax quadricarinatus (redclaw crayfish) Yes Lynas et al., 2007
Cichla ocellaris (peacock cichlid) Yes Yes Welcomme, 1988; Zaret and Paine, 1973
Cichlasoma urophthalmum (Mayan cichlid)Exploited as a game fish in freshwater, brackish and marine environments Yes Yes Welcomme, 1988
Cochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Very low risk by movement of infested hunting dogs Yes Yes
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam)Use as bait in sport fisheries Yes Brancotte and Vincent, 2002; Karatayev et al., 2007
Coregonus albula (vendace) Yes
Cyprinella lutrensis (red shiner)Most introduced populations are attributed to bait bucket releases Yes Hubbs and Lagler, 1958; Minckley, 1973; Minckley and Deacon, 1968
Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Yes Yes Roberts and Ebner, 1997
Daphnia lumholtziResting eggs enclosed in a protective ephippium can survive in the live-wells of recreational boats Yes Yes Havel and Shurin, 2004
Desmodium incanum (creeping beggerweed)Introduced to Round Island, Mauritius, during mammal eradication Yes Yes Griffiths et al., 2013
Didymosphenia geminata (didymo)Potential form of introduction Yes Yes
Esox lucius (pike)See distribution table and list Yes Yes
Faxonius limosus (Spiny-cheek crayfish)As bait, or contaminant of angling material Yes Holdich and Black, 2007; Aquiloni et al., 2010
Faxonius rusticus (rusty crayfish)As bait for angling; this is the main cause of introduction Yes Yes Kilian et al., 2012
Faxonius virilis (virile crayfish)Crayfish used as livebait and moved between catchments Yes Yes
Gymnocephalus cernuus (ruffe)UK - transfer as live bait Yes Maitland, 1972; Maitland and East, 1989; Winfield, 1992
Hemibarbus labeo (barbel steed) Yes
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)Potential contaminant on water gear, equipment, vehicles Yes Yes Australian Weeds Committee, 2012
Ictalurus furcatus (blue catfish)Deliberate Yes Guire et al., 1984
Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) Yes Yes
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)Introduced to Mauritius (1950) for sport Yes Welcomme, 1988
Lepomis gulosus (warmouth)See distribution table and list Yes Yes
Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill) Yes Yes
Lepus europaeus (European hare)Deliberate multiple introductions both within native range and outside of it Yes Bonino et al., 2010; Flux, 1990; Fraguglione, 1963
Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel)Sport fish Yes Welcomme, 1988
Littorina littorea (common periwinkle)With shipments of bait from Atlantic to Pacific for anglers Yes Carlton, 2007
Lumbricus rubellus Yes Yes
Lumbricus terrestris Yes Yes
Micropterus dolomieu (smallmouth bass) Yes Yes
Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) Yes
Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (oriental weatherloach) Yes Allen et al., 2002
Muntiacus reevesi (Reeves' muntjac)Secondary tranlocations: England. Original introductions: Ireland, Japan Yes Carden et al., 2011; Chapman, 2008
Myriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil) Yes
Notropis stramineusUsed as bait fish in western US states so subsequent introductions attributed to bait bucket release Yes USGS, 2012
Odocoileus hemionus (black-tailed deer) Yes Yes Golumbia et al., 2008
Oreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)Deliberate introduction. Please see distribution table and list for additional details Yes Yes USGS NAS, 2007
Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)As a sport fish Yes Yes Nico, 2011
Ovis aries musimon (European mouflon)Most introductions have been for this purpose. Yes
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant)Deliberate introduction as gamebird from Asia to Europe, N. America, Chile, Australia & New Zealand Yes Yes
Phoxinus phoxinus (European minnow) Yes Yes
Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Yes Yes Zimmer et al., 2001
Plasmodium relictumIntentional release of infected gamebirds into new geographic areas Yes Warner, 1968
Pomoxis annularis (white crappie)Intentionally introduced Yes Yes USGS, 2016
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie) Yes Yes USGS, 2016
Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New Zealand mudsnail)Movement of anglers between different aquatic ecosystems Yes Alonso and Castro-Díez, 2008
Procambarus clarkii (red swamp crayfish) Yes
Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Yes Yes
Rusa marianna (Philippine deer)Deliberately introduced 8 times to Pacific islands (1770-1960s), one introduction every 28 years Yes Yes Miura and Yoshihara, 2002; Wiles et al., 1999
Rutilus rutilus (roach)Deliberate or accidentally Yes Delmastro and Balma, 1991; Griffiths, 1997; Welcomme, 1988
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon) Yes Yes FAO, 2019
Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout) Yes Yes
Salvelinus namaycush (lake trout) Yes Yes
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed) Yes McFarland et al., 2004
Sander lucioperca (pike-perch) Yes Yes
Sander vitreus (walleye)See distribution table and list Yes Yes
Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum)USA Yes
Sciurus aberti (Abert's squirrel)Frequent occurrence in 1900’s Yes Yes Davis and Brown, 1988
Sciurus niger (fox squirrel) Yes Yes Davis and Brown, 1988; Long, 2003
Silurus glanis (wels catfish) Yes Yes Copp et al., 2009
Sus scrofa [ISC] (feral pig) Yes Yes Nowak, 1991
Tilapia zillii (redbelly tilapia)Deliberate introduction Yes Yes Molnar et al., 2008
Umbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow)Release of live bait from anglers Yes Verreycken et al., 2010
Ventenata dubia (North Africa grass)Seeds easily transported by animals, when seeds are present Yes Yes
Vulpes vulpes (red fox) Yes